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Chapter 12 : Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors

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Abstract:

Bacterial peptidoglycans were first identified in the 1940s. The nucleotide precursors were isolated and characterized in 1949. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis has been investigated in many bacterial species. The glycan chains of peptidoglycan are small and repeated units composed of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc). The glmM gene was shown to be essential in , but genetic data recently suggested that in there could be an alternative pathway for glucosamine-1-phosphate biosynthesis. The GlmU protein from is a bifunctional enzyme. Its C-terminal domain catalyzes acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate into GlcNAc-1-phosphate, whereas its N-terminal domain catalyzes uridylation to yield UDP-GlcNAc. Nucleoside antibiotics can be subdivided into different classes according to their chemical structures and/or their respective modes of action against MraY: the tunicamycin group, the ribosamino-uridine group, and finally the capuramycin group. Some of them possess activities against gram-positive bacteria, against spp., and against spp. This toxicity is explained by their high inhibitory activity upon glycoconjugate biosyntheses, such as of techoic acids, glycosaminoglycans, and glycoproteins. The major component, caprazamycin B, exhibits anti- activity and excellent activity against complex. The major chemical difference observed between liposidomycins and FR-900493 resides in the presence of an N-functionalized amino acid residue in the FR-900493 structure, instead of the diazepanone ring of liposidomycins. Lantibiotics such as mersacidin, are gene-encoded peptides that contain unusual thioether amino acids and/or 3-methyllanthionine.

Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4

Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 6

Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 7

Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 8

Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 9

Citation: Bryskier A, Dini C. 2005. Peptidoglycan Synthesis Inhibitors, p 377-400. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch12

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