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Chapter 16 : Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides

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Abstract:

This chapter gives an overview about aminocyclitol aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides are rapidly bactericidal antibiotics, acting in particular on aerobic gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and gram-positive bacilli. The aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics essentially active against gram-negative bacteria and staphylococci. A penicillin-aminoglycoside combination exerts synergistic and bactericidal activity on streptococci with low-level resistance to streptomycin. The antibiotics of the aminoglycoside family are bactericidal. Majority of studies relating to their mode of action have been undertaken with streptomycin. A number of studies have been conducted on the structure activity relationships of aminoglycosides. Certain bacteria may be naturally and consistently resistant to aminoglycosides. Resistance may be acquired by four different mechanisms: alteration of the target, interference with transport of the antibiotic, enzymatic inhibition of the antibiotic, and substitution of the target. The aminoglycosides can only be used parenterally, except for intestinal infections or indications for decontamination. Diffusion of the aminoglycosides is rapid. The apparent volume of distribution corresponds to 20 to 30% of body weight, a volume equivalent to that of the extracellular fluids. The pharmacokinetics of elimination of the aminoglycosides are dependent almost exclusively on renal function. The drug interactions observed with aminoglycosides are particularly detrimental when they are liable to exacerbate the specific toxic effects of aminoglycosides antibiotics: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and curarizing effect. Aminoglycosides have both renal and cochleovestibular toxicity. Substantial progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanisms of resistance and toxicity.

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16

Key Concept Ranking

Antibacterial Agents
0.5199108
Amino Sugars
0.47805354
Aminoglycosides Antibiotics
0.47232652
Urinary Tract Infections
0.42837667
Protein Synthesis RNAs
0.42453748
0.5199108
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Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
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Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
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Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
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Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
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Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
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Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
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Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
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References

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1. Acar JF,, Goldstein FW,, Menard R,, Bleriot JP, 1986, Strategies in aminoglycoside use and impact on resistance, Am J Med, 80, 6B, 8290.
2. Beaucaire G,, Leroy O,, Beuscart C,, Karp P, et al, 1991, Clinical and bacteriological efficacy and practical aspects of amikacin given once daily for severe infections, J Antimicrob Chemother, 27, suppl C, 91103.
3. Collatz E,, Carbon C,, Humbert G, 1986, Aminoglycosides (aminocyclitols), in Peterson PK,, Verhoef I, ed, Antimicrobial Agents Annual 1986, p 1–16, Elsevier Science Publishers.
4. Collatz E,, Carbon C,, Humbert G, 1987, Aminoglycosides (aminocyclitols), in Peterson PK,, Verhoef I, ed, Antimicrobial Agents Annual 1987, p 1–13, Elsevier Science Publishers.
5. Collatz E,, Carbon C,, Humbert G, 1988, Aminoglycosides (aminocyclitols), in Peterson PK,, Verhoef I, ed, Antimicrobial Agents Annual 1988, p 1–13, Elsevier Science Publishers.
6. Davies JE, Aminoglycoside aminocyclitol antibiotics and their modifying enzymes, p 790, in Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine.
7. De Broe ME,, Verbist L,, Verpooten GA, 1991, Influence of dosage schedule on renal cortical accumulation of amikacin and tobramycin in man, J Antimicrob Chemother, 27, suppl C, 4147.
8. Guillaume C,, Faurisson F,, Peytavin G, 1992, Pharmacokinetics of nebulized tobramycin in mechanically ventilated patients with bacterial pneumonia, 32nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, poster 207.
9. Kahlmeter G,, Dahlager JI, 1984, Aminoglycoside toxicity. A review of clinical studies published between 1975 and 1982, J Antimicrob Chemother, 13, suppl A, 922.
10. Kahlmeter G,, Jonsson S,, Kamme C, 1978, Multiple compartment pharmacokinetics of tobramycin, J Antimicrob Chemother, 4, suppl, 5-11.
11. Levison ME, 1992, New dosing regimens for aminoglycoside antibiotics, Ann Intern Med, 117, 693694.
12. Lortholary O,, Nochy D,, Heudes C,, Carbon C, 1992, Glomerular alterations due to netilmicin in rabbits, functional and morphological approach. Prevention with diltiazem in rabbits, 32nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother, poster 292.
13. Nagabushan TL,, Miller GH,, Weinstein MJ, 1982, Structure activity relationships in aminoglycoside aminocyclitol antibiotics, p 3–27, in Whelton A,, Neu HC, ed, The Aminoglycosides, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.
14. Schentag JJ, 1982, Aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics as a guide to therapy and toxicology, p 143–167, in Whelton A,, Neu HC, ed, The Aminoglycosides, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York.
15. Shannon K,, Phillips I, 1982, Mechanism of resistance to aminoglycosides in clinical isolates, J Antimicrob Chemother, 9, 91102.
16. Tulkens P, 1991, Pharmacokinetics and toxicological evaluation of a once daily regimen versus conventional schedules of netilmicin and amikacin, J Antimicrob Chemother, 27, suppl C, 4961.
17. Van der Auwera P, 1991, Pharmacokinetic evaluation of single daily dose amikacin, J Antimicrob Chemother, 27, suppl C, 6371.
18. Viscoli C,, Dudley M,, Ferrea G,, Boni L,, Castagnola E, et al., 1991, Serum concentrations and safety of single daily dosing of amikacin in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation, J Antimicrob Chemother, 27, suppl C, 113120.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 2

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 3

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 4

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 5

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 6

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 7

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 8

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 9

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 10

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 11

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 12

Citation: Veyssier P, Bryskier A. 2005. Aminocyclitol Aminoglycosides, p 453-469. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch16

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