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Chapter 2 : Campylobacter jejuni and Other Campylobacters
Category: Food Microbiology; Applied and Industrial Microbiology
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Campylobacter species have a chemoorganotrophic metabolism, and energy is derived from amino acids or tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates due to their inability to oxidize or ferment carbohydrates. The majority of Campylobacter spp. reduce nitrate and nitrite. Campylobacter jejuni contains two flagellin genes, flaA and flaB; the wild-type bacterium expresses flaA only, but flaB can be expressed under certain conditions. The flagellum of Campylobacter spp. plays a much more important function than just motility. C. jejuni flagella may also play a role in the dissemination and internalization of the organism. Toxin production plays a role in pathogenicity. In regard to C. jejuni, the organism synthesizes several toxins, classified mainly as enterotoxins or cytotoxins. The prevalence of Campylobacter contamination of carcasses and poultry products can vary greatly, depending on the sensitivity of the cultural procedures utilized and by the point along the process chain at which sampling is being conducted. Cross-contamination of food products is a major factor that contributes to human illness. Campylobacter spp. can be sensitive to environmental conditions outside of an animal’s intestinal tract. While outbreaks of human campylobacteriosis have been associated with raw milk and untreated water, poultry meat, which is frequently contaminated with the organism, may be responsible for as much as 70% of sporadic campylobacteriosis. This chapter focuses on recent advantages in biological, chemical, and physical interventions to guard against the pathogen, and discriminative detection methods for confirmation and trace-back of contaminated products.
Key Concept Ranking
- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism