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Abstract:

The ability to form botulinum neurotoxin is restricted to strains of and some strains of and . Nonproteolytic is a psychrotroph, with growth and neurotoxin formation reported at 3.0°C but not at 2.5°C. Spores formed by nonproteolytic are of moderate heat resistance. The foods most commonly involved in outbreaks are fermented marine products, dried fish, and vacuum-packed fish. The genetic diversity of nonproteolytic strains appears greater than that of proteolytic strains. Food-borne botulism is a severe but rare neuroparalytic intoxication resulting from consumption of preformed botulinum neurotoxin. Food-borne botulism has also occurred when ingredients containing preformed botulinum neurotoxin have been added to a correctly refrigerated product. The natural habitat of proteolytic and nonproteolytic is soil and sediments. Proteolytic produces spores with high heat resistance and is the principal concern for the safe production of low-acid canned foods. This chapter describes methods for the detection of and its neurotoxins. Nonproteolytic has been identified as the principal safety hazard in minimally heated refrigerated foods, and it is essential that research continues to underpin the safe development of these novel foods. A more recent concern is the deliberate introduction of or its neurotoxin into the food chain through a bioterrorism act.

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3

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Tables

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Table 1.

The six physiologically and phylogenetically distinct clostridia that form the botulinum neurotoxin

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
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Table 2.

Recorded food-borne botulism in different countries

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Examples of recent incidents of food-borne botulism in which the neurotoxigenic clostridia and/or neurotoxin have not been reported

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Examples of recent incidents of food-borne botulism involving proteolytic

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Examples of recent incidents of food-borne botulism involving nonproteolytic

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Effect of environmental factors on the growth and survival of proteolytic and nonproteolytic

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 7.

Effect of heat treatment at 85°C/60 min on the inactivation of spores of nonproteolytic recovered on PYGS medium with lysozyme

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 8.

Recommended procedures to ensure the safety of minimally heated refrigerated foods with respect to nonproteolytic

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 9.

Examples of sensitive quantitative immunochemical methods for detection of neurotoxins

Citation: Peck M. 2010. , p 31-52. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch3

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