1887

Chapter 43 : Antituberculosis Agents

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Antituberculosis Agents, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815929/9781555812379_Chap43-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815929/9781555812379_Chap43-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview on antituberculosis agents that include streptomycin, ansamycin and rifapentine. The discovery of the anti-tuberculosis (TB) activity of p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and isoniazid led to the standard 18-month treatment of TB with the triple combination of streptomycin, isoniazid, and PAS. Depending on their antibacterial activities and their toxicities to humans, anti-TB antibiotics are classified as first-line antibiotics, administered as first-choice treatment in any new case of TB, and second-line antibiotics, reserved for the treatment of patients with resistant to the first-line antibiotics. Rifapentine looks like a sustainedrelease rifampin that is as active administered once weekly as rifampin administered daily. D-Cycloserine possesses a broad antibacterial spectrum, being active against the majority of mycobacteria, including -, gram-positive bacteria such as , and gram-negative bacteria such as . The different species of complex have natural or clinical resistance to most of the standard antibacterials, such as macrolides. Treatment of mycobacterial infections is often difficult because the bacteria are intrinsically resistant to most antibacterials due to the specific outer membrane of . To conclude, it is important to emphasize the fact that therapeutic success depends not only on the initial susceptibility of the bacilli and the quality of the antibiotic combination prescribed but also on good treatment compliance. The HpsX protein can help to establish latency. It is required for growth in macrophages. It could be a new target for anti- treatment.

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43

Key Concept Ranking

Antibacterial Agents
0.7034396
Bacterial Diseases
0.67609686
Fatty Acid Synthase
0.45199472
0.7034396
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 11
Figure 11

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 12
Figure 12

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 13
Figure 13

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14
Figure 14

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15
Figure 15

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16
Figure 16

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 17
Figure 17

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 18
Figure 18

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19
Figure 19

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 20
Figure 20

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 21
Figure 21

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 22
Figure 22

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 23
Figure 23

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 24
Figure 24

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 25
Figure 25

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
1. Alangaden GJ,, Kreiswirth BN,, Oud A,, Khetarpal M,, Igno FA,, Moghazeh SL,, Manavathn EK,, Lerner SA, 1998, Mechanism of resistance to amikacin and kanamycin in M. tuberculosis, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 12951297.
2. Albino JA,, Reichman LB, 1997, Multidrug resistance in tuberculosis, Curr Opin Infect Dis, 10, 116122.
3. Arioli V,, Pallanza R,, Füresz S,, Carniti G, 1967, Rifampicin, a new rifamycin. 1. Bacteriological studies, Arzneimittel-Forsch, 17, 523529.
4. Bartz QR,, Ehrlich J,, Mold JD,, Penner MA,, Smith RM, 1951, Viomycin, a new tuberculostatic antibiotic, Am Rev Tuberc, 63, 46.
5. Bernstein J,, Lott WA,, Steinberg BA,, Yale HL, 1952, Chemotherapy of experimental tuberculosis. V. Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (Nidrazid) and related compounds, Am Rev Tuberc, 65, 357364.
6. Boxenbaum HG,, Riegelman S, 1974, Determination of isoniazid and metabolites in biological fluids, J Pharmacol Sci, 63, 11911197.
7. Bryskier A,, Couturier C,, Lowther J, 2002, Fluoroquinolones and M. tuberculosis, Exp Opinion Invest Drug.
8. Buriankova K,, Doucet-Populaire F,, Dorson D,, Gondran A,, Ghnassia JC,, Weiser J,, Perrodet JL, 2004, Molecular basis of intrinsic macrolide resistance in the M. tuberculosis complex, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 143150.
9. Butler WR,, Kilburn JO, 1983, Susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to pyrazinamide and its relationship to pyrazinamidase activity, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 24, 600601.
10. Canetti G,, Gay PH,, Le Lirzin M, 1972, Trends in the prevalence of primary drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis in France from 1962 to 1970, a national survey, Tubercle (Lond), 53, 5783.
11. Canetti G,, Grosset J, 1961, Teneur des souches sauvages de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en variants resistants à 1’isoniazide et en variants resistants à la streptomycine sur milieu de Löwenstein-Jensen, Ann Inst Pasteur, 101, 2846.
12. Canetti G,, Rist N,, Grosset J, 1963, Mésure de la sensibilité du bacille tuberculeux aux drogues antibacillaires par la méthode des proportions, Rev Tuberc (Paris), L7, 217220.
13. Cartel JL,, Naudillon Y,, Artus JC,, Grosset JH, 1985, Hepatotoxicity of the daily combination of 5 mg/kg protionamide + 10 mg/kg rifampicin, Int J Lepr, 51, 1518.
14. Cohen SP,, Levy SB,, Fould J,, Rosner JL, 1993, Salicylate induction of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli, acivation of the mar operon, an independent pathway, J Bacteriol, 175, 78567862.
15. Domagk G,, Benisch R,, Mietzsch F,, Schmidt H, 1946, Über eine neue, gagen Tuberkelberzillen in vitro wirksame Verbindungslasse, Naturw, 22, 315.
16. Edlin BR,, Tokars JI,, Grieco MH,, Crawford JT,, Williams J,, Sordillo EM,, Ong KR,, Kilburn JO,, Dooley SW,, Castro KG,, Jarvis WR,, Holmberg SD, 1992, An outbreak of multiresistant tuberculosis among hospitalized patients with the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome, N Engl J Med, 326, 15141521.
17. Ellard GA, 1984, Signification clinique potentielle du phénotype d’acétylation de l’isoniazide dans le traitement de la tuberculose pulmonaire, Rev Fr Mal Resp, 1, 207219.
18. Falzari K,, Zhu Z,, Pan D,, Liu H,, Hongmanee P,, Franzblau SG, 2005, The in vitro and in vivo activities of macrolide derivatives against M. tuberculosis, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 14471454.
19. Füresz S,, Arioli V,, Pallanza R, 1965, Antimicrobial properties of new derivatives of rifamycin SV, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, p 770.
20. Gardner TS,, Wenis E,, Lee J, 1954, Synthesis of compounds for chemotherapy of tuberculosis. IV. The amine function, J Org Chem, 19, 753757.
21. Girling DJ, 1982, Adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs, Drugs, 23, 5674.
22. Grosset J, 1989, Present status of chemotherapy for tuberculosis, Rev Inf Dis, 11, S347–S352.
23. Grosset J, 1990, Present and new drug regimens in chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of tuberculosis, Bull Int Union Against Tuberc Lung Dis, 65, 8691.
24. Grosset J, 1992, Treatment of tuberculosis in HIV infection, Tubercle Lung Dis, 7, 378383.
25. Grosset J,, Benhassine M, 1970, La thiacétazone (Tbl), données experimentales et cliniques recentes, Adv Tuberc Res, 17, 107153.
26. Grosset J,, Canetti G, 1962, Teneur des souches sauvages de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en variants résistants aux antibiotiques mineurs, Ann Inst Pasteur, 103, 163184.
27. Grosset J,, Chauvelot-Moachon L,, Giroud JP, 1988, Antituberculeux, p 15531573, in Giroud JP,, Mathé J,, Meyniel J,, Advenier C,, Benoist JM,, Durenne-Marillaz P,, Escousse A,, Guidicelli JF,, Imbs JL,, Lapalus P,, Loiseau P,, Montestruc JL,, Philippon A,, Regoli D,, Simon P,, Tillement JP, ed, Pharmacologie clinique, 2nd ed, Exp Sc Fr.
28. Grosset J,, Truffot-Pernot CH, 1988, Etat actuel de la résistance de Mycobacterium tuberculosis aux antibiotiques, La lettre de l’infectiologue, 3, 369377.
29. Grunberg E,, Schnitzer RJ, 1952, Studies on the activity of hydrazine derivatives of isonicotinic acid in experimental tuberculosis of mice, Quart Bull Sea View Hosp, 13, 311.
30. Harned RC,, Hidy PA,, Kropp La, Baw EK, 1955, Cycloserine. I. A preliminary report, Antibiot Chemother, 5, 204205.
31. Herr EB,, Haney ME,, Pittenger GE,, Hyggens CE, 1960, Isolation and characterization of a new peptide antibiotic, Proc Indiana Acad Sci, 69, 134.
32. Heym B,, Cole ST, 1992, Isolation and characterization of isoniazid-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. aurum, Res Microbiol, 143, 721730.
33. Heym B,, Zhang Y,, Poulet S,, Young D,, Cole ST, 1993, Characterization of the katG gene encoding a catalase-peroxidase required for the isoniazid susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J Bacteriol, 175, 42554259.
34. Jenne JW,, MacDonald FM,, Mendoza E, 1961, A study of the renal clearances, metabolic inactivation rates, and serum fall-off interaction of isoniazid and para-aminosalicylic acid in man, Am Rev Respir Dis, 84, 371378.
35. Ji B,, Truffot-Pernot C,, Grosset J, 1991, In vitro and in vivo activities of sparfloxacin (AT4140) against M. tuberculosis, Tubercle, 72, 181186.
36. Kapur V,, Li LL,, Iordanescu S,, Hamrick MR,, Wanger A, Musser JM, 1994, Characterization by automated DNA sequencing of mutations in the gene (rpoB) encoding RNA polymerase β-subunit in rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis from New York City, J Clin Microbiol, 32, 10951098.
37. Konno K,, Feldmann FM,, McDermott W, 1967, Pyrazinamide susceptibility and amidase activity of tubercle bacilli, Am Rev Respir, 25, 461469.
38. Kurosawa H, 1952, Studies on the antibiotic substances from actinomyces. XXIII. The isolation of an antibiotic produced by a strain of streptomyces “K30,” J Antibiot Ser B, 5, 682688.
39. Kushner S,, Dalalian H,, Sanjurjo JL,, Bach FL Jr,, Safir SR,, Smith VK Jr,, Williams JH, 1952, Experimental chemotherapy of tuberculosis. II. The synthesis of pyrazinamide and related compounds, J Am Chem Soc, 74, 36173621.
40. Lalande V,, Truffot-Pernot C,, Paccaly-Moulon A,, Grosset J,, Ji B, 1993, Powerful bactericidal activity of sparfloxacin (AT-4140) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 37, 407413.
41. Lehmann J, 1946, Determination of pathogenicity of tubercle bacilli by their intermediate metabolism, Lancet, Jan 5, 114115.
42. Lehmann J, 1946, Para-aminosalicylic acid in the treatment of tuberculosis, Lancet, 1516.
43. Le Lirzin M,, Djurovic V, 1971, Etude sur milieu de Lowenstein-Jensen de la composition des souches sauvages de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en variants résistants à la rifampicine et en variants résistants a l’ethambutol, A nn Inst Pasteur, 120, 531548.
44. Lesobre R,, Ruffino J,, Teyssier L,, Achard F,, Brefort G, 1968, Les ictères au cours du traitement par la rifampicine, Rev Tuberc Pneumol, 33, 393403.
45. Libermann D,, Moyeux M,, Rist N,, Grumbach F, 1956, Sur la préparation de nouveaux thioamides pyridiniques actifs dans la tuberculose expérimentale, C R Acad Sci, 246, 24092412.
46. MacKaness GB, 1956, The intracellular activation of pyrazinamide and nicotinamide, Am Rev Tuberc, 74, 718728.
47. Meier A,, Kirschner P,, Bange FC,, Vogel U,, Bottger EC, 1994, Genetic alterations in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: mapping of mutations conferring resistance, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 38, 228233.
48. Middlebrook G, 1954, Isoniazid-resistance and catalase activity of tubercle bacilli, Am Rev Tuberc, 699, 471472.
49. Moghazeh SL,, Pan Y,, Arain T,, Stover CK,, Musser JM,, Kreiswirth BN, 1996, Comparative antimycobacterial activity of rifampin, rifapentine, and KRM-1648 against a collection of rifampin-resistant M. tuberculosis with known rpoB mutations, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40, 26552657.
50. Moulding, T,, Dutt AK,, Reichman LB, 1995, Fixed dose combinations of antituberculous medications to prevent drug resistance and enhance patient compliance, Ann Intern Med, 122, 951954.
51. Musser JM, 1995, Antimicrobial agent resistance in mycobacteria, molecular genetic insights, Clin Microbiol Rev, 8, 496514.
52. Pretet S,, Lebeaut A,, Parrot R,, Truffot C,, Grosset J,, Dinh-Xuan AT, GETIM (Group for the Study and Treatment of Resistant Mycobacterial Infections), 1992, Combined chemotherapy including rifabutin for rifampicin and isoniazid-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis, Eur Respir J, 5, 680684.
53. Reichman LB, 1994, Multidrug resistant tuberculosis, meeting the challenge, Hosp Pract, 29, 8596.
54. Rindler H,, Muskes KT,, Loesher T, 2001, Hetero resistance in M. tuberculosis, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 5, 339345.
55. Riska PF,, Jacobs WR Jr,, Alland D, 2000, Molecular determinants of drug resistance in tuberculosis, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 4, S4–S10.
56. Rist N, 1960, L’activité anti tuberculeuse de l’éthionamide (l’alpha-éthyl-thioisonicotinamide ou 1314 Th), étude experimentale et clinique, Adv Tuberc Res, 10, 69126.
57. Roberts GD,, Koneman EW,, Kim YK, 1991, Mycobacterium, p 304339, in Balows,, Hausler,, Hermann,, Isenberg,, Shadomy, ed, Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
58. Sachais BS,, Nachamkindagger II,, Mills JK,, Leonard DG, 1998, Novel pncA mutations in pyrazinamide-resistant isolates of M. tuberculosis, Mol Diagn, 3, 229231.
59. Schatz A,, Bugle E,, Waksman SA, 1944, Streptomycin, a substance exhibiting antibiotic activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 55, 66.
60. Scorpio A,, Lindholm-Levy P,, Heifets L, et al, 1997, Characterization of pncA mutation in pyrazinamide-resistant M. tuberculosis, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 540543.
61. Sreevatsan S,, Pan Y,, Zhang Y,, Kreiswirth BN,, Musser JM, 1997, Mutations associated with pyrazinamide-resistance in pncA of M. tuberculosis complex organisms, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 636640.
62. Sreevatsan S,, Stockbauer KE,, Pan Y,, et al, 1997, Ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, critical role of embB mutation, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 16771681.
63. Takiff HE,, Salazar L,, Guerero C,, et al, 1994, Cloning and nucleotide sequence of M. tuberculosis gyrA and gyrB genes and deletion of quinolone mutation, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 38, 773780.
64. Telenti A,, Imboden P,, Marchesi F,, Lourice D,, Cole S,, Colston MJ,, Matter L,, Schopfer K,, Bodner T, 1993, Detection of rifampicin-resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Lancet, 341, 647650.
65. Thomas JP,, Baughn CO,, Wilkinson RG,, Shepard RG, 1961, A new synthetic compound with antituberculous activity in mice, ethambutol [dextro-2,2′-(ethylenediimino)-DI-1-butanol], Am Rev Respir Dis, 83, 891893.
66. Truffot-Pernot C,, Giroir AM,, Maury L,, Grosset J, 1988, Etude des concentrations minimales inhibitrices de rifabutine (ansamycine LM427) pour M. tuberculosis, M xenopi, M avium, Rev Mal Respir, 5, 401406.
67. Truffot-Pernot C,, Grosset J,, Bismuth R,, Lecoeur H, 1983, Activité de la rifampicine administré de manière intermittente et de la cyclopentyl rifamycine (ou DL473) sur la tuberculose expérimentale de la souris, Rev Fr Mal Resp, 11, 875882.
68. Truffot-Pernot CH,, Ji B,, Grosset J, 1991, Activities of pefloxacin and ofloxacin against mycobacteria, in vitro and mouse experiments, Tubercle, 72, 5764.
69. Tsukamura M, 1985, In vitro antituberculosis activity of a new antibacterial substance ofloxacin (DL 8280), Am Rev Respir Dis, 131, 348351.
70. Tsukamura M,, Nakamura E,, Yoshii S,, Yanase M,, Yasuda Y,, Amasso H, 1985, Therapeutic effect of a new antibacterial substance ofloxacin (DL 8280) on pulmonary tuberculosis, Am Rev Respir Dis, 131, 352356.
71. Umezawa H,, Ueda M,, Maeda K,, Yagishita K,, Kondo S,, Okami Y,, Utahara R,, Osato Y,, Nitta K,, Takenchi T, 1957, Production and isolation of a new antibiotic, kanamycin, J Antibiot Jpn Ser A, 10, 181188.
72. Vivien JN,, Grosset J, 1961, Le taux d’isoniazide actif dans le serum sanguin, Adv Tuberc Res, 11, 45121.
73. Way EL,, Smith PK,, Howie PL,, Weiss R,, Swanson R, 1948, The absorption, distribution, excretion and fate of para-amino-salicylic acid, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 9, 368372.
74. Wayne LG, 1974, Simple pyrazinamidase and urease tests for routine identification of mycobacteria, Am Rev Respir Dis, 109, 147151.
75. WHO, Guidelines for tuberculosis treatment in adults and children in national tuberculosis programmes, WHO/Tub/91161.
76. Wirima JJ,, Harries AD, 1991, Stevens-Johnson syndrome during antituberculosis chemotherapy in HIV-seropositive patients, report on six cases, East Afr Med J, 68, 6466.
77. Young DB,, Cole ST, 1993, Leprosy, tuberculosis, and the new genetics, J Bacteriol, 175, 16.
78. Zhang Y,, Heym B,, Allen B,, Young D,, Cole S, 1992, The catalase-peroxydase genes and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Nature, 358, 591593.
79. Zhang Y,, Scorpio A,, Nikaido H,, Su Z, 1999, Role of acid pH and deficient efflux of pyrazinoic acid in unique susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to pyrazinamide, J Bacteriol, 181, 20442049.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 2

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 3

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 4

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 5

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 6

H37

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 7

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 8

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 9

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 10

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 11

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 12

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 13

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 14

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 15

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 16

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 17

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 18

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 19

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 20

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 21

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 22

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 23

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 24

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 25

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 26

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 27

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 28

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 29

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 30

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 31

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 32

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 33

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 34

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 35

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 36

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 37

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 38

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 39

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 40

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 41

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 42

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 43

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 44

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 45

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 46

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 47

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 48

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 49

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 50

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 51

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 52

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 53

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 54

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 55

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 56

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43
Generic image for table
Table 57

Citation: Bryskier A, Grosset J. 2005. Antituberculosis Agents, p 1088-1123. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch43

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error