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Chapter 31 : Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides

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Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The glycopeptide and lipoglycopeptide antibiotics are natural antibiotics obtained from cultures of certain microorganisms. These antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis but cannot cross the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. Their antibacterial spectrum includes aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive bacteria. The glycopeptides may be divided into at least five groups on the basis of their chemical structures. Due to their large mass, glycopeptides cannot cross the lipoprotein cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and are therefore totally inactive against them. The molecules belonging to group II (Avoparcin Type) are mainly actinodin, avoparcin, chloropolysporin, galacardin, helvecardin, and synmonicin. Resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin is due to synthesis of modified precursors that display decreased affinity for both compounds. Six types of resistance have been reported to date: VanA, VanB, VanC, VanD, VanE, and VanG. The combination of a glycopeptide with an aminoglycoside is synergistic against the majority of strains of staphylococci and enterococci. The in vitro activity of dalbavancin was investigated by following NCCLS-recommended methods and comparatively with vancomycin, linezolid, and quinuprisitin-dalfoprisitin (Q-D).

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figures

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Figure 1

Vancomycin mode of action

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figure 2

Teicoplanin complex

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figure 3

Structure of teicoplanin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figure 4

LY-264826

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figure 5

Oritavancin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figure 6

Dalbavancin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figure 7

AC-98 complex

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Figure 8

AC 98-6646

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Tables

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Table 1

Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in renally impaired patients a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 2

Vancomycin (1g) pharmacokinetics in anuric patients a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 3

Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in CAPD patients a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 4

Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in hepatically impaired patients

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 5

Vancomycin levels in pleural fluid after continuous and discontinuous infusions

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 6

Physicochemical properties of teicoplanin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 7

In vitro activities of teicoplanin and vancomycin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 8

In vitro activities of teicoplanin and vancomycin against GISA strains

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 9

Vancomycin and teicoplanin resistance in enterococci

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 10

Prevalence of E. faecium resistance in Europe among patients

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 11

European survey of teicoplanin and vancomycin susceptibility among gram-positive cocci a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 12

Distribution of van genes in bacterial species

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 13

Effect of media on MICs of teicoplanin and vancomycin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 14

MICs of teicoplanin and vancomycin according to medium and inoculum size

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 15

Pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin after 2 to 3 mg/kg intravenously as a single dose a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 16

Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics after 30-mininfusion of single ascending doses a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 17

Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics after intravenous multiple doses

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 18

Pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin in neonates and children

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 19

Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics after multiple doses in children

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 20

Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics in children after a loading dose of 10 mg/kg

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
Generic image for table
Table 21

Teicoplanin pharmacokinetics in the elderly

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 22

Pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin in renally impaired patients a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 23

Disposition pharmacokinetics of components of teicoplanin in healthy volunteers after a 5-mg/kg dose a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 24

In vitro activities of oritavancin a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 25

Pharmacokinetics of oritavancin after ascending doses (intravenous route) a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 26

In vitro activity of dalbavancin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 27

Pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin after a single intravenous dose

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 28

Pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin after a single intravenous dose of 1,000 mg a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 29

Pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin after intravenous multiple doses a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 30

Pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin in hepatically impaired patients

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 31

Protein binding of dalbavancin and teicoplanin

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 32

In vitro activity of AC-98 complex

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 33

In vitro activity of AC 98-6646 a

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 34

In vivo activity of AC 98-6646

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 35

Pharmacokinetics of AC 98-6646 in animals

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31
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Table 36

In vitro activity of televancin against B. anthracis

Citation: Bryskier A, Veyssier P. 2005. Glycopeptides and Lipoglycopeptides, p 880-905. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch31

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