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Chapter 34 : Biopreservation of Foods

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Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of the biologically based preservation technologies termed “biopreservation.” Acid production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in temperature-abused foods (controlled acidification) is covered in the chapter. Some LAB produce antimicrobial proteins, called bacteriocins, which inhibit spoilage and pathogenic bacteria without changing (e.g., through acidification, protein denaturation, and other processes) the physicochemical nature of the food. While organic acids are usually added to foods, LAB can produce lactic acid in situ. The controlled production of acid in situ is an important form of biopreservation. There are many different ways to use bacteriocins in foods. The first is to add bacteriocins directly to the food for the purpose of inhibiting spoilage or pathogenic bacteria. The second way to use bacteriocins is to add bacteriocinogenic cultures to the food or use them as starter cultures that produce the bacteriocin in situ. A third way to use bacteriocins is to facilitate the use of defined starter cultures in fermented foods. Emulsifiers such as Tween 80 or the entrapment of the pediocin in multilamellar vesicles increases pediocin effectiveness in fatty foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved internationally for use in foods. The biological methods of food preservation covered here mark only the beginning of the biopreservation era in the food industry.

Citation: Montville T, Chikindas M. 2007. Biopreservation of Foods, p 747-764. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch34

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Class II Bacteriocins
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Class I Bacteriocins
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Microbial Ecology
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Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems
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Figures

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Figure 34.1

A generic bacteriocin operon. The structural gene () codes for a prepropeptide which is modified and excreted by the processing gene products (P1 and P2) and may be regulated by a signal transduction pathway coded for by and . For additional abbreviations and explanations, see the text.

Citation: Montville T, Chikindas M. 2007. Biopreservation of Foods, p 747-764. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.2
Figure 34.2

Models for pore formation and detergent-like mechanisms of bacteriocin action.

Citation: Montville T, Chikindas M. 2007. Biopreservation of Foods, p 747-764. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch34
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 34.1

Parallel mechanisms of antibiotic and bacteriocin resistance

Citation: Montville T, Chikindas M. 2007. Biopreservation of Foods, p 747-764. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch34
Generic image for table
Table 34.2

Analogies between the use of insecticides in production agriculture and the use of antimicrobials for food safety

Citation: Montville T, Chikindas M. 2007. Biopreservation of Foods, p 747-764. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch34

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