Chapter 5 : Diarrheagenic

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Diarrheagenic , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap05-2.gif


This chapter presents recent advances in control measures used in food processing, as well as discriminative detection methods for confirmation of these pathogens and trace-back of contaminated food products. Common symptoms associated with human diarrheagenic infections generally include loose, watery stools (diarrhea) and mild to severe abdominal pain and/or cramping. Colonization of host gastrointestinal (GI) tissue is rather methodical, and evasion of host defenses, colonization, replication, and damage to the host are observed with all diarrheagenic infections. The toxins involved in diarrheagenic infections are also unique to each class. While many types of toxins exist, Shiga toxins (also known as Shiga-like toxins or verotoxins) are similar to those produced by . Animal feces are the source of contamination for animal hides, water, soil, and inanimate objects, leading to transfer of contamination to raw food ingredients, processing water, equipment, and workers. Rapid detection methods have become increasingly popular in the food industry for the detection of specific pathogens and toxins. The documentation of smaller and smaller outbreaks is indicative of successful surveillance efforts that include the refinement and standardization of laboratory techniques, improved reporting and sharing of information, and induction of more regional testing facilities which cater to a larger proportion of the national population.

Citation: Beauchamp C, Sofos J. 2010. Diarrheagenic , p 71-94. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Meat and Meat Products
Cytolethal Distending Toxin
Type III Secretion System
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Acuff, G. R. 2005. Chemical decontamination strategies for meat, p. 350–363. In J. N. Sofos, Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
2. Alam, M. J.,, and L. Zurek. 2004. Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with houseflies on a cattle farm. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:75787580.
3. Alexander, E. R.,, J. Boase.,, M. Davis,, L. Kirchner,, C. Osaki,, T. Tanino,, P. Samadpour,, M. Goldoft,, P. Bradley,, B. Hinton,, P. Tighe,, B. Pearson, and, G. R. Flores. 1995. Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to commercially distributed dry-cured salami. JAMA 273:985986.
4. Allos, B. M.,, M. R. Moore,, P. M. Griffin, and, R. V. Tauxe. 2004. Surveillance for sporadic foodborne disease in the 21st century: the FoodNet perspective. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:S115S120.
5. Aragon, V.,, K. L. Chao, and, L. A. Dreyfus. 1997. Effect of cytolethal distending toxin on F-actin assembly and cell division in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Infect. Immun. 65:37743780.
6. Arrit, F. M.,, J. D. Eifert,, M. D. Pierson, and, S. S. Sumner. 2002. Efficacy of antimicrobials against Campylobacter jejuni on chicken breast skin. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 11:358366.
7. Arthur, T. M.,, T. L. Wheeler,, S. D. Shackelford,, J. M. Bosilevac,, X. W. Nou, and, M. Koohmaraie. 2005. Effects of low-dose, low-penetration electron beam irradiation of chilled beef carcass surface cuts on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and meat quality. J. Food Prot. 68:666672.
8. Bacon, R. T.,, and J. N. Sofos. 2003. Characteristics of biological hazards in foods, p. 157–195. In R. H. Schmidt, and G. E. Rodrick, Food Safety Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
9. Bacon, R. T.,, J. R. Ransom,, J. N. Sofos,, P. A. Kendall,, K. E. Belk, and, G. C. Smith. 2003. Thermal inactivation of susceptible and multiantimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains grown in the absence or presence of glucose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:41234128.
10. Barham, A. R.,, B. L. Barham,, A. K. Johnson,, D. M. Allen,, J. R. Blanton, and, M. F. Miller. 2002. Effects of the transportation of beef cattle form feedyard to the packing plant on prevalence levels of Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella spp. J. Food Prot. 65:280283.
11. Bari, M. L.,, M. I. Al–Haq,, T. Kawasaki,, M. Nakauma,, S. Todoriki,, S. Kawamoto, and, K. Isshiki. 2004. Irradiation to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on ready-to-eat radish and mung bean sprouts. J. Food Prot. 67:22632268.
12. Barkocy-Gallagher, G. A.,, T. M. Arthur,, M. Rivera–Betancourt,, X. W. Nou,, S. D. Shackelford,, T. L. Wheeler, and, M. Koohmaraie. 2003. Seasonal prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, including O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes, and Salmonella in commercial beef processing plants. J. Food Prot. 66:19781986.
13. Bauer, M. E.,, and R. A. Welch. 1996. Characterization of an RTX toxin from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Infect. Immun. 64:167175.
14. Beatty, M. E.,, C. A. Bopp,, J. G. Wells,, K. D. Greene,, N. D. Puhr, and, E. D. Mintx. 2004. Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O169:H41, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:518521.
15. Begue, R. E.,, D. I. Mehta, and, U. Bleckler. 1998. Escherichia coli and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. South. Med. J. 91:798804.
16. Bell, B. P.,, M. Goldoft,, P. M. Griffin,, M. A. Davis,, D. C. Gordon,, P. I. Tarr,, C. A. Bartleson,, J. H. Lewis,, T. J. Barrett,, J. G. Wells,, R. Baron, and, J. Kobayashi. 1994. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome from hamburgers—the Washington experience. JAMA 272:13491353.
17. Bell, R. G. 1997. Distribution and sources of microbial contamination on beef carcasses. J. Appl. Microbiol. 82:292300.
18. Bellini, E. M.,, W. P. Elias,, T. A. T. Gomes,, T. L. Tanaka,, C. R. Taddei,, R. Huerta,, F. Navarro-Garcia, and, M. B. Martinez. 2005. Antibody response against plasmid–encoded toxin (Pet) and the protein involved in intestinal colonization (Pic) in children with diarrhea produced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 43:259264.
19. Belongia, E. A.,, P.-H. Chyou,, R. T. Greenlee,, G. Perez-Perez,, W. F. Bibb, and, E. O. DeVries. 2003. Diarrhea incidence and farm-related risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni antibodies among rural children. J. Infect. Dis. 187:14601468.
20. Berger, S. A.,, N. A. Young, and, S. C. Edberg. 1989. Relationship between infectious diseases and human blood type. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 8:681689.
21. Bergwerff, A. A.,, and F. van Knapen. 2006. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors for detection of pathogenic microorganisms: strategies to secure food and environmental safety. J. AOAC Int. 89:826831.
22. Berin, M. C.,, A. Darfeuille-Michaud,, L. J. Egan,, Y. Miyamoto, and, M. F. Kagnoff. 2002. Role of EHEC O157:H7 virulence factors in the activation of intestinal epithelial cell NF-β and MAP kinase pathways and the upregulated expression of inter-leukin 8. Cell. Microbiol. 4:635647.
23. Besser, R. E.,, P M. Griffin, and, L. Slutsker. 1999. Escherichia coli O157:H7 gastroenteritis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome: an emerging infectious disease. Annu. Rev. Med. 50:355367.
24. Besser, R. E.,, S. M. Lett,, J. T. Weber,, M. P. Doyle,, T. J. Barrett,, J. G. Wells, and, P. M. Griffin. 1993. An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-pressed apple cider. JAMA 269:22172220.
25. Beuchat, L. R. 1998. Surface decontamination of fruits and vegetables eaten raw: a review. WHO/FSF/FOS/98.2. World Health Organization, Food Safety Unit.
26. Beuchat, L. R.,, and J. H. Ryu. 1997. Produce handling and processing practices. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:459465.
27. Beutin, L.,, M. A. Montenegro,, I. Orskov,, F. Orskov,, J. Prada,, S. Zimmermann, and, R. Stephan. 1989. Close association of verotoxin Shiga-like toxin production with enterohemolysin production in strains of Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:25592564.
28. Beutin, L.,, S. Aleksic,, S. Zimmermann, and, K. Gleier. 1994. Virulence factors and phenotypical traits of verotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from human patients in Germany. Med. Microbiol. Immun. 183:1321.
29. Bielaszewska, M.,, and H. Karch. 2000. Non–O157 Shiga toxin verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains: epidemiological significance and microbiological diagnosis. World J. Microbiol. Biotech. 16:711718.
30. Bielaszewska, M.,, J. Janda,, K. Blahova,, H. Minarikova,, E. Jikova,, M. A. Karmali,, J. Laubova,, J. Sikulova,, M. A. Preston,, R. Khakhria,, H. Karch,, H. Klazarova, and, O. Nyc. 1997. Human Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with the consumption of unpasteurized goat’s milk. Epidemiol. Infect. 119:299305.
31. Bilge, S. S.,, C. R. Clausen,, W. Lau, and, S. L. Moseley. 1989. Molecular characterization of a fimbrial adhesin, F1845, mediating diffuse adherence of diarrhea–associated Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. J. Bacteriol. 171:42814289.
32. Bilge, S. S.,, J. M. Apostol, Jr.,, K. J. Fullner, and, S. L. Moseley. 1993. Transcriptional organization of the F1845 fimbrial adhesin determinant of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 7:9931006.
33. Blanco, J. E.,, M. Blanco,, M. P. Alonso,, A. Mora,, G. Dahbi,, M. A. Coira, and, J. Blanco. 2004. Serotypes, virulence genes, and intimin types of Shiga toxin verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from human patients: prevalence in Lugo, Spain, from 1992 through 1999. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:311319.
34. Blanco, J.,, M. Blanco,, M. P. Alonso,, J. E. Blanco,, E. A. González, and, J. I. Garabal. 1992. Characteristics of haemolytic Escherichia coli with particular reference to production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1). Res. Microbiol. 143:869878.
35. Blaser, M. J.,, J. Cravens,, B. W. Powers,, F. M. Laforce, and, W. L. L. Wang. 1979. Campylobacter enteritis associated with unpasteurized milk. Am. J. Med. 67:715718.
36. Blattner, F. R.,, F. Plunkett III,, C. A. Bloch,, N. T. Perna,, V. Burland,, M. Riley,, J. Collado-Vides,, J. D. Glasner,, C. K. Rode,, G. F. Mayhew,, J. Gregor,, N. W. Davis,, H. A. Kirkpatrick,, M. A. Goeden,, D. J. Rose,, B. Mau, and, Y. Shao. 1997. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 227:14531462.
37. Boerlin, P.,, S. A. McEwen,, F. Boerlin-Petzold,, J. B. Wilson,, R. P. Johnson, and, C. L. Gyles. 1999. Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:497503.
38. Borczyk, A. A.,, N. Harnett,, M. Lombos, and, H. Lior. 1990. False positive identification of Escherichia coli O157 by commercial latex agglutination tests. Lancet 336:946947.
39. Boyce, T. G.,, A. G. Pemberton,, J. G. Wells, and, P. M. Griffin. 1995. Screening for Escherichia coli O157:H7–a nationwide survey of clinical laboratories. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:32753277.
40. Brashears, M.,, G. Loneragan, and, S. Younts–Dahl. 2005. Controlling microbial contamination on the farm: an overview, p. 156–174. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL.
41. Bricher, J. L. 2003. Technology round-up: innovations in microbial interventions. Food Saf. Mag. 11:2933.
42. Brigati, J. R.,, S. A. Ripp,, C. M. Johnson,, P. A. Iakova,, P. Jegier, and, G. S. Sayler. 2007. Bacteriophage-based bioluminescent bioreporter for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 70:13861392.
43. Brooks, J. T.,, S. Y. Rowe,, P. Shillam,, D. M. Heltzel,, S. B. Hunter,, L. Slutsker,, R. M. Hoekstra, and, S. P. Luby. 2001. Salmonella Typhimurium infections transmitted by chlorine–pretreated clover sprout seeds. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154:10201028.
44. Brunder, W.,, H. Schmidt, and, H. Karch. 1996. KatP, a novel catalase-peroxidase encoded by the large plasmid of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Microbiology 142:33053315.
45. Buchanan, R. L.,, and M. P. Doyle. 1997. Foodborne disease significance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Food Technol. 51:6976.
46. Buchanan, R. L.,, and S. G. Edelson. 1999. Effect of pH–dependent, stationary phase acid resistance on the thermal tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Food Microbiol. 16:447458.
47. Callaway, T. R.,, R. C. Anderson,, T. S. Edrington,, K. J. Genovese,, T. L. Poole,, R. B. Harvey,, D. J. Nisbet, and, K. D. Dunkley. 2005. Probiotics, vaccines, and other interventions for pathogen control in animals, p. 192–213. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
48. Callaway, T. R.,, R. C. Anderson,, T. S. Edrington,, K. J. Genovese,, K. M. Bischoff,, T. L. Poole,, Y. S. Jung,, R. B. Harvey, and, D. J. Nisbet. 2004. What are we doing about Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle? J. Anim. Sci. 82:9399.
49. CDC. 1995a. Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to commercially distributed dry-cured salami—Washington and California, 1994. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:157159.
50. CDC. 1995b. Community outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome attributable to Escherichia coli O111:NM—South Australia, 1995. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:550551.
51. CDC. 1996. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection: Georgia and Tennessee, June 1995. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 45:249251.
52. CDC. 1997. Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider—Connecticut and New York, October 1996. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:48.
53. CDC. 2000. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with eating fresh cheese curds. MMWR Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:911913.
54. CDC. 2001a. Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections among children associated with farm visits—Pennsylvania and Washington, 2000. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50:293297.
55. CDC. 2001b. Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection associated with eating alfalfa sprouts—Michigan and Virginia. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:741744.
56. CDC. 2002, Multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with ground beef—United States, June–July, 2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:637639.
57. CDC. 2006. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks— United States, 1998–2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55:134.
58. CDC. 2007. Laboratory-confirmed non-O157 Shiga toxin— producing Escherichia coli—Connecticut, 2000–2005. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56:2931.
59. Chapman, P. A.,, C. A. Siddon,, P. M. Zadik, and, L. Jewes. 1991. An improved selection medium for the isolation of Escherichia coli O157. J. Med. Microbiol. 35:107110.
60. Childs, K. D.,, C. A. Simpson,, W. Warren–Serna,, G. Bellenger,, B. Centrella,, R. A. Bowling,, J. Ruby,, J. Stefanek,, D. J. Vote,, T. Choat,, J. A. Scanga,, J. N. Sofos,, G. C. Smith, and, K. E. Belk. 2006. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 hide contamination routes: feedlot to harvest. J. Food Prot. 69:12401247.
61. Cieslak, P. R.,, S. J. Noble,, D. J. Maxson,, L. C. Empey,, O. Ravenholt,, G. Legarza,, J. Tuttle,, M. P. Doyle,, T. J. Barrett,, J. G. Wells,, A. M. McNamara, and, P. M. Griffin. 1997. Hamburger-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Las Vegas: a hidden epidemic. Am. J. Public Health 87:176180.
62. Code of Federal Regulations. 2001. Title 9, chapter III, Food Safety and Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture, parts 300–592. Document 9CFR300–592. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
63. Code of Federal Regulations. 2002. Title 21, chapter I, Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, parts 1–1299. Document 21CFR1–1299. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
64. Collinson, S. K.,, L. Emody,, T. J. Trust, and, W. W. Kay. 1992. Thin aggregative fimbriae from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 174:44904495.
65. Cookson, S. T.,, and J. P. Nataro. 1996. Characterization of HEp-2 cell projection formation induced by diffusely adherent Escherichia coli. Microb. Pathog. 21:421434.
66. Cords, B. R.,, S. L. Burnett,, J. Hilgren,, M. Finley, and, J. Magnuson. 2005. Sanitizers: halogens, surface-active agents, and peroxides, p. 507–572. In P. M. Davidson,, J. N. Sofos,, and A. L. Branen (ed.), Antimicrobials in Food, 3rd ed. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
67. Cutter, C. N.,, W. J. Dorsa, and, G. R. Siragusa. 1997. Parameters affecting the efficacy of spray washes against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and fecal contamination on beef. J. Food Prot. 60:614618.
68. Dallas, W. S.,, and S. Falkow. 1980. Amino acid sequence homology between cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat–labile toxin. Nature 288:499501.
69. Davidson, P. M.,, and M. A. Harrison. 2002. Resistance and adaptation to food antimicrobials, sanitizers, and other process controls. Food Tech. 56:6978.
70. Davis, M. A.,, D. D. Hancock,, T. E. Besser, and, D. R. Call. 2003. Evaluation of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as a tool for determining the degree of genetic relatedness between strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:18431849.
71. Dean-Nystrom, E. A.,, A. R. Melton-Celsa,, J. F. L. Pohlanz,, H. W. Moon, and, A. D. O’Brien. 2003. Comparative pathogenicity of Escherichia coli O157 and intimin-negative non-O157 shiga toxin–producing E. coli strains in neonatal pigs. Infect. Immun. 71:65266533.
72. DeVinney, R.,, M. Stein,, D. Reinscheid,, A. Abe,, S. Ruschkowski, and, B. B. Finlay. 1999. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 produces Tir, which is translocated to the host cell membrane but is not tyrosine phosphorylated. Infect. Immun. 67:23892398.
73. DeVinney, R.,, J. L. Puente,, A. Gauthier,, D. Goosney, and, B. B. Finlay. 2001. Enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli use a different Tir-based mechanism for pedestal formation. Mol. Microbiol. 41:14451458.
74. Diez-Gonzalez, F. 2005. The use of diet to control pathogens in animals, p. 175–191. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
75. Doyle M.,, and V. Padhye. 1989. Escherichia coli, p. 236–282. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY.
76. Doyle, M. P.,, and D. J. Roman. 1982. Prevalence and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in unpasteurized milk. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:11541158.
77. Duffy, L. L.,, F. H. Grau, and, P. B. Vanderlinde. 2000. Acid resistance of enterohaemorrhagic and generic Escherichia coli associated with foodborne disease and meat. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 60:8389.
78. Elliott, S. J.,, L. A. Wainwright,, T. K. McDaniel,, K. G. Jarvis,, Y. Deng,, L. Lai,, B. P. McNamara,, M. S. Donnenberg, and, J. B. Kaper. 1998. The complete sequence of the locus of enterocyte effacement LEE from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69. Mol. Microbiol. 28:14.
79. Elliott, S. J.,, S. W. Hutcheson,, M. S. Dubois,, J. L. Mellies,, L. A. Wainwright,, M. Batchelor,, G. Frankel,, S. Knutton, and, J. B. Kaper. 1999. Identification of CesT, a chaperone for the type III secretion of Tir in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 33:11761189.
80. Entis, P.,, D. Y. C. Fung,, M. W. Griffiths,, L. McIntre,, S. Russell, and, A. N. Sharpe. 2001. Rapid methods for detection, identification, and enumeration, p. 89–126. In F. Pouch, and K. Ito (ed.), Compendium of Methods for the Microbial Examination of Foods, 4th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
81. Falkow, S. 1996. The evolution of pathogenicity in Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p. 2723–2769. In F. C. Neidhardt (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology. Washington, DC.
82. Farber, J. M. 1996. An introduction to the hows and whys of molecular typing. J. Food Prot. 59:10911101.
83. Foley, D.,, M. Euper,, F. Caporaso, and, A. Prakash. 2004. Irradiation and chlorination effectively reduces Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) without negatively affecting quality. J. Food Prot. 67:20922098.
84. Frankel, G.,, A. D. Phillips,, I. Rosenshine,, G. Dougan,, J. B. Kaper, and, S. Knutton. 1998. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: more subversive elements. Mol. Microbiol. 30:911921.
85. Fratamico, P. N.,, L. K. Bagi, and, T. Pepe. 2000. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in foods and bovine feces. J. Food Prot. 63:10321037.
86. Fratamico, P. M.,, A. Gehring,, J. Karns, and, J. van Kessel. 2005. Detecting pathogens in cattle and meat, p. 24–55. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
87. Friedrich, A. W.,, M. Bielaszewska,, W. L. Zhang,, M. Pulz,, T. Kuczius,, A. Ammon, and, H. Karch. 2002. Escherichia coli harboring Shiga toxin 2 gene variants: frequency and association with clinical symptoms. J. Infect. Dis. 185:7484.
88. Friedrich, A. W.,, S. Lu,, M. Bielaszewska,, R. Prager,, P. Bruns,, J-G. Xu,, H, Tschäpe, and, H. Karch. 2006. Cytolethal distending toxin in Escherichia coli O157:H7: spectrum of conservation, structure, and endothelial toxicity. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:18441846.
89. FSIS. 1993. FSIS correlation packet, interim guidelines for inspectors. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
90. FSIS. 1996. Pathogen reduction; hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems; final rule. 9 CFR Part 304. Fed. Regist. 61:3880538989.
91. FSIS. 1999. Rules and regulations: sanitation requirements for official meat and poultry establishments. Fed. Regist. 64:5640056418.
92. FSIS. 2005. Federal Register notice: HACCP plan reassessment for mechanically tenderized beef products. Fed. Regist. 70:3033130334.
93. Gannon, V. P. J.,, S. Dsouza,, T. Graham, and, R. K. King. 1997. Specific identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using a multiplex PCR assay, p. 81–82. In Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Enteric Diseases, vol. 412. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
94. Garcia, M. I.,, P. Gounon,, P. Courcoux,, A. Labigne, and, C. Le Bouguenec. 1996. The afimbrial adhesive sheath encoded by the afa-3 gene cluster of pathogenic Escherichia coli is composed on two adhesins. Mol. Microbiol. 19:683693.
95. Garcia, M. I.,, M. Jouve,, J. P. Nataro,, P. Gounon, and, C. Le Bouguenec. 2000. Characterization of the AfaD-like family of invasins encoded by pathogenic Escherichia coli associated with intestinal and extra–intestinal infections. FEBS Lett. 479:111117.
96. Gill, C. O. 2005. Sources of microbial contamination at slaughtering plants, p. 231–243. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
97. Girón, J. A.,, A. S. Ho, and, G. K. Schoolnik. 1991. An inducible bundle-forming pilus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Science 254:710713.
98. Glass, K. A.,, J. M. Loeffelholz,, J. P. Ford, and, M. P. Doyle. 1992. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as affected by pH or sodium chloride and in fermented, dry sausage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:25132516.
99. Goldwater, P. N.,, and K. A. Bettelheim. 1995. The role of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotypes other than O157:H7 as causes of disease in Australia. Commun. Dis. Intell. 19:24.
100. Goodridge, L.,, J. R. Chen, and, M. Griffiths. 1999. The use of a fluorescent bacteriophage assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in inoculated ground beef and raw milk. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 47:4350.
101. Greer, G. G.,, and B. D. Dilts. 1990. Inability of a bacteriophage pool to control beef spoilage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 10:331342.
102. Griffin, P. M.,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1991. The epidemiology of infections caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7, other enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and the associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Epidemiol. Rev. 13:6098.
103. Guan, D.,, and D. G. Hoover. 2005. Emerging decontamination techniques for meat, p. 388–417. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, New York, NY.
104. Guion, C. E.,, T. J. Ochoa,, C. M. Walker,, F. Barletta, and, T. G. Cleary. 2008. Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli by use of melting-curve analysis and real-time multiplex PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:17521757.
105. Gunzberg, S. T.,, J. Chang,, S. J. Elliott,, V. Burke, and, M. Gracey. 1993. Diffuse and enteroaggregative patterns of adherence of enteric Escherichia coli isolated from aboriginal children from the Kimberly Region of Western Australia. J. Infect. Dis. 167:755758.
106. Guth, B. E. C.,, S. Ramos,, A. M. F. Cerqueira,, J. R. C. Andrade, and, T. A. T. Gomes. 2002. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from children in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 97:10851089.
107. Hadley, P. J.,, J. S. Holder, and, M. H. Hinton. 1997. Effects of fleece soiling and skinning method on the microbiology of sheep carcasses. Vet. Rec. 140:570574.
108. Hajna, A. A. 1955. A new enrichment broth medium for gram-negative organisms of the intestinal group. Public Health Lab. 13:8389.
109. Hajra, T. K.,, P. K. Bag,, S. C. Das,, S. Mukherjee,, A. Khan, and, T. Ramamurthy. 2007. Development of a simple latex agglutination assay for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) by using polyclonal antibody against STEC. Clin. Vacc. Immun. 14:600604.
110. Hammes, W. P.,, A. Bantleon, and, S. Min. 1990. Lactic acid bacteria in meat fermentation. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 87:165174.
111. Hao, Y. Y.,, and R. E. Brackett. 1993. Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in modified atmosphere. J. Food Prot. 56:330332.
112. Hara-Kudo, Y.,, H. Konuma,, M. Iwaki,, F. Kasuga,, Y. Sugita–Konishi,, Y. Itoh, and, S. Kumagai. 1997. Potential hazard of radish sprouts as a vehicle of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 60:11251127.
113. Hardin, M. D.,, G. R. Acuff,, L. M. Lucia,, J. S. Oman, and, J. W. Savell. 1995. Comparison of methods for decontamination of beef carcass surfaces. J. Food Prot. 58:368374.
114. Hartland, E. L.,, M. Batchelor,, R. M. Delahay,, C. Hale,, S. Matthews,, G. Dougan,, S. Knutton,, I. Connerton, and, G. Frankel. 1999. Binding of intimin from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to Tir and to host cells. Mol. Microbiol. 32:151158.
115. Hedberg, C. W.,, S. J. Savarino,, J. M. Besser,, C. J. Paulus,, V. M. Thelen,, L. J. Myers,, D. N. Cameron,, T. J. Barrett,, J. B. Kaper,, M. T. Osterholm,, W. Boyer,, F. Kairis,, L. Gabriel,, J. Soler,, L. Gyswyt,, S. Bray,, R. Carlson,, C. Hooker,, A. Fasano,, K. Jarvis,, T. McDaniel, and, N. Tornieporth. 1997. An outbreak of foodborne illness caused by Escherichia coli O39:NM, an agent not fitting into the existing scheme for classifying diarrheogenic E. coli. J. Infect. Dis. 176:16251628.
116. Hepburn, N. F.,, M. MacRae, and, L. D. Ogden. 2002. Survival of Escherichia coli O157 in abattior waste products. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 35:223236.
117. Hicks, S.,, D. C. A. Candy, and, A. D. Phillips. 1996. Adhesion of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to pediatric intestinal mucosa in vitro. Infect. Immun. 64:47514760.
118. Hiett, K. L. 2005. Molecular typing methods for tracking pathogens, p. 591–605. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
119. Higuchi, R.,, G. Dollinger,, P. S. Walsh, and, R. Griffith. 1992. Simultaneous amplification and detection of specific DNA sequences. BioTechniques 10:413417.
120. Higuchi, R.,, C. Fockler,, G. Dollinger, and, R. Watson. 1993. Kinetic PCR analysis—real-time monitoring of DNA amplification reactions. BioTechniques 11:10261030.
121. Hiramatsu, R.,, M. Matsumoto,, Y. Miwa,, Y. Suzuki,, M. Saito, and, Y. Miyazaki. 2002. Characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains and establishment of selective isolation media for these strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:922925.
122. Huang, S. W.,, C. H. Chang,, T. F. Tai, and, T. C. Chang. 1997. Comparison of the beta-glucuronidase assay and the conventional method for identification of Escherichia coli on eosin–methylene blue agar. J. Food Prot. 60:69.
123. Hussein, H. S.,, and L. M. Bollinger. 2005. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle. J. Food Prot. 68:22242241.
124. Hussein, H. S.,, L. M. Bollinger, and, M. K. Hall. 2008. Growth and enrichment medium for detection and isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle feces. J. Food Prot. 71:927933.
125. ICMSF. 1980. Microbial Ecology of Foods, vol. 1. Factors Affecting Life and Death of Microorganisms. Academic Press, New York, NY.
126. ICMSF. 1996. Microorganisms in Foods, vol. 5. Characteristics of Microbial Pathogens. Blackie Academic & Professional, New York, NY.
127. Irino, K.,, T. M. I. Vaz,, M. I. C. Medeiros,, M. Kato,, T. A. T. Gomes,, M. A. M. Vieira, and, B. E. C. Guth. 2007. Serotype diversity as a drawback in the surveillance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in Brazil. J. Med. Microbiol. 56:565567.
128. Isberg, R. R.,, D. L. Voorhis, and, S. Falkow. 1987. Identification of invasion: a protein that allows enteric bacteria to penetrate cultured mammalian cells. Cell 50:769776.
129. Jay, J. M. 1982. Antimicrobial properties of diacetyl. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:525532.
130. Johnson, J. R.,, E. Oswald,, T. T. O’Bryan,, M. A. Kuskowski, and, L. Spanjaard. 2002. Phylogenetic distribution of virulence–associated genes among Escherichia coli isolates associated with neonatal bacterial meningitis in The Netherlands. J. Infect. Dis. 185:774784.
131. Kamat, A. S.,, S. Khare,, T. Doctor, and, P. M. Nair. 1997. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in raw pork and pork products by gamma-irradiation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 36:6976.
132. Kang, D.-H.,, and D. Y. C. Fung. 1999. Effect of diacetyl on controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in the presence of starter culture in a laboratory medium and during meat fermentation. J. Food Prot. 62:975979.
133. Kaper, J. B.,, J. P. Nataro, and, H. L. T. Mobley. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:123140.
134. Karch, H.,, C. Janetzki-Mittmann,, S. Aleksic, and, M. Datz. 1996. Isolation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 strains from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome by using immunomagnetic separation, DNA-based methods, and direct culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:516-519.
135. Karmali, M. A. 1989. Infection by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2:1538.
136. Keen, J. E.,, T. E. Wittum,, J. R. Dunn,, J. L. Bono, and, M. E. Fontenot. 2003. Occurrence of STEC O157, O111, and O26 in livestock at agricultural fairs in the United States, p. 22. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection. Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
137. Keene, W. E.,, J. M. McAnulty,, F. C. Hoesley,, L. P. Williams,, K. Hedberg,, G. L. Oxman,, T. J. Barrett,, M. A. Pfaller, and, D. W. Fleming. 1994. A swimming-associated outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella sonnei. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:579584.
138. Keene, W. E.,, K. Hedberg,, D. E. Herriott,, D. D. Hancock,, R. W. McKay,, T. J. Barrett, and, D. W. Fleming. 1997. Prolonged outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections caused by commercially distributed raw milk. J. Infect. Dis. 176:815818.
139. Kenny, B.,, R. DeVinney,, M. Stein,, D. J.,, Reinscheid, E., A. Frey, and, B. B. Finlay. 1997. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) transfers its receptors for intimate adherence into mammalian cells. Cell 28:511520.
140. Killalea, D.,, L. R. Ward,, D. Roberts,, J. deLouvois,, F. Sufi,, J. M. Stuart,, P. G. Wall,, M. Susman,, M. Schwieger,, P. J. Sanderson,, I. S. T. Fisher,, P. S. Mead,, O. N. Gill,, C. L. R. Bartlett, and, B. Rowe. 1996. International epidemiological and microbiological study of outbreak of Salmonella agona infection from a ready to eat savoury snack—England and Wales and the United States. Brit. Med. J. 313:11051107.
141. Knutton, S.,, I. Rosenshine,, M. J. Pallen,, I. Nisan,, B. C. Neves,, C. Bain,, C. Wolff,, G. Dougan, and, G. Frankel. 1998. A novel EspA–associated surface organelle of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli involved in protein translocation into epithelial cells. EMBO J. 17:21662176.
142. König, B.,, A. Ludwig, and, W. König. 1994. Pore formation by the Escherichia coli α–hemolysin: role for mediator releases from human inflammatory cells. Infect. Immun. 62:46114617.
143. Koutsoumanis, K.,, and P. S. Taoukis. 2005. Meat safety, refrigerated transport and storage: modeling and management, p. 503–561. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
144. Kuby, J. 1997. Overview of the immune system, p. 3–24. In D. Allen (ed.), Immunology, 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, NY.
145. Kudva, I. T.,, P. G. Hatfield, and, C. J. Hovde. 1996. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in microbial flora of sheep. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:431433.
146. Lacroix, M.,, F. Chiasson,, J. Borsa, and, B. Ouattara. 2004. Radio sensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of active compounds. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 71:6568.
147. Lahti, E.,, T. Johansson,, T. Honkanen–Buzalski,, P. Hill, and, E. Nurmi. 2001. Survival and detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes during the manufacture of dry sausage using two different starter cultures. Food Microbiol. 18:7585.
148. Lazcka, O.,, F. J. del Campo, and, F. X. Munoz. 2007. Pathogen detection: a perspective of traditional methods and biosensors. Biosens. Bioelectron. 22:12051217.
149. Lee, S. Y.,, M. Costello, and, D. H. Kang. 2004. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves. J. Food Prot. 67:13711376.
150. Leistner, L.,, and G. W. Gould. 2002. Multiple Hurdle Technologies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, NY.
151. LeJeune, J. T.,, T. E. Besser,, D. H. Rice,, J. L. Berg,, R. P. Stilborn, and, D. D. Hancock. 2004. Longitudinal study of fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle: predominance and persistence of specific clonal types despite massive cattle population turnover. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:377384.
152. Levine, M. M.,, C. Ferreccio,, V. Prado,, M. Cayazzo,, P. Abrego,, J. Martinez,, L. Maggi,, M. M. Baldini,, W. Martin,, D. Maneval,, B. Kay,, L. Guers,, H. Lior,, S. S. Wasserman, and, J. P. Nataro. 1993. Epidemiologic studies of Escherichia coli diarrheal infections in a low socioeconomic level peri-urban community in Santiago, Chile. Am. J. Epidemiol. 138:849869.
153. Lewis, S. J.,, A. Velasquez,, S. L. Cuppett, and, S. R. McKee. 2002. Effect of electron beam irradiation on poultry meat safety and quality. Poult. Sci. 81:896903.
154. Lillard, H. S. 1980. Effect on broiler carcasses and water of treating chiller water with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Poult. Sci. 59:17611766.
155. Lingwood, C. A. 1994. Verotoxin-binding in human renal sections. Nephron 66:2128.
156. Livak, K. J.,, S. J. A. Flood,, J. Marmaro,, W. Giusti, and, K. Deetz. 1995. Oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes at opposite ends provide a quenched probe system useful for detecting PCR product and nucleic-acid hybridization. PCR Methods Appl. 4:357362.
157. Loessner, M. J.,, and M. Busse. 1990. Bacteriophage-typing of Listeria species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:19121918.
158. Lopez, E. L.,, M. M. Contrini, and, M. F. de Rosa. 1998. Epidemiology of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in South America, p. 15–22. In J. B. Kaper, and A. D. O’Brien (ed.), Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Other Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli Strains. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
159. Louise, C. B.,, and T. G. Obrig. 1995. Specific interaction of Escherichia coli O157:H7-derived Shiga-like toxin II with human renal endothelial cells. J. Infect. Dis. 172:13971401.
160. MacDonald D. M.,, M. Fyfe,, A. Paccagnella,, A. Trinidad,, K. Louie, and, D. Patrick. 2004. Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak linked to salami, British Columbia, Canada, 1999. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:283289.
161. March, S. B.,, and S. Ratnam. 1986. Sorbitol MacConkey medium for detection of Escherichia coli O157–H7 associated with hemorrhagic colitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:869872.
162. Marques, L. R. M.,, A. T. Tavechio,, C. M. Abe, and, T. A. T. Gomes. 2003. Search for cytolethal distending toxin production among fecal Escherichia coli isolates from Brazilian children with diarrhea and without diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:22062208.
163. McCrae, K. R.,, and D. Cines. 2000. Throbocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome, p. 2126–2138. In R. Hoffman,, E. J. Benz, Jr.,, S. J. Shattil,, H. J. Cohen,, L. E. Silberstein,, and P. McGlave (ed.), Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice, 3rd ed. Churchill Livingston, Philadelphia, PA.
164. McGrath, S.,, G. F. Fitzgerald, and, D. van Sinderen. 2002. Identification and characterization of phage-resistance genes in temperate lactococcal bacteriophages. Mol. Microbiol. 43:509520.
165. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, and C. Shapiro. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
166. Meng J.,, M. P. Doyle,, T. Zhao, and, S. Zhao. 2001a. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, p. 193–213. In M. P. Doyle,, L. R. Beuchat,, and T. J. Montville, Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
167. Meng, J.,, P. Feng, and, M. P. Doyle. 2001b. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, p. 331–342. In C. Vanderzant, and D. Splittstoesser (ed.), Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 4th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
168. Meyer, M. T.,, and R. H. Vaughn. 1969. Incidence of Escherichia coli in black walnut meats. Appl. Microbiol. 18:925931.
169. Michel, P.,, J. B. Wilson,, S. W. Martin,, R. C. Clark,, S. A. McEwen, and, C. L. Gyles. 1999. Temporal and geographical distributions of reported cases of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Ontario. Epidemiol. Infect. 122:193200.
170. Michino, H.,, K. Araki,, S. Minami,, S. Takaya,, N. Sakai,, M. Miyazaki,, A. Ono, and, H. Yanagawa. 1999. Massive outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in schoolchildren in Sakai City, Japan, associated with consumption of white radish sprouts. Am. J. Epidemiol. 150:787796.
171. Millard, P. S.,, K. F. Gensheimer,, D. G. Addiss,, D. M. Sosin,, G. A. Beckett,, A. Houckjankoski, and, A. Hudson. 1994. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis from fresh-pressed apple cider. JAMA 272:15921596.
172. Moon, H. W.,, S. C. Whipp,, R. A. Argenzio,, M. M. Levine, and, R. A. Giannella. 1983. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines. Infect. Immun. 41:13401351.
173. Morgan, D.,, C. P. Newman,, D. N. Hutchinson,, A. M. Walker,, B. Rowe, and, F. Majid. 1993. Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 infections associated with the consumption of yoghurt. Epidemiol. Infect. 111:181187.
174. Moss, S.,, and A. J. Frost. 1984. The resistance to chemotherapeutic agents of Escherichia coli from domestic dogs and cats. Aust. Vet. J. 61:8284.
175. Moyo, S. J.,, S. Y. Maselle,, M. I. Matee,, N. Langeland, and, H. Mylvaganam. 2007. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from infants and children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Infect. Dis. 7:92.
176. Mulvey, M. R.,, E. Bryce,, D. A. Boyd,, M. Ofner-Agostini,, A. M. Land,, A. E. Simor, and, S. Paton. 2005. Molecular characterization of cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli from Canadian hospitals. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:358365.
177. Murano, P. S.,, E. A. Murano, and, D. G. Olson. 1998. Irradiated ground beef: sensory and quality changes during storage under various packaging conditions. J. Food Sci. 63:548551.
178. NACMCF. 2006. Requisite scientific parameters for establishing the equivalence for alternative methods of pasteurization. J. Food Prot. 69:11901216.
179. Naim, F.,, S. Messier,, L. Saucier, and, G. Piette. 2004. Postprocessing in vitro digestion challenge to evaluate survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fermented dry sausages. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:66376642.
180. Naimi, T. S.,, J. H. Wicklund,, S. J. Olsen,, G. Krause,, J. G. Wells,, J. M. Bartkus,, D. J. Boxrud,, M. Sullivan,, H. Kassenborg,, J. M. Besser,, E. D. Mintz,, M. T. Osterholm, and, C. W. Hedberg. 2003. Concurrent outbreaks of Shigella sonnei and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections associated with parsley: Implications for surveillance and control of foodborne illness. J. Food Prot. 66:535541.
181. Nakamura, H.,, and I. Karube. 2003. Current research activity in biosensors. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377:446468.
182. Nataro, J. P.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol Rev. 11:142201.
183. Nataro, J. P.,, D. Yikang,, D. Yingkang, and, K. Walker. 1994. Aggr, a transcriptional activator of aggregative adherence fimbria I expression in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 176:46914699.
184. Nguyen, T. V.,, P. L. Van,, C. L Huy,, K. N. Gia, and, A. Weintraub. 2005. Detection and characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from young children in Hanoi, Vietnam. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:755760.
185. Nguyen, T. V.,, P. Le Van,, C. Le Huy, and, A. Weintraub. 2004. Diarrhea caused by rotavirus in children less than 5 years of age in Hanoi, Vietnam. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:57455750.
186. NIIDIDCD/MHWJ. 1997. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection, Japan, 1996–June 1997. Infect. Agents Surveill. Rep. 18:153154.
187. Nychas, G. -J. E.,, D. L. Marshall, and, J. N. Sofos. 2007. Meat, poultry and seafood spoilage, p. 105–140. In M. P. Doyle and, L. R. Beuchat, Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
188. O’Brien, A. D.,, and R. K. Holmes. 1987. Shiga and Shiga-like toxins. Microbiol. Rev. 51:206220.
189. O’Brien, A. D.,, and R. K. Holmes. 1996. Protein toxins of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, p. 2788–2802. In F. C. Neidhardt (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
190. Obrig, T. G.,, P. J. Del Vecchio,, J. E. Brown,, T. P. Moran,, B. M. Rowland,, T. K. Judge, and, S. W. Rothman. 1988. Direct action of cytotoxic Shiga toxin on human vascular endothelial cells. Infect. Immun. 56:23732378.
191. Oda, M.,, M. Morita,, H. Unno, and, Y. Tanji. 2004. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using green fluorescent protein-labeled PP01 bacteriophage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:527534.
192. Okeke, I. N.,, and J. P. Nataro. 2001. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Lancet i:304313.
193. Okrend, A. J. G.,, B. E. Rose, and, C. P. Lattuada. 1992. Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using O157 specific antibody coated magnetic beads. J. Food Prot. 55:214217.
194. Paton, A. W.,, J. C. Paton,, P. N. Goldwater, and, P. A. Manning. 1993. Direct detection of Escherichia coli Shiga-like toxin genes in primary fecal cultures by polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:30633067.
195. Phillips, C. A. 1996. Modified atmosphere packaging and its effects on the microbiological quality and safety of produce. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 31:463479.
196. Pordesimo, L. O.,, E. G. Wilkerson,, A. R. Womac, and, C. N. Cutter. 2002. Process engineering variables in the spray washing of meat and produce. J. Food Prot. 65:222237.
197. Possé, B.,, L. De Zutter,, M. Heyndrickx, and, L. Herman. 2008. Novel differential and confirmation plating media for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes O26, O103, O111, O145 and sorbitol-positive and -negative O157. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 282:124131.
198. Potter, M. E.,, A. F. Kaufmann,, P. A. Blake, and, R. A. Feldman. 1984. Unpasteurized milk—the hazards of a health fetish. JAMA 252:20482052.
199. Quinto, E. J.,, and A. Cepeda. 1997. Incidence of toxigenic Escherichia coli in soft cheese made with raw or pasteurized milk. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24:291295.
200. Radke, S.,, and E. Alocilja. 2003. Impedimetric biosensor for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, abstr. 037060. 2003 Ann. Int. Meet. Soc. Eng. Agric. Food Biol. Sys. Las Vegas, NV, 27 to 30 July 2003.
201. Rangel, J. M.,, P. H. Sparling,, C. Crowe,, P. M. Griffin, and, D. L. Swerdlow. 2005. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982–2002. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:603609.
202. Rice, D. H.,, D. D. Hancock, and, T. E. Besser. 1995. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 colonization of wild deer and range cattle. Vet. Rec. 137:524.
203. Riley, L. W.,, R. S. Remis,, S. D. Helgerson,, H. B. McGee,, J. B. Wells, and, B. R. Davis. 1983. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli subtype. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:681685.
204. Riordan, D. C.,, G. M. Sapers,, T. R. Hankinson,, M. Magee,, A. M. Mattrazzo, and, B. A. Annous. 2001. A study of U.S. orchards to identify potential sources of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 64:13201327.
205. Robinson, C. M.,, J. F. Sinclair,, M. J. Smith, and, A. D. O’Brien. 2006. Shiga toxin of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli type O157:H7 promotes intestinal colonization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:96679672.
206. Ruan, C.,, H. Wang, and, Y. Li. 2002. A bienzyme electrochemical biosensor coupled with immunomagnetic separation for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O15:H7 in food samples. Trans. ASAE 45:249255.
207. Russell, S. M.,, and S. P. Axtell. 2005. Monochloramine versus sodium hypochlorite as antimicrobial agents for reducing populations of bacteria on broiler chicken carcasses. J. Food Prot. 68:758763.
208. Russo, T. A.,, B. A. Davidson,, S. A. Genagon,, N. M. Warholic,, U. MacDonald,, P. D. Pawlicki,, J. M. Beanan,, R. Olson,, B. A. Holm, and, P. R. Knight III. 2005. E. coli virulence factor hemolysin induces neutrophil apoptosis and necrosis/lysis in vitro and necrosis/lysis and lung injury in a rat pneumonia model. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 289:L207L216.
209. Ryu, J. H.,, and L. R. Beuchat. 1998. Influence of acid tolerance responses on survival, growth, and thermal cross-protection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidified media and fruit juices. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 45:185193.
210. Samadpour, M.,, M. W. Barbour,, T. Nguyen,, T. M. Cao,, F. Buck,, G. A. Depavia,, E. Mazengia,, P. Yang,, D. Alfi,, M. Lopes, and, J. D. Stopforth. 2006. Incidence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in retail fresh ground beef, sprouts, and mushrooms. J. Food Prot. 69:441443.
211. Samelis, J.,, and J. N. Sofos. 2003. Strategies to control stress-adapted pathogens and provide safe food, p. 303–351. In A. E. Yousef, and V. K. Juneja (ed.), Microbial Adaptation to Stress and Safety of New-Generation Foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
212. Sanderson, M. W.,, J. M. Gay,, D. D. Hancock,, C. C. Gay,, L. K. Fox, and, T. E. Besser. 1995. Sensitivity of bacteriological culture for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:26162619.
213. Sandvig, K. 2001. Shiga toxins. Toxicon 39:16291635.
214. Sansonetti, P. J.,, G. T. Van Nhieu, and, C. Egile. 1999. Rupture of the intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal invasion by Shigella flexneri. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:466475.
215. Sapers, G. M.,, R. L. Miller, and, A. M. Mattrazzo. 1999. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli in Golden Delicious apples. J. Food Sci. 64:734737.
216. Savarino, S. J.,, A. McVeigh,, J. Watson,, A. Cravioto,, J. Molina,, P. Echeverria,, M. K. Bhan,, M. M. Levine, and, A. Fasano. 1996. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin is not restricted to enteroaggregative E. coli. J. Infect. Dis. 173:10191022.
217. Scaletsky, I. C. A.,, S. H. Fabbricotti,, R. L. B. Carvalho,, C. R. Nunes,, H. S. Maranhão,, M. B. Marais, and, U. Fagundes-Neto. 2002. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli as a cause of acute diarrhea in young children in northeast Brazil: a case-control study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:645648.
218. Scanga, J. A. 2005. Slaughter and fabrication/boning processes and procedures, p. 259–272. In J. N. Sofos (ed.), Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
219. Schmidt, H.,, and H. Karch. 1996. Enterohemolytic phenotypes and genotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 strains from patients with diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:23642367.
220. Schmidt, H.,, C. Kernbach, and, H. Karch. 1996. Analysis of the EHEC hly operon and its location in the physical map of the large plasmid of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Microbiology 142:907914.
221. Schmidt, H.,, J. Scheef,, H. I. Huppertz,, M. Frosch, and, H. Karch. 1999. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O157:H- strains that do not produce Shiga toxin: phenotype and genetic characteristics of isolates associated with diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:34913496.
222. Simpson, C. A.,, J. R. Ransom,, J. A. Scanga,, K. E. Belk,, J. N. Sofos, and, G. C. Smith. 2006. Changes in microbiological populations on beef carcass surfaces exposed to air- or spray-chilling and characterization of hot box practices. Food Prot. Trends 26:226235.
223. Singleton, P. 2004. Bacteria in Biology, Biotechnology and Medicine, 6th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, United Kingdom.
224. Small, P. L.,, and S. Falkow. 1988. Identification of regions on a 230-kilobase plasmid from enteroinvasive Escherichia coli that are required for entry into HEp-2 cells. Infect. Immun. 56:225229.
225. Smith, J. S.,, and S. Pillai. 2004. Irradiation and food safety. Food Tech. 58:4855.
226. Smith, T. J.,, L. O’Connor,, M. Glennon, and, M. Maher. 2000. Molecular diagnostics in food safety: rapid detection of food-borne pathogens. Irish J. Agr. Food Res. 39:309319.
227. Sofos, J. N. 1994. Antimicrobial agents, p. 501–529. In A. T. Tu, and J. A. Maga (ed.), Handbook of Toxicology: vol. 1., Food Additive Toxicology. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
228. Sofos, J. N. 2004. Pathogens in animal products: sources and control, p. 701–703. In W. Pond, and A. Bell (ed.), Encyclopedia of Animal Science. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
229. Sofos, J. N. 2005. Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
230. Sofos, J. N.,, and G. C. Smith. 1998. Evaluation of various treatments to reduce contamination on carcass tissue, p. 316–317. In Proceedings of the 44th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology. Barcelona, Spain.
231. Sofos, J. N.,, C. A. Simpson,, K. E. Belk,, J. A. Scanga, and, G. C. Smith. 2006. Salmonella interventions for beef. In Proceedings of the 59th Reciprocal Meat Conference. American Meat Science Association, Savoy, IL.
232. Sofos, J. N.,, K. E. Belk, and, G. C. Smith. 1999c. Processes to reduce contamination with pathogenic microorganisms in meat, p. 596–605. In Proceedings of the 45th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology. Yokohama, Japan.
233. Sofos, J. N.,, S. L. Kochevar,, G. R. Bellinger,, D. R. Buege,, D. D. Hancock,, S. C. Ingram,, J. B. Morgan,, J. O. Reagan, and, G. C. Smith. 1999a. Sources and extent of microbiological contamination of beef carcasses in seven United States slaughtering plants. J. Food Prot. 62:140145.
234. Sofos, J. N.,, S. L. Kochevar,, J. O. Reagan, and, G. C. Smith. 1999b. Extent of beef carcass contamination with Escherichia coli and probabilities of passing US regulatory criteria. J. Food Prot. 62:234238.
235. Solomon, E. B.,, C. J. Potensky, and, K. R. Matthew. 2002a. Effect of irrigation method on transmission to and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce. J. Food Prot. 65:673676.
236. Solomon, E. B.,, S. Yaron, and, K. R. Matthews. 2002b. Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:397400.
237. Souza, V.,, A. Castillo, and, L. E. Equiarte. 2002. The evolutionary ecology of Escherichia coli. Am. Sci. 90:332341.
238. Spano, L. C.,, A. D. I. Sadovsky,, P. A. Segui,, K. W. Saick,, S. M. S. Kitagawa,, F. E. L. Pereira,, U. Fagundes-Neto, and, I. C. A. Scaletsky. 2008. Age-specific prevalence of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli in Brazilian children and diarrhea. J. Med. Microbiol. 57:359363.
239. Steele, B. T.,, N. Murphy,, G. S. Arbus, and, C. P. Rance. 1982. An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with ingestion of fresh apple juice. J. Pediatr. 101:963965.
240. Steiner, T. S.,, J. P. Nataro,, C. E. Poteet–Smith,, J. A. Smith, and, R. L. Guerrant. 2000. Enteraggregative Escherichia coli expresses a novel flagellin that causes IL-8 release from intestinal epithelial cells. J. Clin. Investig. 105:17691777.
241. Stewart, V. 1988. Nitrate respiration in relation to facultative metabolism in enterobacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 52:190232.
242. Stopforth, J. D.,, and J. N. Sofos. 2006. Recent advances in pre-and post-slaughter intervention strategies for control of meat contamination, p. 66–68. In V. J. Juneja,, J. P. Cherry,, and M. H. Tunick (ed.), Advances in Microbial Food Safety. Oxford University Press, Washington, DC.
243. Stopforth, J. D.,, J. Samelis,, J. N. Sofos,, P. A. Kendall, and, G. C. Smith. 2002. Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes in fresh beef decontamination washings, p. 202–203. In Proceedings of the 48th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Rome, Italy.
244. Stopforth, J. D.,, J. Samelis,, J. N. Sofos,, P. A. Kendall, and, G. C. Smith. 2003a. Influence of extended acid stressing in fresh beef decontamination runoff fluids on sanitizer resistance of acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilms. J. Food Prot. 66:22582266.
245. Stopforth, J. D.,, J. Samelis,, J. N. Sofos,, P. A. Kendall, and, G. C. Smith. 2003b. Influence of organic acid concentration on survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef carcass wash water and on model equipment surfaces. Food Microbiol. 20:651660.
246. Summers, W. C. 2001. Bacteriophage therapy. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 55:437451.
247. Sussman, M. 1997. Escherichia coli: Mechanisms of Virulence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
248. Swaminathan, B.,, and G. M. Matar. 1993. Molecular typing methods, p. 26–50. In T. F. S. D. H. Persing,, F. C. Tenover,, and T. J. White (ed.), Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology: Principles and Applications. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
249. Swaminathan, B.,, T. J. Barrett,, S. B. Hunter, and, R. V. Tauxe. 2001. PulseNet: the molecular subtyping network for foodborne bacterial disease surveillance, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:382389.
250. Swerdlow, D. L.,, B. A. Woodruff,, R. C. Brady,, P. M. Griffin,, S. Tippen,, H. D. Donnel,, E. Geldreich,, B. J. Payne,, A. Meyer, and, J. G. Wells 1992. A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death. Ann. Intern. Med. 117:812819.
251. Tanji, Y.,, C. Furukawa,, S. H. Na,, T. Hijikata,, K. Miyanaga, and, H. Unno. 2004. Escherichia coli detection by GFP-labeled lysozyme-inactivated T4 bacteriophage. J. Biotech. 114:1120.
252. Tatsuno, I.,, M. Horie,, H. Abe,, T. Miki,, K. Makino,, H. Shinagawa,, H, Taguchi,, S. Kamiya,, T. Hayashi, and, C. Sasakawa. 2001. toxB gene on pO157 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is required for full epithelial cell adherence pathways. Infect. Immun. 69:66606669.
253. Taylor, D. N.,, J. M. Bied,, J. S. Munro, and, R. A. Feldman. 1982. Salmonella Dublin infections in the United States, 1979–1980. J. Infect. Dis. 146:322327.
254. Taylor, J. P.,, and J. N. Perdue. 1989. The changing epidemiology of human brucellosis in Texas, 1977–1986. Am. J. Epidemiol. 130:160165.
255. Taylor, K. A.,, C. B. O’Connell,, P. W. Luther, and, M. S. Donnenberg. 1998. The EspB protein of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is targeted to the cytoplasm of infected HeLa cells. Infect. Immun. 66:55015507.
256. Thompson, J. S.,, D. S. Hodge, and, A. A. Borczyk. 1990. Rapid biochemical test to identify verocytotoxin-positive strains of Escherichia coli serotype O157. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:21652168.
257. Tilden, J.,, W. Young,, A. M. McNamara,, C. Custer,, B. Boesel,, M. A. Lambert–Fair,, J. Majkowski,, D. Vugia,, S. B. Werner,, J. Hollingsworth, and, J. G. Morris, Jr. 1996. A new route of transmission for Escherichia coli O157:H7: infection from dry fermented salami. Public. Health Briefs 86:11421145.