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Chapter 41 : Wine

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the occurrence, growth, and significance of microorganisms in winemaking. It covers wines produced only from grapes and includes table wines, sparkling wines, and fortified wines. The grapes are harvested at an appropriate stage of maturity which determines the chemical composition of the juice extracted from them. Particularly important are the concentrations of sugars and acids which are the major constituents of the juice and impact its fermentation properties. Yeasts are significant in winemaking because they carry out the alcoholic fermentation and they can cause spoilage of the wine. Their autolytic products may affect sensory quality and influence the growth of malolactic and spoilage bacteria. Wines with pHs exceeding 3.5 tend to have mixed microfloras consisting of and various species of and . Species of and are more tolerant of higher concentrations of sulfur dioxide than is and are more likely to occur in wines with larger amounts of this substance. Some factors that affect the growth of in wine and successful completion of malolactic fermentation include excessive growth of molds and acetic acid bacteria on grapes, yeast species and strains responsible for the alcoholic fermentation, and bacteriophages. The microbial ecology and biochemistry of base wine production are essentially the same as those of table wine production.

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41

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Microbial Ecology
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Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.40749073
0.41948798
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Figures

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Figure 41.1

Outline of processes for making red and white wines.

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
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Image of Figure 41.2
Figure 41.2

Generalized growth of yeast species during alcoholic fermentation of wine. ○, ; ●, and species; ▪, species. Variations will occur in the initial and maximum populations for each species; for fermentations inoculated with , the initial population is approximately 10 CFU/ml ( ).

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
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Image of Figure 41.3
Figure 41.3

Growth of lactic acid bacteria during vinification of red wines, pH 3.0 to 3.5. The solid line shows the growth of , often the only species present. Occasionally, species of and develop towards the end of malolactic fermentation or at later stages during conservation (broken line). For wines of pH 3.5 to 4.0, a similar growth curve is obtained but there may be slight growth and death of lactic acid bacteria during the early stages of alcoholic fermentation. Also, there is a greater chance that species of and will grow and conduct malolactic fermentation.

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 41.1

Main components of grape juice

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 41.2

Factors affecting the growth of yeasts during alcoholic fermentation

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 41.3

Some properties used to select yeasts for application in wine fermentations

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 41.4

Some principal compounds produced by yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of wine

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
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Table 41.5

Directions for the genetic improvement of wine yeasts

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 41.6

Desirable properties of bacteria for use in malolactic fermentation

Citation: Fleet G. 2007. Wine, p 863-890. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch41

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