1887

Chapter 3 : Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815929/9781555812379_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815929/9781555812379_Chap03-2.gif

Abstract:

All bacterial species and phyla are involved in the phenomenon of resistance to antibacterial agents, sometimes posing genuine therapeutic problems. The strategy of faced with the aggression represented by the oxyimino cephalosporins was the production of conventional enzymes commonly known as extendedbroad-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The prevalence of nosocomial infections varied from 5 to 17% for patients admitted to ICUs in the hospital setting. In a survey conducted in central Europe, all of the strains of were susceptible to mupirocin, except in the case of Italy, where 1.5% of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains were resistant. In , the main mechanism of resistance of quinupristin-dalfopristin is methylation of the 23S rRNA with cross-resistance with macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B. In the inducible type of resistance, quinupristin remains active because it is not an inducer of methylase; if constitutive, quinuprisitin is inactive and the combination become bacteriostatic due to alteration of quinupristin-dalfopristin activity in vitro and in vivo. is one of the major pathogenic agents of community-acquired or nosocomial parenchymatous respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The frequency of mutation of varies according to the different antituberculosis agents. Antibiotic resistance in has long been known, particularly with streptomycin and isoniazid. Primary resistance of to isoniazid is greater than 10% in some countries.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Antibacterial Agents
1.8226194
Chemicals
0.7965514
Bacteria
0.7833689
Antibiotics
0.7132303
Gram-Negative Bacteria
0.70278925
Vaccines
0.69378084
1.8226194
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815929.ch03
1. Acar JF, 1999, Resistance pattern of Haemophilus influenzae, J Chemother, 11, 4450.
2. Alhambra A,, Gomez-Garces JL, Alos JL, 2004, Susceptibility of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from blood and urine to 18 widely used and recently marketed antibiotics, Clin Microbiol Infect, 10, 267268.
3. Andrews JI,, Diekem DJ,, Hunter SK,, Rhomberg PR,, Pfaller MA,, Doern GV, 2000, Group B streptococci causing neonatal bloodstream infection, antimicrobial susceptibility and serotyping results from SENTRY centers in the western hemisphere, Am J Obstet Gynecol, 183, 859862.
4. Bandak SI,, Allen T,, Bolzon DA,, Preston DA, 2001, Antibiotic susceptibilities among recent clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from fifteen countries, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 20, 5560.
5. Bell JM,, Borlace GN,, Turnidge JD,SENTRY Asia-Pacific Study Group, 2002, Macrolide resistance in β-hemolytic streptococci from Asia-Pacific region. Results from the SENTRY Asia-Pacific surveillance program 2001, 42nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-1986.
6. Betriu CE,, Culebras M,, Gomez M,, Rodriguez-Avial I,, Sanchez BA,, Agreda MC,, Picazo J, 2003, Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance and telithromycin susceptibility in Streptococcus agalactiae, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 11121114.
7. Betriu CE,, Gomez M,, Sanchez A,, Cruceyra A,, Romero J,, Picazzo JJ, 1994, Antibiotic resistance and penicillin tolerance in clinical isolates of group B streptococci, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 38, 21832186.
8. Biedenbach DJ,, Stephen JM,, Jones RN, 2003, Antimicrobial susceptibility profile among β-haemolytic Streptococcus spp. collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program—North America, 2001, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 46, 291294.
9. Blosser RS,, Karginova EA,, Karlowsky JA,, Critchley IA,, Thornsberry C,, Sahm DF,, Jones ME, 2002, Molecular analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae with elevated MICs to levofloxacin—2001–2002 worldwide surveillance, 42nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-1619.
10. Bogaerts J,, Lepage P,, Taelman H,, Rouvroy D,, Batungwanayo J,, Kestelyn P,, Hitimana DG,, van de Perre P,, Vandepitte J,, Verbist L, et al, 1993, Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae in Rwanda 1984–1990, J Infect, 27, 157168.
11. Bonomo RA, 2000, Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria in long term care facilities, an emerging problem in the practice of infectious disease, Clin Infect Dis, 31, 14141422.
12. Bryskier A, 2002, Ketolides—telithromycin, an example of a new class of antibacterial agent, Clin Infect Dis, 6, 661669.
13. Bryskier A, 2004, Aventis data on file.
14. BSAC Extended Working Party on Respiratory Resistance Surveillance and GR Micro Limited, 2001, Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory pathogens in Ireland compared with England, Wales, and Scotland, 41st Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-683.
15. Cavallo JD,, Le Blanc F,, Fabre F,, Forticq-Esqueönte A, 2001, Surveillance de la sensibilité de P. aeruginosa aux antibiotiques en France et distribution des mécanismes de résistances aux bétalactamines, Etude du GERPB en 1999, Pathol Biol, 7, 4956.
16. Chanal C,, Bonnet R,, De Champs C,, Sirot D,, Labia R,, Sirot J, 2000, Prevalence of β-lactamases among 1,072 clinical strains of Proteus mirabilis, a 2-year survey in a French hospital, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 19301935.
17. Choo KE,, Ariffi WA,, Ahmed T,, Lim WL,, Gururaj AK, 1990, Pyogenic meningitis in hospitalized children in Kelantan, Malaysia, Ann Trop Paediatr, 10, 8098.
18. Cizmann M,, Gubina M,, Paragi M,, Beovic B,, Lesnicar G,Slovenian Meningitis Study Group, 2001, Meningococcal disease in Slovenia (1993–1999), serogroups and susceptibility to antibiotics. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 17, 2731.
19. Couto I,, de Lancastre H,, Severinaa E, et al, 1996, Ubiquitous presence of a mecA homologue in natural isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri, Microb Drug Res, 2, 377391.
20. Critchley IA,, Blosser-Middleton R,, Jones ME,, Yamakita J,, Aswapokee,, Chayakul P,, Tharavichitukul P,, Vibhagool A,, Thornsberry C,, Karlowsky IA,, Sahm DF, 2002, Antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens collected in Thailand during 1999–2000, J Chemother, 14, 147154.
21. Cuenca-Estrella M,, Moore CB,, Barchiesi F,, Bille J,, Chryssanthou E,, Denning DW,, Donnelly JP,, Dromer F,, Dupont B,, Rex JH,, Richardson MD,, Sancak B,, Verweij PE,, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, andAFST Subcommittee of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 2003, Multicenter evaluation of the reproducibility of the proposed antifungal susceptibility testing method for fermentative yeasts, Clin Microbiol Infect, 9, 467474.
22. Dagnra Y,, Tigossou S,, Prince-David M, 2000, Prévalence et sensibilité aux antibiotiques des bactéries isolées des meningitis, Med Mal Infect, 30, 291294.
23. Denno DM,, Frimpong E,, Gregory M,, Steele RW, 2002, Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Kumasi, Ghana, West Afr J Med, 21, 233236.
24. Dermott N,, Muscheneim C,, Hardley SS,, Buan PM,, Gorman RV, 1947, Streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis in humans. I. Meningitis and generalized hematogeneous tuberculosis, Ann Intern Med, 27, 769.
25. Diekema DJ,, Pfaller MA,, Jones RN,, Doern GV,, Winokur PL,, Gales AC,, Sader HS,, Kugler K, Beach M, the SENTRY Participant Group (America), 1999, Survey of bloodstream infections due to gram-negative bacilli: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, and Latin America for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997, Clin Infect Dis, 29, 595607.
26. Doern GV,, Brown SD, 2004, Antimicrobial susceptibility among community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens in the USA, data from Protekt US 2000-01, J Infect, 48, 5665.
27. Doern GV,, Heilmann KP,, Huynh HK,, Rhomberg PR,, Coffman SL,, Brueggemann AB, 2001, Antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States during 1999–2000, including a comparison of resistance rates since 1994–1995, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 17211729.
28. Dornbusch K,, King A,, Legakis N,the European Study Group on Antibiotic Resistance (ESGAR), 1998, Incidence of antibiotic resistance in blood and urine isolates from hospitalized patients. Report from an European collaborative study, Scand J Infect Dis, 30, 281288.
29. Dowling HF, 1953, The effect of the emergence of resistant strains on the future of antibiotic therapy, Antib Annuals 1953–1954, Medicine Encyclopedia Inc., New York.
30. Dromigny JA,, Ndoye B,, Macondo EA,, Nabeth P,, Siby T,, Perrier-Gros-Claude JD, 2003, Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens in Dakar, Senegal, multicenter study, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 47, 595600.
31. Eady EA,, Cove GH, 2003, Staphylococcal resistance revisited, community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. An emerging problem for the management of skin and soft tissue infections, Curr Opin Infect Dis, 16, 103124.
32. El-Kholy A,, Baseem H,, Hall GS,, Procop GW,, Longworth DL, 2003, Antimicrobial resistance in Cairo, Egypt 1999-2000: a survey of five hospitals, J Antimicrob Chemother, 51, 625630.
33. Farrell DJ,, Morrissey I,, Bakker S,, Morris L,, Buckridge S,, Felmingham D, 2004, Molecular epidemiology of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae with both erm (B)-and mef(A)-mediated macrolide resistance, J Clin Microbiol, 42, 764768.
34. Feikin DR,, Davis M,, Nwanyanwu OG,, Kazembe PN,, Barat LM,, Wasas A,, Bloland PB,, Ziba C,, Capper T,, Huebner RE,, Schwartz B,, Klugman KP,, Dowell SF, 2003, Antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing rural Malawian children, Pediatr J Infect Dis, 22, 564567.
35. Felmingham D, 2002, Aventis data on file.
36. Felmingham D,, Farrell D, 2001, 2002, 2003, webmaster@grmicro.co.uk.
37. Felmingham D,, Janus C, the e-BASKETT Study Group, 2003, In vitro activity of telithromycin against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Europe, Africa, Middle-East and Asia during 2001, ECCMID, Glasgow.
38. Felmingham D,, Reinert RR,, Hirakata Y,, Rodloff A, 2002, Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the PROTEKT surveillance study, and comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide, telithromycin, J Antimicrob Chemother, 50, suppl 1, 2537.
39. Fridkin and Chambers, 2003, UPUA Newsl 21, 25.
40. Fujimura S,, Watanabe A,, Beighton D, 2001, Characterization of the mupA gene in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with low level of resistance to mupirocin, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 641642.
41. Galimand M,, Guiyoule A,, Gerbaud G,, Rasomanna B,, Chanteau S,, Carniel E,, Courvalin P, 1997, Multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis mediated by a transferable plasmid, N Engl J Med, 337, 677680.
42. Gay K,, Stephen DS, 2001, Structure and dissemination of a chromosomal insertion element encoding macrolide efflux in Streptococcus pneumoniae, J Infect Dis, 184, 5665.
43. Gezon HM, 1948, Antibiotic studies on beta-hemolytic streptococci, penicillin-resistance acquired by group A organism, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 67, 208.
44. Giammarelou et al, 1993, 33rd Int Conf Antimicrob Agents, Chemother.
45. Guiyoule A,, Gerbaud G,, Buchrieser C,, Galimand M,, Rahalison L,, Chanteau S,, Courvalin P,, Carniel E, 2001, Transferable plasmid-mediated resistance to streptomycin in a clinical isolate of Yersinia pestis, Emerg Infect Dis, 7, 4348.
46. Gür D,, Özalp M,, Sümerkan B,, Kaygusuz A,, Töreci K,, Köksal I,, Över U,, Söyletir G, 2002, Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes, results of a multicenter study in Turkey, Int J Antimicrob Chemother, 19, 207211.
47. Gwanzura L,, Pasi C,, Nathoo KJ,, Hakim J,, Gangaidzo I,, Milke J,, Robertson VJ,, Heyderman RS,, Mason PR, 2003, Rapid emergence of resistance to penicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Zimbabwe, Int J Antimicrob Chemother, 21, 557561.
48. Hanberger H,, Garcia-Rodriguez JA,, Gobernado M,, Goossens H,, Nilsson LE,, Strulens MJ, the French and Portuguese ICU Study Group, 1999, Antibiotic susceptibility among gram-negative bacilli in intensive care units in 5 European countries, JAMA, 281, 6771.
49. Hiramatsu K,, Cui L,, Kuroda M,, Ito T, 2001, The emergence and evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Trends Microbiol, 9, 486493.
50. Hoban D,, Waites K,, Felmingham D, 2003, Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens in North America in 1999–2000, finding of the PROTEKT surveillance study, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 45, 251259.
51. Hoban DJ, 1999, 2002, Aventis data on file.
52. Hoban DJ,, Balko TV,, Kabani AM,, Zhanel GG,, Karlowsky JA, 1997, Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae, a 1996 international surveillance study, 37th Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
53. Hodgson JE,, Curnock SP,, Dyke KGH,, Morris D,, Sylvester DR,, Gross MS, 1994, Molecular characterization of the gene encoding high-level mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus J 2870, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 38, 12051208.
54. Hsueh PR,, Liu YC,, Shyr JM,, Wu TL,, Yan JJ,, WU JJ,, Leu HS,, Chuang YC,, Lau YJ,, Luh KT, 2000, Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in Taiwan during the 1998–1999 respiratory season, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 13421345.
55. Inoue M,, Lee NY,, Hong SW,, Lee K,, Felmingham D, 2004, Protekt 1999–2000, a multicentre study of the antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens in Hong Kong, Japan and South Korea, Int J Antimicrob Chemother, 23, 4451.
56. Ioannidou S,, Tassios PT,, Zachariadou L,, Salem Z,, Kanelopoulou M,, Kanavaki S,, Chronopoulou GC,, Petropoulou N,, Foustoukou M,, Pangalis A,, Trikka-Graphakos E,, Pappafraggas E,, Vatopoulos AC, 2003, In vitro activity of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Greek Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates with different macrolide susceptibilities, Clin Microbiol Infect, 9, 704707.
57. Jacobs MR,, Appelbaum PC,, LASER Study Group, 2000, Susceptibility of 1100 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in 1997 from seven Latin American and Caribbean countries, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 16, 1724.
58. Jacobs MR,, Dagan R,, Appelbaum PC,, Burch DJ, 1998, Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in middle ear fluid, multinational study of 917 children with acute otitis media, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 589595.
59. Jacobs MR,, Felmingham D,, Appelbaum PC,, Grüneberg RN, the Alexander Project Group, 2003, The Alexander Project 1998–2000 susceptibility of pathogens isolated from community acquired respiratory tract infections to commonly used antimicrobial agents, J Antimicrob Chemother, 52, 229246.
60. Jang SS,, Hansen LM,, Breber JE et al, 1997, Antimicrobial susceptibilities of equine isolates of Clostridium difficile and molecular characterization of metronidazole-resistant strains, Clin Infect Dis, 25, suppl 2, S266–S267.
61. Johnson S,, Sanchez JL,, Gerding DN, 2000, Metronidazole resistance in Clostridium difficile, Clin Infect Dis, 31, 625626.
62. Jones ME,, Blosser-Middleton RS,, Thornsberry C,, Karlowsky JA,, Sahm DF, 2003, The activity of levofloxacin and other antimicrobials against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected worldwide during 1999-2002, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 47, 579586.
63. Jones ME,, Karlowsky JA, Blosser-Middleton R,, Critchley IA,, Thornsberry C,, Sahm D, 2002, Apparent plateau in β-lactamase production among clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States, results from the Libra Surveillance Initiative, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 19, 119123.
64. Jones ME,, Schmitz FZ,, Fruit AC,, Acar J,, Gupta R,, Verhoef J, the SENTRY Participant Group, 1999, Frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens associated with skin and soft tissue infections during 1997 from an international surveillance programme, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 18, 403408.
65. Kariuki S,, Muyodi J,, Mirza B,, Mwatu W,, Daniels J, 2003, Antimicrobial susceptibility in community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults, East Afr Med J, 80, 213217.
66. Kawamaru Y,, Fujiwara H,, Mishima N,, Tanaka Y,, Tanimoto A,, Ikawa S,, Itoh Y,, Ezaki T, 2003, First Streptococcus agalactiae isolates highly resistant to quinolones, with point mutations in gyrA and parC, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 36053609.
67. Kelly LJ,, Thornsberry C,, Jones ME,, Evangelista AT,, Khan J,, Karlowsky JA,, Sahm DF, 2001, Multidrug-resistant pneumococci isolates in the US, 1997–2001, TRUST surveillance, 41st Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract 2109.
68. Knudsen AM,, Knudsen JD,, Jansen ET,, Jensen IP,, Frimodt-Moller N, 2001, Prevalence of and detection of resistance to ampicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics in Haemophilus influenzae in Denmark, Scand J Infect Dis, 33, 266271.
69. Koh TH,, Lin RV, 1997, Increasing antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Ann Acad Med Singapore, 26, 604608.
70. Kozlov R,, Bogdanovitch TM,, Appelbaum PC,, Ednie L,, Stratchounski LS,, Jacobs MR,, Bozdogan B, 2002, Antistreptococcal activity of telithromycin compared with seven other drugs in relation to macrolide resistance mechanisms in Russia, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 29632968.
71. Kozlov RS,, Appelbaum PC,, Kosowska K,, Kretchikova OI,, Stratchounski LS, 2002, First multicenter study of resistance of nasopharyngeal pneumococci in children from day-care centers in European Russia, 42nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-1634.
72. Kristiansen BE,, Sandnes RA,, Mortensen L,, Tveten Y,, Vorland L, 2001, The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial respiratory pathogens from Norway is low, Clin Microbiol Infect, 7, 682687.
73. Lacey RW,, Mitchell AAB, 1969, Gentamicin resistant S. aureus, Lancet, ii, 14251426.
74. Larson M,, Kronwall G,, Chuc NT,, Karlson I,, Lager F,, Hanh HD,, Tomson G,, Falkenberg T, 2000, Antibiotic medication and bacterial resistance to antibiotics, a survey of children in a Vietnamese community, Trop Med Int Health, 5, 711721.
75. Laurent F,, Lelievre H,, Cornu M,, et al, 2001, Fitness and competitive growth advantage of new gentamicin-susceptible MRSA clones spreading in French hospitals, J Antimicrob Chemother, 47, 277283.
76. Lee YL,, Cesario T,, Mc Cawley V,, et al, 1998, Low level colonization and infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli in a skilled nursing facility, Am J Infect Control, 26, 552557.
77. Lee YL,, Thrupp LD,, Friss RH,, et al, 1992, Nosocomial infections and antibiotic utilization in geriatric patients, a pilot prospective surveillance program in skilled nursing facilities, Gerontology, 381, 223232.
78. Leegard TM,, Bevanger L,, Jureen R,, Lier T,, Melby KK,, Caugant DR,, Froholm Lo,, Hoiby EA, 2001, Antibiotic sensitivity still prevails in Norwegian blood culture isolates, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 18, 99106.
79. Lehmann D,, Gratten M,, Montgomery J, 1997, Susceptibility of pneumococcal carriage isolates to penicillin provides a conservative estimate of susceptibility of invasive pneumococci, Pediatr Infect Dis J, 16, 297305.
80. Leven M,, Goossens W,, De Wit S,, Goossens H, 2003, In vitro activity of gemifloxacin compared with other antimicrobial agents against recent clinical isolates of streptococci, J Antimicrob Chemother, 45, suppl S1, 5153.
81. Lidsky K,, Hoyan C,, Salvator A,, Rice LB,, Toltzis P, 2002, Antibiotic-resistant gram-negative organisms in pediatric chronic care facilities, Clin Infect Dis, 34, 760766.
82. Linglof TO, 2002, Aventis data on file.
83. Maniatis N,, Agel A,, Legakis NJ,, Tzouvelekis LS, 2001, Mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus from Greek hospitals, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 18, 407408.
84. Manninen R,, Huovinen P,, Nissinen A, the Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance, 1997, Increasing antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in Finland, J Antimicrob Chemother, 40, 387392.
85. Marchese A,, Schito GC, 2000, Resistance pattern of lower respiratory pathogens in Europe, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 16, S25S29.
86. Mathai D,, Lewis MT,, Kugler KC,, Pfaller MA,, Jones RN, the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (North America 1998), 2001, Antimicrobial activity of 41 antimicrobials tested against over 2773 bacterial isolates from hospitalized patients with pneumonia. I. Results from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (North America, 1998), Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 39, 105116.
87. Mokaddas EM,, Wilson S,, Sanayal SC, 2001, Prevalence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Kuwait, J Chemother, 13, 154160.
88. Morton TM,, Johnston JL,, Patterson J,, Archer JL, 1995, Characterization of a conjugative staphylococcal mupirocin resistance plasmid, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 12721280.
89. Murdoch DR,, Reller LB, 2001, Antimicrobial susceptibilities of group B streptococci isolated from patients with invasive disease: 10-year perspective, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 36233624.
90. Mutnick AH,, Turner PJ,, Jones RN, 2002, Emerging antimicrobial resistance among Proteus mirabilis in Europe, report from MYSTIC program (1997–2001), J Chemother, 14, 253258.
91. Nagai K,, Appelbaum PC,, Davies TA,, Kelly LM,, Hoellman DB,, Andrasevic AT,, Drukalska L,, Hryniewicz W,, Jacobs MR,, Kolman J,, Miciuleviciene J,, Pana M,, Setchanova L,, Thege MK,, Hupkova H,, Trupl J,, Urbaskova P, 2002, Susceptibilities to telithromycin and six other agents and prevalence of macrolide resistance due to L4 ribosomal protein mutation among 992 pneumococci from 10 central and eastern European countries, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 371377.
92. Nishi J,, Yashinaga M,, Tokuda K,, Masuda K,, Masuda R,, Kamenosono A,, Manayo K,, Miyata K, 2002, Oral antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from Japanese children, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 20, 130135.
93. Parry CM,, Duong NM,, Zhen J,, Mai NTH,, Diep TS,, Thinh LQ,, Wain J,, Chau NVV,, Griffiths D,, Day NPJ,, White NJ,, Hien TT,, Spratt BG,, Farrar JJ, 2002, Emergence in Vietnam of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents as a result of dissemination of the multiresistant 23F-I clone, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 35123517.
94. Poyart C,, Jardy L,, Quesne G,, Berche P,, Trieu-Cuot P, 2003, Genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in a French hospital, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 794797.
95. Prunier AL,, Malbruny B,, Laurans M,, Brouard J,, Duhamel JF,, Leclercq R, 2003, High rate of macrolide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains from patients with cystic fibrosis reveals high proportions of hypermutable strains, J Infect Dis, 187, 17091716.
96. Pujol H,, Gudiol F, 2001, Evidence for antibiotic cycling control of resistance, Curr Opin Infect Dis, 14, 711715.
97. Ringertz S,, Muhe L,, Krantz I,, Hathaway A,, Shamebo D,, Freij L,, Wall S,, Kronwall G, 1993, Prevalence of potential respiratory disease bacteria in children from Ethiopia. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the pathogens and use of antibiotics among the children, Acta Paediatr, 82, 843848.
98. Rohani MY,, Parasakthi N,, Raudzah A,, Yasim MY, 1999, In vitro susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in Malaysia to six antibiotics, J Antimicrob Chemother, 44, 852853.
99. Saha SK,, Rikitomi N,, Rutulamina M,, Masaki H,, Hanif M,, Islam M,, Watanabe K,, Ahmed K,, Matsumoto K,, Sack RB,, Nagatake T, 1999, Antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains causing childhood infections in Bangladesh, 1993 to 1997, J Clin Microbiol, 37, 798800.
100. Sahm DF,, Thornsberry C,, Jones ME,, Blosser-Middleton RS,, Critchley IA,, Evangelista AT,, Karlowsky JA, 2002, Correlations of antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae in the US, 2001–2 TRUST surveillance, 42nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-1640.
101. Sangthawan P,, Chantaratchada S,, Chanthadisai N,, Wattanathum A, 2003, Prevalence and clinical significance of community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in Thailand, Respirology, 8, 208212.
102. Schito GC,, Marchese A, 2004, Antibiotic resistance and LRT management, Eur Resp Monography, 9, 135145.
103. Schmitz FJ,, Jones ME, 1997, Antibiotics for treatment of infections caused by MRSA and elimination of MRSA carriage—what are the choices, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 9, 119.
104. Scott JAG,, Hall AJ,, Hannington A,, Edwards R,, Mwarumba S,, Lowe B,, Griffiths B,, Crook D,, Marsh K, 1998, Serotype distribution and prevalence of resistance to benzylpenicillin in three representative populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from the coast of Kenya, Clin Infect Dis, 27, 14421450.
105. Sener B,, Köseoglu Ö,, Gür D,, Bryskier A, 2005, Mechanism of macrolide resistance in clinical pneumococcal isolates in a university hospital, Ankara, Turkey, J Chemother, 17, 3135.
106. Silva J,, Aguilar C,, Estrada MA,, Echaniz G,, Carnalla N,, Soto A,, Lopez-Antunano FJ, 1998, Susceptibility to new β-lactams of enterobacterial extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Mexico, J Chemother, 10, 102107.
107. Soewignjo S,, Gessner BD,, Sutanto A,, Steinhoff M,, Prijanto M,, Nelson C,, Widjaya A,, Arjoso S, 2001, Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence, serotype, distribution, and resistance patterns among children on Lombok Island, Indonesia, Clin Infect Dis, 32, 10391043.
108. Song J-H,, Chang H-H,, Suh JY,, Ko KS,, Jung S-I,, Oh WS,, Peck KR,, Lee NY,, Yang Y,, Chongthaleong A,, Aswapokee N,, Chiu C-H,, Lalitha MK,, Perera J,, Yee TT,, Kumararasinghe G,, Jamal F,, Kamarulazaman A,, Parasakthi N,, Van PH,, So T,, Ng TK, on behalf of the ANSORP Study Group, 2004, Macrolide resistance and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries: a study of the Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP), J Antimicrob Chemother, 53, 457463.
109. Song JH,, Jung SI,, Oh WS,, KIM S,, Peck KR,, Lee NY,, Yang Y,, Chiu CH,, Lalitha MK,, Pererra J,, Yee TT,, Kamarulzaman A,, Parsakthi N,, Van PN,, Carlos CC,, Shibl AM,, Ng TK,, ANSORP Study Group, 2002, Macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance among invasive pneumococcal isolates from Asian countries; the Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) study, 42nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-1824.
110. Song JH,, Lee NY,, Ichiyama S,, Yoshida R,, Hirakata Y,, Fu W,, Chongthaleong A,, Asawapokee N,, Chiu CH,, Lalitha MK,, Thomas K,, Perrrera J,, Yee TT,, Jamal F,, Warsa UC,, Vinh BX,, Jacobs MR,, Appelbaum PC,, Pai CH, 1999, Spread of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries, Asian network for surveillance of resistant pathogens (ANSORP) study, Clin Infect Dis, 28, 12051211.
111. Stevens DL, 2003, Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections, increasing virulence and emerging methicillin resistance in the new millennium, Curr Opin Infect Dis, 16, 184191.
112. Streit JM,, Jones RN,, Sader HS, 2004, Daptomycin activity and spectrum, a worldwide sample of 6737 clinical gram-positive organisms, J Antimicrob Chemother, 53, 669674.
113. Thabet L,, Boutiba I,, Kammoun A,, Khelif L,, Mahjoubi F,, Smaoui H,, Kechrid A,, Ben Redjeb S,, Hammani A, 2002, Epidemiologic profile of Haemophilus influenzae infection in Tunisia, Tunis Med, 80, 469472.
114. Toltzis P,, Hoyen C, Spinner-Block S,, Salvator AE,, Rice LB, 1999, Factors that predict preexisting colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli in patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit, Pediatrics, 103, 719723.
115. Trijbels-Smeuders MA,, Kollée LA,, Adriaase AH,, Kimpen JL,, Gerards LJ, 2004, Neonatal group B streptococcal infection, incidence and strategies for prevention in Europe, Pediatr J Infect Dis, 23, 172173.
116. Turnidge J, 2000, Aventis data on file.
117. Turnidge JD,, Bell JM, the SENTRY, Westen Pacific, 2001, Major regional variation in Haemophilus influenzae resistance in the Western Pacific, results from SENTRY Western Pacific Plus 1998–2000, 41st Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-687.
118. Tyrrell GJ,, Senzilet LD,, Spika JS,, Kertesz DA,, Alagaratnam M,, Lovgren M,, Talbot JA, the SENTINEL Health Unit Surveillance System Site Coordinators, 2000, Invasive disease due to group B streptococcal infection in adults, results from a Canadian, population-based, active laboratory surveillance study—1996, J Infect Dis, 182, 168173.
119. Udo EE,, Farook VS,, Mokadas EM,, Jacob LE,, Sanyal SC, 1999, Molecular fingerprinting of mupirocin-resistant S. aureus from a burn unit, Int J Infect Dis, 3, 8287.
120. Uwaydah M,, Mokhbat JE,, Karam-Sarkis D,, Barroud-Massif R,, Rohban T, 2002, Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae in Lebanon—the first nationwide study on ambulatory patients, 42nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2.
121. Woolfson A,, Huebner R,, Wasas A,, Chola S,, Godfrey-Faussett P,, Klugman K, 1997, Nasopharyngeal carriage of community-acquired antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Zambian pediatric population, Bull W HO, 75, 453462.
122. Youssef FG,, El-Sakka H,, Azab A,, Eloun S,, Chapman GD,, Ismail T,, Mansour H,, Hallaj Z,, Mahoney F, 2004, Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis among children in Egypt, Ann Epidemiol, 14, 4448.
123. Yun HJ,, Lee SW,, Yoon GM,, Kim SY,, Choi S,, Lee YS,, Choi EC,, Kim S, 2003, Prevalence and mechanisms of low- and high-level mupirocin resistance in Staphylococci isolated from a Korean hospital, J Antimicrob Chemother, 51, 619623.
124. Zhanel G,, Chan CK,, Gin AS,, Carrie A,, Nichol K,, Smith H,, Hoban DJ, 2002, Relationship between fluoroquinolone use and fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae—analysis of Canadian national data from 1997 to 2002, 42nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, abstract C2-1630.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 2

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 4

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 5

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 6

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 7

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 8

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 9

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 10

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 11

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 12

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 13

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 14

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 15

Prevalence of erythromycin A-resistant from 1999 to 2001

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 16

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 17

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 18

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 19

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 20

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 21

resistance to erythromycin A: prevalence of different genotypes, in central and eastern Europe (including Turkey) and other countries, 1999 to 2000

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 22

Activities of β-lactams against spp.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 23

In vitro activities of aminoglycosides against

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 24

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 25

Resistance phenotypes of enterococci

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 26

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 27

Prevalence of resistance to penicillin G in

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 28

Activity of penicillin G against in England between 1985 and 1989

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 29

Susceptibilities to β-lactams of strains isolated in Portugal

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 30

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 31

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 32

Susceptibilities of in Nigeria from 1987 to 1998

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 33

Activities of cefotaxime and ceftazidime against different ESBL-producing strains

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 34

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 35

Prevalence of resistance in gram-negative bacteria in Taiwan in 1999 ( = 60)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 37

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 36

Prevalence of resistance among in Japan (1997)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 38

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 39

Activity of imipenem in the United States

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 40

Enzymes inactivating aminoglycosides

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 41

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 42

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 43

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 44

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 45

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 46

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 47

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 48

Incidence of salmonellae in food

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 49

Activities of agents against serovar Typhi in India

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 50

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 51

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 52

Prevalence of resistance of serovars other than serovar Typhi to antibiotics

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 53

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 54

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 55

Prevalence of resistance in in North America (1997)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 56

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 57

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 58

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 59

Incidence of ESBLs in Europe

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 60

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 61

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 62

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 63

susceptibility to antibacterials in Russia

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 64

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 65

Activities of fluoroquinolones against in the Americas

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 66

Antibacterial susceptibilities of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin in Russia

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 67

Activities of β-lactams against

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 68

Susceptibility of to antibacterials in urinary tract infections

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 69

susceptibility to antibacterials in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients in France (2000)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 70

Incidence of resistance of via a single enzymatic mechanism

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 71

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 72

Resistance of to antibiotics in Europe

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 73

Ampicillin resistance among isolates

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 74

Resistance of to antibiotics in 1990 in the United Kingdom

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 75

Variation of prevalence of β-lactamase-producing according to studies

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 76

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 77

Prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains of

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 78

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 79

Prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 80

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 81

Primary resistance of to isoniazid

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Epidemiology of Resistance to Antibacterial Agents, p 39-92. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error