1887

Chapter 42 : Probiotics and Prebiotics

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Probiotics and Prebiotics, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap42-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815912/9781555814076_Chap42-2.gif

Abstract:

The best-known prebiotics are fructo-oligosaccharides derived from food sources. The current potential for prebiotics rests largely with compounds that can be extracted from foods and investigation of their impact on the residing intestinal microbiota and health-based markers. Probiotic microorganisms designed for delivery in food or dairy products, via supplementation or fermentation, are usually members of the or genus. The primary health targets for animal probiotics are enhancement of animal growth, attainment of weight gains, and reduction in the number of enteric pathogens. Bacterial probiotics are generally effective in chickens, pigs, and preruminant calves, whereas fungal probiotics have shown better results in adult ruminants. One's understanding of the impact of probiotics on the intestinal microbiota will be enhanced considerably by the use of molecular methods that can more accurately reflect those changes occurring within the entire gastrointestinal microbiota. The developments in molecular techniques over the past decade have removed many of the key issues which previously hindered scientific progress in probiotics.

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42

Key Concept Ranking

Food Microbiology
0.69327
Microbial Ecology
0.69327
Lactic Acid Bacteria
0.4792249
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
0.46676734
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.42512038
0.69327
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 42.1
Figure 42.1

Probiotic pioneers: Eli Mechnikoff (1845–1916), strain Shirota, and species. From references and , with permission.

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 42.2
Figure 42.2

Composition of the culturable microflora in the human colon. Reprinted from reference with permission.

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 42.3
Figure 42.3

Differences in species of bacteria in human feces of different ages. From reference .

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 42.4
Figure 42.4

Predominant colonic microorganisms categorized into potentially harmful or beneficial groups. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 42.5
Figure 42.5

Heath benefits and suspected mechanisms of probiotics versus abiotics. IgE, IgA, immunoglobulins E and A.

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 42.6
Figure 42.6

Phylogenic relationships among members of the complex. Adapted from references and .

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 42.7
Figure 42.7

DNA fingerprint of the predominant culture isolated from human feces before feeding with a probiotic, after feeding with NCFM, and 2 weeks after feeding was halted. SmaI-digested DNA fragments prepared from individual colonies were separated on a pulsed-field electrophoresis gel.

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
1. Adams, M. R., and, P. Marteau. 1995. On the safety of lactic acid bacteria from food. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 27:263264.
2. Alander, M.,, R. Satokari,, R. Korpela,, M. Saxelin,, T. Vilpponen-Salmela,, T. Mattila-Sandholm, and, A. von Wright. 1999. Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:351354.
3. Altermann, E.,, W. M. Russell,, M. A. Azcarate-Peril,, R. Barrangou,, B. L. Buck,, O. McAuliffe,, N. Souther,, A. Dobsen,, T. Doung,, M. Callanan,, S. Lick,, A. Hamrick,, R. Cano, and, T. R. Klaenhammer. 2005. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:39063912.
4. Bibel, D. J. 1988. Elie Metchnikoff’s bacillus of long life. ASM News 54:661665.
5. Boekhorst, J.,, R. J. Siezen,, M. C. Zwahlen,, D. Vilanova,, R. D. Pridmore,, A. Mercenier,, M. Kleerebezem,, W. M. de Vos,, H. Brussow, and, F. Desiere. 2004. The complete genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus johnsonii reveal extensive differences in chromosome organization and gene content. Microbiology 150:36013611.
6. Buck, B. L.,, E. Altermann,, T. Svingerud, and, T. R. Klaenhammer. 2005. Functional analysis of putative adhesion factors in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:83448351.
7. Cacas, I. A. 1998. Lactobacillus reuteri: an effective probiotic for poultry and other animals. p. 475516. In S. Salminen and, A. von Wright (ed.), Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiology and Functional Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
8. Chang, T. L.,, C. H. Chang,, D. A. Simpson,, Q. Xu,, P. K. Martin,, L. A. Lagenaur,, G. K. Schoolnik,, D. D. Ho,, S. L. Hillier,, M. Holodniy,, J. A. Lewicki, and, P. P. Lee. 2003. Inhibition of HIV infectivity by a natural human isolate of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered to express functional two-domain CD4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1167211677.
9. Charteris, W. P.,, P. M. Kelly,, L. Morelli, and, J. K. Collins. 1998. Development and application of an in vitro methodology to determine the transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in the upper human gastrointestinal tract. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 84:759768.
10. Claesson, M. J.,, Y. Li,, S. Leahy,, C. Canchaya,, J. P. van Pijkeren,, A. M. Cerdeno-Tarraga,, J. Parkhill,, S. Flynn,, G. C. O’Sullivan,, J. K. Collins,, D. Higgins,, F. Shanahan,, G. E. Fitzgerald,, D. van Sinderen, and, P. W. O’Toole. 2006. Multireplicon genome architecture of Lactobacillus salivarius. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:67186723.
11. Crittenden, R. G. 1999. Prebiotics, p. 141156. In G. W. Tannock (ed.), Probiotics: a Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
12. Danone. 1997. Bifidobacteria. Danone World Newsl. no. 16. http://www.danonenewsletter.fr.
13. Dubos, R.,, R. W. Schaedler,, R. Costello, and, P. Hoet. 1965. Indigenous, normal and autochthonous flora of the gastrointestinal tract. J. Exp. Med. 122:6776.
14. Fuller, R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66:365378.
15. Fuller, R. 1999. Probiotics for farm animals, p. 1522. In G. W. Tannock (ed.), Probiotics: a Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
16. Gibson, G. R. 1998. Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using prebiotics. Br. J. Nutr. 80(Suppl. 2): S209S212.
17. Gibson, G. R., and, M. B. Roberfroid. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J. Nutr. 125:14011412.
18. Gomes, A. M. P., and, F. X. Malcata. 1999. Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus: biological, biochemical, technological and therapeutical perperties relevant for use as probiotics. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 10:139157.
19. Grangette, G.,, S. Nutten,, E. Palumbo,, S. Morath,, C. Hermann,, J. Dewulf,, J., B. Pot,, T. Hartung,, P. Hols, and, A. Mercenier. 2005. Enhanced anti-inflammatory capacity of a Lactobacillus plantarum mutant synthesizing modified teichoic acids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1032110326.
20. Guarner, F., and, G. J. Schaafsma. 1998. Probiotics. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 39:237238.
21. Hosono, A.,, J. Lee,, A. Ametani,, M. Natsume,, M. Hirayama,, T. Adachi, and, S. Kaminogawa. 1997. Characterization of a water-soluble polysaccharide fraction with immuno-potentiating activity from Bifidobacterium adolescentis M101-4. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 61:312316.
22. Hume, M. E.,, D. E., Corrier,, D. J. Nisbet, and, J. R. DeLoach. 1998. Early Salmonella challenge time and reduction in chick cecal colonization following treatment with a characterized competitive exclusion culture. J. Food Prot. 61:673676.
23. Isolauri, E.,, E. Salminen, and, S. Salminen. 1998. Lactic acid bacteria and immune modulation, p. 255268. In S. Salminen and, A. von Wright (ed.), Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiology and Functional Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
24. Johnson, J. L.,, C. F. Phelps,, C. S. Cummins,, J. London, and, F. Gasser. 1980. Taxonomy of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:5368.
25. Kaplan, H., and, R. W. Hutkins. 2000. Fermentation of fructooligosaccharides by lactic acid bacteria and bifido-bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:26822684.
26. Klaenhammer, T. R. 1998. Functional activities of Lactobacillus probiotics: genetic mandate. Int. Dairy J. 8:497506.
27. Klaenhammer, T. R., and, M. J. Kullen. 1999. Selection and design of probiotics. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 50:4558.
28. Klaenhammer, T. R., and, W. M. Russell. 2000. Species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex, p. 11511157. In R. K. Robinson,, C. Batt, and, P. D. Patel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, vol. 2. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
29. Klaenhammer, T. R.,, R. Barrangou,, B. L. Buck,, M. A. Azcarate-Peril, and, E. Altermann. 2005. Genomic features of lactic acid bacteria effecting bioprocessing and health. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 29:393409.
30. Kleerebezem, M.,, J. Boekhorst,, R. van Kranenburg,, D. Molenaar,, O. P. Kuipers,, R. Leer,, R. Tarchini,, S. A. Peters,, H. M. Sandbrink,, M. W. Fiers,, W. Stiekema,, R. M. Lankhorst,, P. Bron,, S. M. Hoffer,, M. N. Groot,, R. Kerkhoven,, M. de Vries,, B. Ursing,, W. M. de Vos, and, R. Siezen. 2003. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:19901995.
31. Kullen, M. J.,, L. J. Brady, and, D. J. O’Sullivan. 1997. Evaluation of using a short region of the recA gene for rapid and sensitive speciation of dominant bifidobacteria in the human large intestine. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 154:377383.
32. Kullen, M. J., and, T. R. Klaenhammer. 1999. Genetic modification of intestinal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, p. 6584. In G. W. Tannock (ed.), Probiotics: a Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
33. Kullen, M. J.,, R. B. Sanozky-Dawes,, D. C. Crowell, and, T. R. Klaenhammer. 2000. Use of DNA sequence of variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene for rapid and accurate identification of bacteria in the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89:511518.
34. Lauer, E.,, C. Helming, and, O. Kandler. 1980. Heterogeneity of the species Lactobacillus acidophilus (Moro) Hansen and Moquot as revealed by biochemical characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. 1 Abt. Orig. C1:150168.
35. Lilly, D. M., and, R. H. Stillwell. 1965. Probiotics: growth promoting factors produced by microorganisms. Science 147:747748.
36. Maeno, M.,, N. Tamamoto, and, T. Takano. 1996. Identification of antihypertensive peptides from casein hydrolysate produced by a proteinase from Lactobacillus helveticus CP790. J. Dairy Sci. 73:13161321.
37. Marin, M. L.,, J. H. Lee,, J. Murtha,, Z. Ustunol, and, J. J. Pestka. 1997. Differential cytokine production in clonal macrophage and T-cell lines cultured with bifidobacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 80:27132720.
38. Marteau, P.,, M. Minekus,, R. Havenaar, and, J. H. H. Huis in’t Veld. 1997. Survival of lactic acid bacteria in a dynamic model of the stomach and small intestine: validation and the effect of bile. J. Dairy Sci. 80:10311037.
39. McCracken, V. J., and, H. R. Gaskins. 1999. Probiotics and the immune system, p. 85111. In G. W. Tannock (ed.), Probiotics: a Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
40. Mitsuoka, T. 1992. The human gastrointestinal tract, p. 69114. In B. J. B. Wood (ed.), The Lactic Acid Bacteria, vol. 1. The Lactic Acid Bacteria in Health and Disease. Elsevier Applied Science, London, United Kingdom.
41. Molenaar, D. F.,, F. H. Bringel,, W. M. Schuren,, W. M. de Vos,, R. J. Siezen, and, M. Kleerebezem. 2005. Exploring Lactobacillus plantarum genome diversity by using micro-arrays. J. Bacteriol. 187:61286136.
42. Nisbet, D. J.,, G. I. Tellez,, V. K. Lowry,, R. C. Anderson,, G. Garcia,, G. Nava,, M. H. Kogut,, D. E. Corrier, and, L. H. Stanker. 1998. Effect of a commercial competitive exclusion culture (Preempt) on mortality and horizontal transmission of Salmonella gallinarum in broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 42:651656.
43. Nurmi, E., and, M. Rantala. 1973. New aspects of Salmonella infection in broiler production. Nature (London) 241:210211.
44. O’Sullivan, D. J. 1999. Methods for the analysis of the intestinal microflora, p. 2344. In G. W. Tannock (ed.), Probiotics: a Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
45. Perdigon, G.,, M. E. Nader de Macias,, S. Alvarez,, G. Oliver, and, A. A. Pesce de Ruiz Holgado. 1986. Effect of perorally administered lactobacilli on macrophage activation in mice. Infect. Immun. 53:404410.
46. Pridmore, R. D.,, B. Berger,, F. Desiere,, D. Vilanova,, C. Barretto,, A. C. Pittet,, M. C. Zwahlen,, M. Rouvet,, E. Altermann,, R. Barrangou,, B. Mollet,, A. Mercenier,, T. R. Klaenhammer,, F. Arigoni, and, M. A. Schell. 2004. The genome sequence of the probiotic intestinal bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:2 5122517.
47. Puhan, Z. 1999. Effect of probiotic fermented dairy products in human nutrition. Ind. Latte 35(3–4): 311.
48. Pusch, O.,, D. Boden,, S. Hannify,, F. Lee,, L. D. Tucker,, M. R. Boyd,, J. M. Wells, and, B. Ramratnam. 2005. Bioengineering lactic acid bacteria to secrete the HIV-1 virucide cyanovirin. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 40:512520.
49. Radloff, J. 1998. Spray guards chicks from infections. Science News 153:196.
50. Salminen, S.,, A. Ouwehand,, Y. Benno, and, Y. K. Lee. 1999. Probiotics: how should they be defined? Trends Food Sci. Technol. 10:107110.
51. Salminen, S.,, M. Roberfroid,, P. Ramos, and, R. Fonden. 1998. Prebiotic substrates and lactic acid bacteria, p. 343358. In S. Salminen and, A. von Wright (ed.), Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiology and Functional Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
52. Salminen, S.,, A. Von Wright,, L. Morelli,, P. Marteau,, D. Brassart,, W. M. de Vos,, R. Fonden,, M. Saxelin,, K. Collins,, G. Mogensen,, S.-E. Birkeland, and, T. Mattila-Sandholm. 1998. Demonstration of safety of probiotics—a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 44:93106.
53. Sanders, M. E. 1999. Probiotics—scientific status summary. Food Technol. 53:6777.
54. Sanders, M. E., and, J. Huis in’t Veld. 1999. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to market: microbiological, product, regulatory, and labeling issues. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 76:293315.
55. Sandholm, T. M.,, S. Blum,, J. K. Collins,, R. Crittenden,, W. de Vos,, C. Dunne,, R. Fonden,, G. Grenov,, E. Isolauri,, B. Kiely,, P. Marteau,, L. Morelli,, A. Ouwehand,, R. Reniero,, M. Saarela,, S. Salminen,, M. Saxelin,, E. Schiffrin,, F. Shanahan,, E. Vaughan, and, A. von Wright. 1999. Probiotics: towards demonstrating efficacy. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 10:393399.
56. Schell, M. A.,, M. Karmirantzou,, B. Snel,, D. Vilanova,, B. Berger,, G. Pessi,, M. C. Zwahlen,, F. Desiere,, P. Bork,, M. Delley,, R. D. Pridmore, and, F. Arigoni. 2002. The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum reflects its adaptation to the human gastrointestinal tract. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1442214427.
57. Schleifer, K. H., and, W. Ludwig. 1995. Phylogenetics for the genus Lactobacillus and related genera. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 18:461467.
58. Shortt, C. 1998. Living it up for dinner. Chem. Ind. 20:300303.
59. Shortt, C. 1999. The probiotic century: historical and current perspectives. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 10:411417.
60. Somkuti, G. A.,, M. E. Dominiecki, and, D. H. Steinberg. 1998. Permeabilization of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with ethanol. Curr. Microbiol. 36:202206.
61. Steidler, L.,, W. Hans,, L. Schotte,, S. Neirynck,, F. Obermeier,, W. Falk,, W. Fiers, and, E. Remaut. 2000. Treatment of murine colitis by Lactococcus lactis secreting IL-10. Science 289:13521355.
62. Suau, A.,, R. Bonnet,, M. Sutren,, J.-J. Godon,, G. R. Gibson,, M. D. Collins, and, J. Dore. 1999. Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:47994807.
63. Tamine, A. Y. 1997. Bifidobacteria—an overview of physiological, biochemical, and technological aspects, p. 9. In R. Harmink (ed.), Non-digestible Oligosaccharides: Healthy Food for the Colon. Krukkerij Modern, Bennekonm, The Netherlands.
64. Tannock, G. W. 1995. The Normal Microflora. Chapman & Hall, London, United Kingdom.
65. Tannock, G. W. 1999. Probiotics: a Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
66. Tannock, G. W. 1999. A fresh look at the intestinal microflora, p. 514. In G. W. Tannock (ed.), Probiotics: a Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
67. Tannock, G. W. 1999. Analysis of the intestinal microflora: a renaissance. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 76:265278.
68. Tannock, G. W. 2005. Probiotics & Prebiotics. Caister Academic Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
69. Vaughan, E. E.,, H. G. H. J. Heilig,, E. G. Zoetendal,, R. Satokari,, K. Collins,, A. D. L. Ackermans, and, W. M. de Vos. 1999. Molecular approaches to study probiotic bacteria. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 10:400404.
70. Vesa, T. H.,, P. Parteau,, S. Zidi,, F. Briet,, P. Pochart, and, J. C. Rambaud. 1996. Digestion and tolerance of lactose from yoghurt and different semi-solid fermented dairy products containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria in lactose maldigesters—is bacterial lactase important? Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:730733.
71. Walter, J.,, G. W. Tannock,, A. Tilsala-Timisjarvi,, S. Rodtong,, D. M. Loach,, K. Munro, and, T. Alatossava. 2000. Detection and identification of gastrointestinal Lactobacillus species by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and species-specific PCR primers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:297303.
72. Wang, H. H.,, M. Manuzon,, M. Lehman,, K. Wan,, H. Luo,, T. E. Wittum,, A. Yousef, and, L. O. Bakaletz. 2006. Food commensal microbes as a potentially important avenue in transmitting antibiotic resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 254:226231.
73. Wells, J. M.,, K. Robinson,, L. M. Chamberlain,, K. M. Schofield, and, R. W. LePage. 1996. Lactic acid bacteria as vaccine delivery vehicles. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 70:317330.
74. Woese, C. R. 1987. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 51:221271.
75. Zhao, T.,, M. P. Doyle,, B. G. Harmon,, C. A. Brown,, P. O. Mueller, and, A. H. Parks. 1998. Reduction of carriage of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle by inoculation with probiotic bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:641647.
76. Zoetendal, E. G.,, A. D. L. Akkermans, and, W. M. de Vos. 1998. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA from human fecal samples reveals sand host-specific communities of active bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:38543859.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 42.1

Prebiotic compounds influencing members of the intestinal microfora

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.2

Examples of human probiotic species and strains with research documentation

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.3

Probiotic cultures used in farm animals

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.4

Proposed health benefits and mechanisms of probiotics

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42
Generic image for table
Table 42.5

Desirable selection criteria for probiotic strains

Citation: Klaenhammer T. 2007. Probiotics and Prebiotics, p 891-907. In Doyle M, Beuchat L (ed), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815912.ch42

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error