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Chapter 53 : Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents

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Abstract:

Systemic infections of fungal origin are an attendant feature in immunodepressed patients. A study conducted in the United States between 1980 and 1989 already showed that nosocomial infections of fungal origin had increased by 40%. The number of species responsible for these infections remains relatively limited: Candida albicans (80%), Aspergillus fumigatus (15%), Candida tropicalis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The activity of antifungal agents against P. marquandii is weak. The polyenes are a complex chemical class of macrocyclic agents that include amphotericin B (AMB) (parenteral use), pimaricin, nystatin (NYT), and candicidin. The fungal wall is an important target for potential antifungal agents. Mannoproteins are 50% composed of carbohydrates and are a potential cell wall target of antifungal agents. Antifungal agents have other sites of action: protein synthesis, cell division, and topoisomerases. Other potential sites of action of antifungal agents are under evaluation. The majority of molecules penetrate the fungal wall readily, the first obstacle being the cytoplasmic membrane, where the molecules must use permeases to penetrate the cytoplasm. The efflux mechanism is similar to the multidrug resistance mechanism of the other mammalian eukaryotic cells and has been described to occur in C. albicans for fluconazole.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 1

Classification of polyene antifungals

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 2

Amphotericin B (AMB)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 3

Derivatives of AMB

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 4

C-13 dehydroxy derivative of AMB (compound H)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 5

Derivative 1: -fructosyl AMB

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 6

V-28-3B methyl ester

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 7

MS-8209

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 8

Polyene derivative

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 9

Inhibition of squalene-2,3-epoxide synthesis

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 10

Squalene molecule formation inhibitors

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 11

Biosynthetic pathway of ergosterol

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 12

Mode of action of allylamines

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 13

Allylamine derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 14

2,3-Oxidosqualenelanosterol cyclase inhibitors

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 15

Different classes of 2,3-oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclase inhibitors

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 16

Derivatives of restricticin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 17

Classification of azoles

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 18

Saperconazole

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 19

SDZ 89-485

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 20

New triazole derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 21

D-0870

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 22

Posaconazole (SCH 56592)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 23

T-8581

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 24

UR-9825

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 25

SSY726

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 26

Amorolfine

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 27

Tridemorph

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 28

C24-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 29

Constitution of the fungal wall

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 30

Echinocandin, pneumocandin, papulacandin, fusacandin, etc.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 31

Echinocandin derivatives: fatty acid chains

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 32

Cilofungin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 33

Caspofungin (MK-0991, L-743872)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 34

Natural echinocandins

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 35

R-106 A (LY-295337)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 36

A-175800.0

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 37

Structure of papulacandin B

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 38

Pradimicin derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 39

Structure of benanomicin A

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 40

Structure of the β-1,4-GlcNAc unit forming chitin by repetition

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 41

Structures of UDP-GlcNAc (a), polyoxin B (b), and nikkomycin Z (c)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 42

Xanthofulvin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 43

Allosamidin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 44

Methylbenzimidazole carbamate

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 45

Alkoxyphenylpropylamine derivative

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 46

A-75272

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 47

Podophyllotoxin derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 48

Bis-benzimidazole dication derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 49

EF-3 and EF-2

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 50

Aspirochlorine

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 51

Sordarin derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 52

GR-135402

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 53

SCH 57404

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 54

RI-331 ([H9254]-hydroxy-[H9253]-oxonorvaline)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 55

Azoxybacillin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 56

MDL-63604

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 57

Icofungipen (Bay 10-8888, PLD-118)

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 58

Steroid antifungal agents

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 59

YM-47522

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 60

SCH 2137

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 61

Aranotin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 62

UK-3A

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 63

Ambruticin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 64

Formamicin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 65

SCH 38518

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 66

FR-901169

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 67

Peptide derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 68

New antifungal agents

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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Figure 69

Melithiazol

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Opportunistic agents of fungal infections

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 2

Parenteral formulations of polyene antifungal agents

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 3

In vitro activities of the different formulations of polyene antifungal agents

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 4

In vitro activities of cyclase inhibitors a

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 5

Pharmacokinetics of azole derivatives

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 6

Activity against Fusarium spp.

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 7

In vitro activity of amorolfine

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 8

In vitro activity of anidulafungin against yeasts

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 9

In vitro activities of lipopeptides a

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 10

Oral pharmacokinetics of anidulafungin

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 11

Pharmacokinetics of anidulafungin given intravenously

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 12

In vitro activity of caspofungin against yeasts

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 13

Human pharmacokinetics of micafungin after ascending and repeated doses

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 14

Affinity for chitin synthetase

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 15

Differential mechanisms of action of antifungal agents

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53
Generic image for table
Table 16

Pharmacokinetics of ascending doses of icofungipen

Citation: Bryskier A. 2005. Antifungal Targets and Research into Antifungal Agents, p 1288-1319. In Bryskier, M.D. A (ed), Antimicrobial Agents. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815929.ch53

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