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Chapter 7 : Oral Cephalosporins

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Abstract:

This chapter discusses about the chemical structures of oral cephalosporins. The antibacterial spectrum includes gram-positive cocci such as and , and and some gram-negative bacilli such as , , and . These cephalosporins exhibit increased activity against gram-negative bacteria and are more stable against hydrolysis by several types of β-lactamases. The in vitro activity of oral cephalosporins is well documented. The natural antibacterial spectrum of oral cephalosporins covers gram-positive cocci, gram-negative cocci, and some gram-negative bacilli. In an epidemiological survey where 1,527 clinical isolates of were collected, about 12% of the isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Among the new oral cephalosporins, the percentage of protein binding of cefpodoxime is the lowest (21 to 33%). Age-related alterations in renal function appear to have the greatest potential influence on the pharmacokinetics of oral cephalosporins. Very few studies have been undertaken to determine the impact of hepatic insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of oral cephalosporins since these are principally eliminated renally. The adverse effects associated with administration of oral cephalosporins are generally benign and infrequent. Gastrointestinal disturbances are the most common adverse events reported with oral cephalosporins: nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The types of unfavorable reactions due to oral cephalosporins might arbitrarily be classified into three categories: gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions (cutaneous and systemic), and other adverse effects.

Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7

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Third Generation Cephalosporins
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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Citation: Bryskier A, Lebel M. 2005. Oral Cephalosporins, p 222-268. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch7
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