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Chapter 33 : Phenicols

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Phenicols, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Chloramphenicol was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be used both systemically and orally. All phenicols are derived from dichloroacetic acid, with two other parts: an aromatic nucleus with an alkyl group in the para position and an aminopropanediol chain. In bacteria, the phenicols inhibit protein synthesis, but not that of peptidoglycan, polysaccharides, or nucleic acids. Binding of phenicols to the 50S ribosomal subunit inhibits the peptidation reaction, as chloramphenicol reduces the catalytic activity of peptidyltransferase; the translation of bacterial mRNA is therefore inhibited. Resistance to chloramphenicol is usually crossed with resistance to thiamphenicol. Sometimes another, more contingent mechanism of resistance is involved: acquired reduction in permeability of the bacterial outer membrane to phenicols. Pharmacokinetic studies with malnourished subjects are rare, although the phenicols are widely used in the most disadvantaged countries. The distribution of chloramphenicol in body tissues and fluids is very extensive, partly as a result of its marked lipophilicity. Chloramphenicol may interfere with a number of drugs, chiefly because of its hepatic metabolism. Chloramphenicol may interfere with a number of drugs, chiefly because of its hepatic metabolism. This interference has not been described with thiamphenicol. The principal problem of tolerance relates to chloramphenicol and the possibility of induction of hematologic accidents that are often irreversible and fatal. Typhoid fever, a classic indication for phenicol, has now become rapidly curable with fluoroquinolones. On the basis of the tropical public health data, the indications for phenicols very definitely remain much more extensive than in the industrialized countries.

Citation: Fisch A, Bryskier A. 2005. Phenicols, p 925-929. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch33

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Citation: Fisch A, Bryskier A. 2005. Phenicols, p 925-929. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch33
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Citation: Fisch A, Bryskier A. 2005. Phenicols, p 925-929. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch33
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Citation: Fisch A, Bryskier A. 2005. Phenicols, p 925-929. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch33
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Citation: Fisch A, Bryskier A. 2005. Phenicols, p 925-929. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch33
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References

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1. Ambrose PJ, 1984, Clinical pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol and chloramphenicol succinate, Clin Pharmacokinet, 9, 222238.
2. Bertrand A, 1988, Chloramphenicol et thiamphenicol, Rev Prat, 38, 486492.
3. Gale EF,, Cundliffe E,, Reynolds PE, 1981, The Molecular Basis of Antibiotic Action, J Wiley and Son, London.
4. Glecksman RA, 1975, Warning: chloramphenicol can be good for your health, Arch Intern Med, 135, 11251126.
5. Hahn FE, 1983, Chloramphenicol, p 3435, in Hahn FE,, ed, Antibiotics, vol IV, Springer Verlag, New York.
6. Najean Y,, Tognoni G,, Yunis AA, 1981, Safety Problems Related to Chloramphenicol and Thiamphenicol Therapy, Raven Press, New York.
7. Pecoul B,, Varaine F,, Keita M,, Soga G,, Djibo A,, Soula G,, Abdou A,, Etienne J,, Rey M, 1991, Long-acting chloramphenicol versus intravenous ampicillin for treatment of bacterial meningitis, Lancet, 338, 862866.
8. Philippon A,, Paul G,, Giroud JP, 1988, Phénicolés: chloramphenicol et thiamphenicol, p 14211431, in Giroud JP et al, ed, Pharmacologie clinique, Bases de la therapeutique, Expansion Scientifique Francaise, Paris.
9. Rahal JJ Jr,, Simberkoff MS, 1977, Bactericidal and bacterio-static action of chloramphenicol against meningeal pathogens, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 16, 1318.
10. Standiford HC, 1990, Tetracyclines and chloramphenicol, p 284295, in Mandell GL, et al, ed, Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 3rd ed, Churchill Livingstone, New York.
11. Wali SS,, MacFarlane JT,, Weir WRC, et al, 1979, Single injection treatment of meningococcal meningitis. 2. Long-acting chloramphenicol, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 73, 698702.
12. World Health Organization, 1990, Meningococcal meningitis in Africa, Wkly Epidemiol Rec, 16, 120122.

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Table 1

Citation: Fisch A, Bryskier A. 2005. Phenicols, p 925-929. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch33

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