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Chapter 40 : Beer

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Beer, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter provides a overview of the scientific principles of the brewing industry. Conversion of starch into simple sugars happens during mashing, and the changes during malting are limited to the breakdown of cell walls and the protein matrix in which the starch granules are embedded, but such modification of the grain is necessary for hydrolysis of the starch during mashing. It is now recognized that hops have an important antimicrobial, particularly antibacterial, effect, and it is presumed that the medieval brewers realized that hopped beers maintained their quality for longer periods of time than did beers with other flavorings. Formerly, the actively fermenting yeasts of the fermentation industries, both culture yeasts and common contaminant “wild yeasts,” were classified as different species of . Most of these species are now classified officially by yeast taxonomists as a single species, , but still it is convenient in the brewing industry to distinguish the different types by their former specific names. (including , the most important of that group in the brewery environment) cause turbidity and off-flavor and often produce indole, phenols, diacetyl, hydrogen sulfide, and dimethyl sulfide, but grow well in the early stages of fermentation until inhibited by the falling pH and increasing ethanol content. (cocci) and (rods) species are recently discovered strictly anaerobic gram-negative bacteria which form acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and turbidity and have become troublesome only because of modern advances in maintaining very low dissolved oxygen levels in beer.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40

Key Concept Ranking

Antibacterial Agents
0.4263603
Cell Wall Proteins
0.40360674
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Figures

Image of Figure 40.1
Figure 40.1

The brewing process.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.2
Figure 40.2

Saladin malting system. The row of helical turners moves from one end of the grain bed to the other at intervals during germination to turn the malt and prevent matting of the rootlets.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.3
Figure 40.3

Theoretical progress of a typical brewery fermentation, showing changes in the population of and concentrations of fermentable sugar, amino nitrogen, and ethanol. The graph shows yeasts in suspension and the start of settling of cells from the beer at the end of fermentation. The time axis is not calibrated, since fermentation rates differ widely among breweries. Other variables are shown as percentages of the initial or final value, expressed as 100%.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.4
Figure 40.4

Formation of higher alcohols (fusel alcohols) as by-products of amino acid bio-synthesis. Note the similarity of the reactions pyruvate → acetaldehyde → ethanol and α-keto acid → aldehyde → higher alcohols; both are important for redox balance under anaerobic conditions.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.5
Figure 40.5

CCFV. Vigorous circulation of fermenting wort is created by a central upward flow of CO bubbles and a downward flow in contact with the cooling jackets. Cooling of the cone section is optional, depending on whether the brewery stores settled yeast before the next fermentation.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.6
Figure 40.6

Identification of bacterial contaminants of the brewing industry. , , and may be present but are unlikely to grow in beer, and and grow only under strictly anaerobic conditions. HAc, acetic acid.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40
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Image of Figure 40.7
Figure 40.7

Identification of common yeast contaminants of the brewing industry. All genera listed are teleomorphic, i.e., they form spores. Anamorphic (non-spore-forming) forms of and are and , respectively. The anamorph of all other genera listed is ferments glucose, sucrose, maltose, and raffinose but not lactose.

Citation: Campbell I. 2007. Beer, p 851-862. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch40
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References

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22. Walker, G. M. 1998. Yeast Physiology and Biotechnology. Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom.

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