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Chapter 42 : Paldimycin
Paldimycin belongs to the group of antibiotics containing an isothiocyanate group. Three groups of molecules have been isolated: the proceomycins, senfolomycins A and B and the paulomycins. Proceomycin can be isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces albolongus sp. nov. The physicochemical properties of Senfolomycins A and B are summarized in this chapter. They have good activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, but they are inactive against gram-negative bacilli. It has been possible to isolate paulomycins A and B, paldimycins A and B, and products 273a1α [A] and 273a1β [B]). The paulomycins differ from one another in the group at R1, which is a 2-methylbutyryl for paulomycin A and an isobutyryl for paulomycin B. The paldimycins and the 273a2 compounds are produced by the addition of two and one N-acetyl-l-cysteine, respectively, to paulomycins A and B. Paldimycin exhibits optimal antibacterial activity when the pH of the culture medium is less than 7. Paldimycin has good activity against S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, irrespective of whether the strains are methicillin susceptible or resistant. Among the molecules that manifest good activity against methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus, paldimycin is one of the most active. Paldimycin has moderate activity against Listeria monocytogenes, but it has good activity against Corynebacterium jeikeium. Paldimycin appears to be active against Chlamydia trachomatis.