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Chapter 4 : Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology

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Abstract:

This chapter deals with the antibacterial agent that is only one molecule among a series of compounds prepared by chemists before becoming a drug. Preselection is a crucial stage in the life of a new drug. Once a molecule is synthesized, its in vitro activity against a panel of strains belonging to selected bacterial genera and species is determined. Activity against producing penicillinase is added, as well as that against and . Strains resistant to clindamycin and cephamycins must be included for gram-negative bacilli. Nondiscriminatory models are prepared during the preselection phase of a molecule. After determining the in vitro activity, it is essential to determine the in vivo activity parenterally and orally. In fact, the in vitro activity is not necessarily correlated with good in vivo activity. In these systemic infection models, activity is tested against gram-positive cocci, , and . The susceptibility of the bacterial strain considered responsible for the infection is determined in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the center in which the study is being conducted. However, semiautomatic devices related to the antibiotic sensitivity test are used by some microbiology laboratories. Determination of breakpoints is one of the major factors for an antibiotic. The mechanism of resistance is an important factor for determining breakpoints for given bacteria. The MIC at which these bacterial species are shown to be resistant is the cutoff and can be considered as the concentration under which the strain is considered susceptible.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Antibacterial Agents
1.0007824
Bacterial Proteins
0.8533194
Gram-Negative Bacteria
0.51479363
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.48400864
Fourth Generation Cephalosporins
0.46979126
1.0007824
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

In vitro activities of cephalosporins against

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 2

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 3

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 5

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 6

Stability of ansamycins in 7 H9 medium with or without Tween 80

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 7

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 8

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 9

Effect of urine on the activities of ofloxacin and norfloxacin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 10

Radius for levofloxacin according to Joan Stokes’s method

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 11

In vitro activities of combination of cefotaxime and its main metabolite

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 12

In vitro activities of carbapenems against MRSA strains

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 13

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 14

Breakpoints of metronidazole against

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 15

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 16

Zone of inhibition for 50% of clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides (1989 to 1991)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 17

Activities of β-lactams against ampicillin-resistant and non-β-lactamase-producing

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 18

Performance of telithromycin when microdilution panels were prepared with eight different types of working solutions of telithromycin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Development of an Antibiotic: Microbiology, p 93-112. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch4

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