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Chapter 37 : Fermented Meat, Poultry, and Fish Products
Category: Applied and Industrial Microbiology; Food Microbiology
Understanding the technological, microbiological, and biochemical processes that occur during meat, poultry, and fish fermentation is essential for ensuring safe, palatable products. Dry and semidry sausages represent the largest category of fermented meat products, with many present-day processing practices having their origin in the Mediterranean region. Micrococci and staphylococci reduce nitrate to nitrite to generate nitric oxide, which reacts with myoglobin to produce the characteristic cured color of fermented meats. Slightly larger amounts of fermentable carbohydrate should be used in formulas containing higher-pH meats, such as poultry. Mechanically deboned poultry meat is an acceptable meat source for fermented dry sausages when limited to 10% of the meat block, as sausages tend to become soft when larger amounts are used. Thus, the combined effects of low pH, increased acidity, concomitant loss of moisture during drying, reduction of aw, concentration of curing salts, such as sodium chloride and sodium nitrite, bacterial inhibition of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms, and heat processing (if applied) preserve fermented meat and poultry products against spoilage by inactivating indigenous tissue and bacterial enzymes. Pyruvate-formate lyase generates formate and acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA) from pyruvate and CoA, and the acetyl CoA can be used either as a precursor for substrate-level phosphorylation, for direct reduction to ethanol, or both. This alteration in pyruvate metabolism has been demonstrated in studies where lactobacilli have been shown to shift fermentation patterns and, concomitantly, the amount of potential ATP formed as the growth rate changes.
Categories and origins of selected dry and semidry sausages a
Compositions of two types of fermented sausages
Generic manufacturing scheme for dry and semidry fermented sausages with starter cultures a
Chemical characteristics of selected fermented sausage products
Research needs for meat starter cultures a