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Chapter 41 : Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps

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Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Detergent-like bile salts kill bacterial cells by destroying bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux systems. These not only play an important role in antibacterial resistance but also contribute to bacterial pathogenesis. Reserpine and H/K ATPase inhibitors can significantly reduce MICs, increase killing activity, and prolong the postantibiotic effect of fluoroquinolones. Two proteins, and , are representative of MDR efflux pumps. Resistance nodulation cell division family (RND) transporters are a three-component system. The RND pumps utilize the energy of the proton motive force to extract dyes, detergents, disinfectants, solvents, and antibiotics from the cell. AcrAB appears to regulate primarily by global regulators such as MarA (which responds to the presence of antibiotics or inhibitors). Few antibiotics are effective for the treatment of infections due to the numerous mechanisms of resistance and the frequency of MDR strains. Two genes, and , encode efflux pumps belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) family. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are composed of at least 28 families for sugars, amino acids, ions, drugs, antibiotics, vitamins, iron complexes, peptides, proteins, complex carbohydrates, etc. Efflux pump inhibitors may be novel molecules belonging to a given new chemical family. In addition to being involved in the reduced susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria to fluoroquinolones, efflux pumps contribute to the acquired resistance which is selected upon exposure to the antibacterials.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 2

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 3

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 4

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 5

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 6

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 7

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 8

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 9

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 10

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 11

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 12

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 13

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 14

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 15

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 16

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 17

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 18

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 19

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 20

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 21

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 22

xs PAO-1 and PAO-ncr

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 23

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 24

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 25

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 26

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 27

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 28

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Table 29

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
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Table 30

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 31

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 32

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 33

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 34

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 35

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 36

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41
Generic image for table
Table 37

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Microbial Efflux of Antibiotics and Inhibitors of Efflux Pumps, p 1055-1084. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch41

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