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Chapter 9 : Shigella
Category: Food Microbiology; Applied and Industrial Microbiology
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Diarrheal diseases afflict a significant number of the world’s population each year. Estimates of disease caused by Shigella spp. on a yearly basis worldwide range from 164.7 to 200 million people infected, with nearly 1.1 million deaths attributed to this pathogen. Destruction of the intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal inflammation is a consequence of the host’s polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a subsequent recruitment influx of chemokines and cytokines at the sites of Shigella invasion. Shigellosis is a highly communicable disease due in part to the rapid spread of the pathogen within certain populations, particularly in crowded communities and/or in environments with poor sanitary conditions. The primary means of human-to-human transmission of Shigella is by the fecal-oral route. Most cases of shigellosis are caused by the ingestion of fecal-contaminated food or water. Surveillance of food-borne illnesses caused by Shigella spp. continues in many countries, with many reporting to a central repository at the World Health Organization. Introduction of shigellae into foods, particularly raw vegetables/produce, most likely occurs during processing, including irrigation, harvesting, and hand packaging. Food matrices have diverse effects on the ability of the pathogen to either grow or survive. Technology of today can be the basis of instruments in the near future that will result in analysis being completed in real time and being automated and portable, two assets that will definitely impact food safety and food defense.
Key Concept Ranking
- Type III Secretion System
Characteristics of Shigella spp.
Outbreaks of shigellosis