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Chapter 5 : Penicillins

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Penicillins, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The development of penicillins and cephalosporins occurred in parallel and with the same aim in mind. The preparation of semisynthetic penicillins yielded molecules that were more active against gram-negative bacilli, particularly , such as the α-carboxypenicillins, the N-acylpenicillins, and the α-sulfopenicillins. The first factor essential to the action of penicillins, particularly in gram-negative bacilli, is their ability to penetrate the walls of these bacteria. Methicillin is less stable against acid hydrolysis than the isoxazole penicillins, whose stability is similar to that of the phenoxypenicillins. A phenomenon of tolerance has been described with penicillin G for , , , streptococci of the viridans group, group C streptococci, certain strains of enterococci, , and lactobacilli. The first strains of penicillin G-resistant were isolated soon after the introduction of penicillin G into London, England, hospitals. Methicillin and nafcillin are both more stable than the isoxazole penicillins, which are, in descending order, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and floxacillin. Among the N-acylpenicillins, four subgroups may be distinguished: the carbamoyls and the ureido-, acylureido-, and carbamoylureidopenicillins. The pharmacokinetics of penicillins are summarized in this chapter. The breakpoints for the N-acylpenicillins recommended by the French Antibiotic Sensitivity Test Committee are reported in the chapter. The penam nucleus is inactive but is essential for the antibacterial activity. Penicillin N (6-D-aminoadipoyl penicillin G) is 100 times less active than penicillin G against grampositive bacilli but is considerably more active against gramnegative bacteria.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Tables

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Table 1

Physicochemical properties of group I penicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 2

In vitro activities of the group I penicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 3

Standards of the French Antibiotic Sensitivity Test Committee (1997)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 4

Breakpoints of cefotaxime and ceftriaxone against

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 5

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 6

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 7

Activities of cephalosporins against

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 8

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 9

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 10

Physicochemical properties of group M penicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 11

Antibacterial activities of group M penicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 12

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 13

In vivo activities of group M penicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 14

Breakpoints of oxacillin ()

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 15

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 16

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 17

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 18

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 19

Comparative oral pharmacokinetics of cloxacillin and floxacillin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 20

Pharmacokinetics of floxacillin (flucloxacillin) in neonates of 33 to 42 weeks’ gestational age, 50 mg/kg

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 21

Physicochemical properties of the aminopenicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 22

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 23

Antibacterial activities of the α-aminopenicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 24

Breakpoints of ampicillin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 25

Frequencies of broad-spectrum β-lactamases

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 26

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 27

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 28

Susceptibilities of strains of to amoxicillin with and without clavulanic acid

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 29

β-Lactamase-producing strains in France

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 30

Membrane permeation

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 31

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 32

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 33

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 34

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 35

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 36

Bioavailability of amoxicillin orally

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 37

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 38

Amoxicillin in patients with renal insufficiency

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 39

Ampicillin and amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in elderly subjects

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 40

Oral pharmacokinetics of α-aminopenicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 41

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 42

Structure-activity relationship of the piperacillin derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 43

In vitro activities of -acyl- and α-carboxypenicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 44

In vitro activities of -acylpenicillins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 45

Breakpoints for the -acylpenicillins recommended by the French Antibiotic Sensitivity Test Committee

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 46

Epidemiology of resistance of to ampicillin and piperacillin in Europe

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 47

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 48

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 49

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 50

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 51

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 52

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 53

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 54

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 55

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 56

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 57

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 58

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 59

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 60

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 61

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 62

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 63

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 64

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 65

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 66

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 67

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 68

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 69

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 70

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 71

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 72

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 73

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 74

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 75

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 76

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 77

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 78

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 79

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 80

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 81

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 82

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 83

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 84

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
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Table 85

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 86

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Penicillins, p 113-162. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch5

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