1887

Chapter 15 : Seafood Toxins

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Seafood Toxins, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter talks about marine biotoxins that can have severe impacts on health and prosperity, but effective management can minimize the risk of such impacts. It also talks about the seafood toxins includes saxitoxins, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), tetrodotoxin (TTX), puffer fish poisoning, domoic acid (DOM), amnesic shellfish poisoning, brevetoxins, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), ciguatoxins, ciguatera, okadaic acid, its derivatives, and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The toxins under discussion here are generally low-molecular-weight, nonprotein compounds produced by smaller organisms (generally phytoplankton) and accumulated by larger organisms that eat them. TTX and related compounds differ from the other seafood toxins discussed in the chapter, in that they appear to be endogenous or at least produced by symbionts, rather than accumulated from environmental sources. The toxicity of DOM is in part because of this strong binding and in part because the mechanisms that scavenge glutamate, keeping its concentration low and its stimulation brief, do not act on DOM. Ciguatera toxins appear to have a much stronger affinity than brevetoxins for site 5 on the voltage-activated sodium channel. The best and most comprehensive option is to use liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for detection. Most practical analyses for seafood toxins are based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the compounds tending not to be amenable to gas chromatography. Seafood is generally wholesome but may be contaminated with potent natural toxins which can cause illness and death in consumers. Such risks can be greatly reduced by the implementation of appropriate, sustainable monitoring strategies.

Citation: Hall S. 2010. Seafood Toxins, p 233-247. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch15

Key Concept Ranking

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
0.5286147
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
0.49368832
Sodium Channels
0.44444445
0.5286147
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815936.ch15
1. Alcala, A. C.,, L. C. Alcala,, J. S. Garth,, D. Yasumura,, and T. Yasumoto. 1988. Human fatality due to ingestion of the crab Demania reynaudii that contained a palytoxin-like toxin. Toxicon 26:105107.
2. AOAC. 2005. Paralytic shellfish poison. Biological method. In W. Horwitz (ed.), Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD. Official method 959.08.
3. Arakawa, O.,, S. Nishio,, T. Noguchi,, Y. Shida,, and Y. Onoue. 1995. A new saxitoxin analog from a xanthid crab Atergatis floridus. Toxicon 33:15771584.
4. Arakawa, O.,, T. Noguchi,, Y. Shida,, and Y. Onoue. 1994. Occurrence of carbamoyl-N-hydroxy derivatives of saxitoxin and neosaxitoxin in a xanthid crab Zosimus aeneus. Toxicon 32:175183.
5. Aune, T.,, O. B. Stabell,, K. Nordstoga,, and K. Tjotta. 1998. Oral toxicity in mice of algal toxins from the diarrheic shellfish toxin (DST) complex and associated toxins. J. Nat. Toxins 7:141158.
6. Bates, H. A.,, R. Kostriken,, and H. Rapoport. 1978. A chemical assay for saxitoxin. Improvements and modifications. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26:252254.
7. Bates, S. S.,, C. J. Bird,, A. S. W. de Freitas,, R. Foxhall,, M. W. Gilgan,, L. A. Hanic,, G. E. Johnson,, A. W. McColloch,, P. Odense,, R. Pocklington,, M. A. Quilliam,, J. C. Sim,, J. C. Smith,, D. V. Subba Rao,, E. C. D. Todd,, J. A. Walter,, and J. L. C. Wright. 1989. Pennate diatom Nitschia pungens as the primary source of domoic acid, a toxin in shellfish from eastern Prince Edward Island. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:12031215.
8. Beier, R. C.,, J. O. Norman,, J. C. Reagor,, M. S. Rees,, and B. P. Mundy. 1993. Isolation of the major component in white snakeroot that is toxic after microsomal activation: possible explanation of sporadic toxicity of white snakeroot plants and extracts. Nat. Toxins 1:286293.
9. Bignami, G. S. 1993. A rapid and sensitive hemolysis neutralization assay for palytoxin. Toxicon 31:817820.
10. Botana, L. M. (ed.). 2007. Phycotoxins: Chemistry and Biochemistry. Blackwell, Ames, IA.
11. Botana, L. M. (ed.). 2008. Seafood and Freshwater Toxins: Pharmacology, Physiology, and Detection, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
12. Boyer, G. L.,, and G. D. Goddard. 2000. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column electrochemical oxidation for the detection of PSP toxins. Nat. Toxins 7:353359.
13. Bricelj, V. M.,, and S. E. Shumway. 1998. Paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve molluscs: occurrence, transfer kinetics, and biotransformation. Rev. Fish. Sci. 6:315383.
14. Buckley, L. J.,, Y. Oshima,, and Y. Shimizu. 1978. Construction of a paralytic shellfish toxin analyzer and its application. Anal. Biochem. 85:157164.
15. Burdaspal, P. A.,, J. Bustos,, T. M. Legarda,, J. Olmeda,, M. Vigo,, L. Gonzalez,, and J. A. Berenguer. 1998. Commercial processing of Acanthocardia tuberculatum L. naturally contaminated with PSP. Evaluation after one year industrial experience. Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
16. Catterall, W. A. 1985. The voltage-sensitive sodium channel: a receptor for multiple toxins, p. 329–342. In D. M. Anderson,, A. W. White, and, D. G. Baden (ed.), Toxic Dinoflagellates. Elsevier, New York, NY.
17. Catterall, W. A.,, and M. Gainer 1985. Interaction of brevetoxin a with a new receptor site on the sodium channel. Toxicon 23:497504.
18. Chin, J. D.,, M. A. Quilliam,, J. M. Fremy,, S. K. Mohapatra,, and H. M. Sikorska. 1995. Screening for okadaic acid by immunoassay. J. AOAC Int. 78:508513.
19. Chou, H. N. 1986. Isolation and characterization of toxins in the “Red Tide” dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve Davis (= Ptychodiscus brevis), Ph. D. dissertation. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.
20. Chou, H. N.,, and Y. Shimizu. 1982. A new polyether toxin from Gymnodinium breve Davis. Tetrahedron Lett. 23:55215524.
21. Chou, H. N.,, Y. Shimizu,, G. Van Duyne,, and J. Clardy. 1985. Isolation and structures of two new polycyclic ethers from Gymnodinium breve Davis (= Ptychodiscus brevis). Tetrahedron Lett. 26:28652868.
22. Daigo, K. 1958. Studies on the constituents of Chondria armata. I. Detection of the anthelmintical constituents. J. Pharm. Soc. Jpn. 79:350353.
23. Davio, S. R.,, and P. A. Fontelo. 1984. A competitive displacement assay to detect saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. Anal. Biochem. 141:199204.
24. Dickey, R.,, E. Jester,, R. Granade,, D. Mowdy,, C. Moncreiff,, D. Rebarchik,, M. Robl,, S. Musser,, and M. Poli. 1999. Monitoring brevetoxins during a Gymnodinium breve red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shellfish extracts. Nat. Toxins 7:157165.
25. Dickey, R. W.,, S. C. Bobzin,, D. J. Faulkner,, F. A. Bencsath,, and D. Andrzejewski. 1990. Identification of okadaic acid from a Caribbean dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum concavum. Toxicon 28:371377.
26. Fonfría, E. S.,, N. Vilariño,, K. Campbell,, C. Elliott,, S. A. Haughey,, B. Ben-Gigirey,, J. M. Vieites,, K. Kawatsu,, and L. M. Botana. 2007. Paralytic shellfish poisoning detection by surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors in shellfish matrixes. Anal. Chem. 79:63036311.
27. Friedman, M. A.,, L. E. Fleming,, M. Fernandez,, P. Bienfang,, K. Schrank,, R. Dickey,, M.-Y. Bottein,, L. Backer,, R. Ayyar,, R. Weisman,, S. Watkins,, R. Granade,, and A. Reich. 2008. Ciguatera fish poisoning: treatment, prevention and management. Mar. Drugs 6:456479.
28. Fritz, L.,, M. A. Quilliam,, J. L. C. Wright,, A. M. Beale,, and T. M. Work. 1992. An outbreak of domoic acid poisoning attributed to the pennate diatom Pseudonitzschia australis. J. Phycol. 28:439442.
29. Fukui, M.,, M. Murata,, A. Inoue,, M. Gawel,, and T. Yasumoto. 1987. Occurrence of palytoxin in the trigger fish Melichtys vidua. Toxicon 25:11211124.
30. Fukui, M.,, D. Yasumura,, M. Murata,, A. C. Alcala,, and T. Yasumoto. 1988. The occurrence of palytoxin in crabs and fish. Toxicon 26:2021.
31. Garcia, C.,, M. del Carmen Bravo,, M. Lagos,, and N. Lagos. 2004. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the patagonia fjords. Toxicon 43:149158.
32. Garrison, D. L.,, S. M. Conrad,, P. P. Eilers,, and E. M. Waldron. 1992. Confirmation of domoic acid production by Pseudonitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae) cultures. J. Phycol. 28:604607.
33. Garthwaite, I.,, K. M. Ross,, C. O. Miles,, R. P. Hansen,, D. Foster,, A. L. Wilkins,, and N. R. Towers. 1998. Polyclonal antibodies to domoic acid, and their use in immunoassays for domoic acid in sea water and shellfish. Nat. Toxins 6:93104.
34. Gawley, R. E.,, Q. Zhang,, P. I. Higgs,, S. Wang,, and R. M. Leblanc. 1999. Anthracylmethyl crown ethers as fluorescence sensors of saxitoxin. Tetrahedron Lett. 40:54615465.
35. Gessner, B. D.,, P. Bell,, G. J. Doucette,, E. Moczydlowski,, M. A. Poli,, F. Van Dolah,, and S. Hall. 1997. Hypertension and identification of toxin in human urine and serum following a cluster of mussel-associated paralytic shellfish poisoning outbreaks. Toxicon 35:711722.
36. González, J. C.,, J. M. Vieites,, A. M. Botana,, M. R. Vieytes,, and L. M. Botana. 1998. Improved sample clean-up in the HPLC/fluorimetric determination of okadaic acid using 1-bromoacetylpyrene as derivatizing reagent. J. Chromatogr. A 793:6370.
37. Hall, S. 1982. Toxins and toxicity of Protogonyaulax from the northeast Pacific. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK.
38. Hall, S.,, and P. B. Reichardt. 1984. Cryptic paralytic shellfish toxins. ACS Symp. Ser. 262:113123.
39. Hall, S.,, P. B. Reichardt,, and R. A. Neve. 1980. Toxins extracted from an Alaskan isolate of Protogonyaulax sp. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 97:649653.
40. Hall, S.,, G. Strichartz,, E. Moczydlowski,, A. Ravindran,, and P. B. Reichardt. 1990. The saxitoxins. sources, chemistry, and pharmacology. ACS Symp. Ser. 418:2965.
41. Harada, T.,, Y. Oshima,, H. Kamiya,, and T. Yasumoto. 1982. Confirmation of paralytic shellfish toxins in the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa and bivalves in Palau. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish 48:821825.
42. Hirsh, J. K.,, and C. H. Wu. 1997. Palytoxin-induced single-channel currents from the sodium pump synthesized by in vitro expression. Toxicon 35:169176.
43. Hoffman, P. A.,, H. R. Granade,, and J. P. McMillan. 1983. The mouse ciguatoxin bioassay: a dose-response curve and symptomatology analysis. Toxicon 21:363369.
44. Hu, T.,, J. M. Curtis,, Y. Oshima,, M. A. Quilliam,, J. A. Walter,, W. M. Watson-Wright,, and J. L. C. Wright. 1995a. Spirolides B and D, two novel macrocycles isolated from the digestive glands of shellfish. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 20:21592161.
45. Hu, T.,, J. M. Curtis,, J. A. Walter,, J. L. McLachlan,, and J. L. C. Wright. 1995b. Two new water-soluble dsp toxin derivatives from the dinoflagellate prorocentrum maculosum: possible storage and excretion products. Tetrahedron Lett. 36:92739276.
46. Hu, T.,, J. M. Curtis,, J. A. Walter,, and J. L. C. Wright. 1995c. Identification of DTX-4, a new water-soluble phosphatase inhibitor from the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 5:597599.
47. Hu, T.,, A. S. W. deFreitas,, D. J. Jackson,, J. Marr,, E. Nixon,, S. Pleasance,, M. A. Quilliam,, J. A. Walter,, and J. L. C. Wright. 1993. New DSP toxin derivates isolated from toxic mussels and the dinoflagellates, Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum concavum, p. 507–512. In T. J. Smayda and, Y. Shimizu (ed.), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, New York, NY.
48. Hynie, I.,, and E. C. D. Todd. 1990. Proceedings of a symposium. Domoic acid toxicity. Ottawa, Ontario. 11–12 April 1989. Can. Dis. Wkly. Rep. 16(Suppl. 1E):1123.
49. Ishida, H.,, N. Muramatsu,, H. Nukaya,, T. Kosuge,, and K. Tsuji. 1996. Study on neurotoxic shellfish poisoning involving the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in New Zealand. Toxicon 34:10501053.
50. Ishida, H.,, A. Nozawa,, K. Totoribe,, N. Muramatsu,, H. Nukaya,, K. Tsuji,, K. Yamaguchi,, T. Yasumoto,, H. Kaspar,, N. Berkett,, and T. Kosuge. 1995. Brevetoxin B1, a new polyether marine toxin from the New-Zealand shellfish, Austrovenus stutchburyi. Tetrahedron Lett. 36:725728.
51. Ito, E.,, M. Satake,, K. Ofuji,, N. Kurita,, T. McMahon,, K. James,, and T. Yasumoto. 2000. Multiple organ damage caused by a new toxin azaspiracid, isolated from mussels produced in Ireland. Toxicon 38:917930.
52. Iverson, F.,, and J. Truelove. 1994. Toxicology and seafood toxins: domoic acid. Nat. Toxins 2:334339.
53. James, K. J.,, A. G. Bishop,, R. Draisci,, L. Palleschi,, C. Marchiafava,, E. Ferretti,, M. Satake,, and T. Yasumoto. 1999. Liquid chromatographic methods for the isolation and identification of new pectenotoxin-2 analogues from marine phytoplankton and shellfish. J. Chromatogr. A 844:5365.
54. James, K. J.,, A. Furey,, M. Satake,, and T. Yasumoto. 2001. Azaspiracid poisoning (azp): a new shellfish toxic syndrome in Europe, p. 250–253. In G. M. Hallegraeff,, S. I. Blackburn,, C. J. Bolch, and, R. J. Lewis (ed.), Harmful Algal Blooms. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, UNESCO, Paris, France.
55. James, K. J.,, C. Moroney,, C. Roden,, M. Satake,, T. Yasumoto,, M. Lehane,, and A. Furey. 2003a. A ubiquitous benign algae emerges as the cause of shellfish contamination responsible for the human toxin syndrome, azaspiracid poisoning. Toxicon 41:145151.
56. James, K. J.,, M. D. Sierra,, M. Lehane,, A. Brana Magdalena,, and A. Furey. 2003b. Detection of five new hydroxyl analogues of azaspiracids in shellfish using multiple tandem mass spectrometry. Toxicon 41:277283.
57. Janecek, M.,, M. A. Quilliam,, and J. F. Lawrence. 1993. Analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by automated pre-column oxidation and microcolumn liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J. Chromatogr. A 644:321331.
58. Jasperse, J. A. (ed.). 1993. Marine toxins and New Zealand shellfish: proceedings of a workshop on research issues, 10–11 June 1993. Royal Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
59. Jellett, J. F.,, L. J. Marks,, L. J. Marks,, J. E. Stewart,, M. L. Dorey,, W. Watson Wright,, and J. F. Lawrence. 1992. Paralytic shellfish poison (saxitoxin family) bioassays: automated endpoint determination and standardization of the in vitro tissue culture bioassay, and comparison with the standard mouse bioassay. Toxicon 30:11431156.
60. Jellett, J. F.,, R. L. Roberts,, M. V. Laycock,, M. A. Quilliam,, and R. E. Barrett. 2002. Detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish tissue using MIST Alert, a new rapid test, in parallel with the regulatory AOAC mouse bioassay. Toxicon 40:14071425.
61. Kao, C. Y. 1966. Tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin and their significance in the study of excitation phenomena. Pharmacol. Rev. 18:9971049.
62. Kodama, A. M.,, Y. Hokama,, T. Yasumoto,, M. Fukui,, S. J. Manea,, and N. Sutherland. 1989. Clinical and laboratory findings implicating palytoxin as cause of ciguatera poisoning due to Decapterus macrosoma (mackerel). Toxicon 27:10511053.
63. Kodama, M.,, S. Sato,, S. Sakamoto,, and T. Ogata. 1996. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin in Alexandrium tamarense, a causative dinoflagellate of paralytic shellfish poisoning. Toxicon 34:11011105.
64. Landsberg, J. H.,, S. Hall,, J. N. Johannessen,, K. D. White,, S. M. Conrad,, J. P. Abbott,, L. J. Flewelling,, R. W. Richardson,, R. W. Dickey,, E. L. E. Jester,, S. M. Etheridge,, J. R. Deeds,, F. M. Van Dolah,, T. A. Leighfield,, Y. Zou,, C. G. Beaudry,, R. A. Benner,, P. L. Rogers,, P. S. Scott,, K. Kawabata,, J. L. Wolny,, and K. A. Steidinger. 2006. Saxitoxin puffer fish poisoning in the United States, with the first report of pyrodinium bahamense as the putative toxin source. Environ. Health Perspect. 114:15021507.
65. Lawrence, J. F.,, C. F. Charbonneau,, C. Menard,, M. A. Quilliam,, and P. G. Sim. 1989. Liquid chromatographic determination of domoic acid in shellfish products using the paralytic shellfish poison extraction procedure of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. J. Chromatogr. A 462:349356.
66. Lawrence, J. F.,, B. Niedzwiadek,, and M. Cathie. 2005. Quantitative determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish using prechromatographic oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 88:17141732.
67. LeDoux, M.,, and S. Hall. 2000. Proficiency testing of eight French laboratories in using the AOAC mouse bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning: interlaboratory collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 83:305310.
68. Lee, J. S.,, T. Igarashi,, S. Fraga,, E. Dahl,, P. Hovgaard,, and T. Yasumoto. 1989. Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. Appl. Phycol. 1:147152.
69. Lee, J. S.,, Y. Yanagi,, R. Kenma,, and T. Yasumoto. 1987. Fluorometric determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Agric. Biol. Chem. 51:877881.
70. Lehane, M.,, A. Braña-Magdalena,, C. Moroney,, A. Furey,, and K. J. James. 2002. Liquid chromatography with electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry for the determination of five azaspiracids in shellfish. J. Chromatogr. A 950:139147.
71. Levine, L.,, H. Fujiki,, H. B. Gjika,, and H. Van Vunakis 1988a. A radioimmunoassay for palytoxin. Toxicon 26:11151121.
72. Levine, L.,, H. Fujiki,, K. Yamada,, M. Ojika,, H. B. Gjika,, and H. Van Vunakis. 1988b. Production of antibodies and development of a radioimmunoassay for okadaic acid. Toxicon 26:11231128.
73. Lewis, R. J.,, and R. Endean 1984. Ciguatoxin from the flesh and viscera of the barracuda, Sphyraena jello. Toxicon 22:805810.
74. Lewis, R. J.,, and M. J. Holmes. 1993. Origin and transfer of toxins involved in ciguatera. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C 106:615628.
75. Lewis, R. J.,, and A. Jones. 1997. Characterization of ciguatoxins and ciguatoxin congeners present in ciguateric fish by gradient reverse-phase high-performance liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry. Toxicon 35:159168.
76. Lewis, R. J.,, A. Jones,, and J. P. Vernoux. 1999. HPLC/tandem electrospray mass spectrometry for the determination of sub-ppb levels of Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxins in crude extracts of fish. Anal. Chem. 71:247250.
77. Lewis, R. J.,, R. S. Norton,, I. M. Brereton,, and C. D. Eccles. 1993. Ciguatoxin-2 is a diastereomer of ciguatoxin-3. Toxicon 31:637643.
78. Lewis, R. J.,, and T. A. Ruff. 1993. Ciguatera: ecological, clinical, and socioeconomic perspectives. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Tech. 23:137156.
79. Lin, Y. Y.,, M. Risk,, S. M. Ray,, D. Van Engen,, J. Clardy,, J. Golik,, J. C. James,, and K. Nakanishi. 1981. Isolation and structure of brevetoxin B from the “red tide” dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (Gymnodinium breve). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103:67736775.
80. Llewellyn, L. E.,, and J. Doyle. 2001. Microtitre plate assay for paralytic shellfish toxins using saxiphilin: gauging the effects of shellfish extract matrices, salts and pH upon assay performance. Toxicon 39:217224.
81. Lombet, A.,, J. N. Bidard,, and M. Lazdunski. 1987. Ciguatoxin and brevetoxins share a common receptor site on the neuronal voltage-dependent sodium channel. FEBS Lett. 219:355359.
82. Louzao, M. C.,, M. R. Vieytes,, J. M. V. Baptista de Sousa,, F. Leira,, and L. M. Botana. 2001. A fluorimetric method based on changes in membrane potential for screening paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels. Anal. Biochem. 289:246250.
83. Maclean, J. L. 1989. Indo-Pacific red tides, 1985-1988. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 20:304310.
84. Magdalena, A.,, M. Lehane,, S. Krys,, M. L. Fernandez,, A. Furey,, and K. James. 2003. The first identification of azaspiracids in shellfish from France and Spain. Toxicon 42:105108.
85. Mahar, J.,, G. L. Lukacs,, Y. Li,, S. Hall,, and E. Moczydlowski. 1991. Pharmacological and biochemical-properties of saxiphilin, a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein from the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Toxicon 29:5371.
86. Manger, R. L.,, L. S. Leja,, S. Y. Lee,, J. M. Hungerford,, Y. Hokama,, R. W. Dickey,, H. R. Granade,, R. Lewis,, T. Yasumoto,, and M. M. Wekell. 1995. Detection of sodium-channel toxins: directed cytotoxicity assays of purified ciguatoxins, brevetoxins, saxitoxins, and seafood extracts. J. AOAC Int. 78:521527.
87. Manger, R. L.,, L. S. Leja,, S. Y. Lee,, J. M. Hungerford,, and M. M. Wekell. 1993. Tetrazolium-based cell bioassay for neurotoxins active on voltage-sensitive sodium-channels: semiautomated assay for saxitoxins, brevetoxins, and ciguatoxins. Anal. Biochem. 214:190194.
88. Manger, R.,, D. Woodle,, A. Berger,, and J. Hungerford. 2007. Flow cytometric detection of saxitoxins using fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes. Anal. Biochem. 366:149155.
89. Marr, J. C.,, L. McDowell,, and M. A. Quilliam. 1994. Investigation of derivatization reagents for the analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Nat. Toxins 2:302311.
90. Maynes, J. T.,, K. S. Bateman,, M. M. Cherney,, A. K. Das,, H. A. Luu,, C. F. Holmes,, and M. N. James. 2001. Crystal structure of the tumor-promoter okadaic acid bound to protein phosphatase-1. J. Biol. Chem. 276:4407844082.
91. McCulloch, A. W.,, R. K. Boyd,, A. S. de Freitas,, R. A. Foxall,, W. D. Jamieson,, M. V. Laycock,, M. A. Quilliam,, J. L. Wright,, V. J. Boyko,, and J. W. McLaren. 1989. Zinc from oyster tissue as causative factor in mouse deaths in official bioassay for paralytic shellfish poison. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 72:384386.
92. McFarren, E. F. 1971. Assay and control of marine biotoxins. Food Technol. 25:3846.
93. McFarren, E. F.,, F. J. Silva,, H. Tanabe,, W. B. Wilson,, J. E. Campbell,, and K. H. Lewis. 1965. The occurrence of a ciguatera-like poison in oysters, clams, and Gymnodinium breve cultures. Toxicon 3:111123.
94. McNabb, P.,, A. I. Selwood,, P. T. Holland,, J. Aasen,, T. Aune,, G. Easlesham,, P. Hess,, M. Igarishi,, M. Quilliam,, D. Slattery,, J. Van de Riet,, H. Van Egmond,, H. Van den Top,, and T. Yasumoto. 2005. Multiresidue method for determination of algal toxins in shellfish: single-laboratory validation and inter-laboratory study. J. AOAC Int. 88:761772.
95. Melton, R. J.,, J. E. Randall,, N. Fusetani,, R. S. Weiner,, R. D. Couch,, and J. K. Sims. 1984. Fatal sardine poisoning—a fatal case of fish poisoning in Hawaii associated with the Marquesan sardine. Hawaii Med. J. 43:114124.
96. Mitchell, G. 2005. Treatment of a mild chronic case of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol, a case study. Pac. Health Dialog. 12:155157.
97. Moczydlowski, E.,, S. Hall,, S. S. Garber,, G. S. Strichartz,, and C. Miller. 1984. Voltage-dependent blockade of muscle Na+ channels by guanidinium toxins. J. Gen. Physiol. 84:687704.
98. Moore, R. E.,, and P. J. Scheuer. 1971. Palytoxin: a new marine toxin from a coelenterate. Science 172:495498.
99. Morohashi, A.,, M. Satake,, K. Murata,, H. Naoki,, H. F. Kaspar,, and T. Yasumoto. 1995. Brevetoxin B3, a new brevetoxin analog isolated from the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus involved in neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in New Zealand. Tetrahedron Lett. 36:89958998.
100. Morohashi, A.,, M. Satake,, H. Naoki,, H. F. Kaspar,, Y. Oshima,, and T. Yasumoto. 1999. Brevetoxin B4 isolated from Greenshell mussels Perna canaliculus, the major toxin involved in neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in New Zealand. Nat. Toxins 7:4548.
101. Mountfort, D. O.,, G. Kennedy,, I. Garthwaite,, M. Quilliam,, P. Truman,, and D. J. Hannah. 1999. Evaluation of the fluoro-metric protein phosphatase inhibition assay in the determination of okadaic acid in mussels. Toxicon 37:909922.
102. Mountfort, D. O.,, T. Suzuki,, and P. Truman. 2000. Protein phosphatase inhibition assay adapted for determination of total DSP in contaminated mussels. Toxicon 39:383390.
103. Murakami, Y.,, Y. Oshima,, and T. Yasumoto. 1982. Identification of okadaic acid as a toxic component of a marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48:6972.
104. Murata, K.,, M. Satake,, H. Naoki,, H. F. Kaspar,, and T. Yasumoto. 1998. Isolation and structure of a new brevetoxin analog, brevetoxin B2, from greenshell mussels from New Zealand. Tetrahedron 54:735742.
105. Murata, M.,, M. Kumagai,, J. S. Lee,, and T. Yasumoto. 1987. Isolation and structure of yessotoxin, a novel polyether compound implicated in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Tetrahedron Lett. 28:58695872.
106. Murata, M.,, A. M. Legrand,, Y. Ishibashi,, M. Fukui,, and T. Yasumoto. 1989. Structures of ciguatoxin and its congener. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:89298931.
107. Murata, M.,, A. M. Legrand,, Y. Ishibashi,, M. Fukui,, and T. Yasumoto. 1990. Structures and configurations of ciguatoxin from the moray eel Gymnothorax javanicus and its likely precursor from the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112:43804386.
108. Murata, M.,, M. Sano,, T. Iwashita,, H. Naoki,, and T. Yasumoto. 1986. The structure of pectenotoxin-3, a new constituent of diarrhetic shellfish toxins. Agric. Biol. Chem. 50:26932695.
109. Murata, M.,, M. Shimatani,, H. Sugitani,, Y. Oshima,, and T. Yasumoto. 1982. Isolation and structural elucidation of the causative toxin of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48:549552.
110. Negri, A. P.,, C. J. S. Bolch,, S. Geiera,, D. H. Green,, T.-G. Park,, and S. I. Blackburn. 2007. Widespread presence of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum. Harmful Algae 6:774780.
111. Negri, A.,, and L. Llewellyn. 1998. Comparative analyses by HPLC and the sodium channel and saxiphilin 3H-saxitoxin receptor assays for paralytic shellfish toxins in crustaceans and molluscs from tropical North West Australia. Toxicon 36:283298.
112. Negri, A.,, D. Stirling,, M. Quilliam,, S. Blackburn,, C. Bolch,, I. Burton,, G. Eaglesham,, K. Thomas,, R. H. Willis,, and J. Walter. 2003. Three novel hydroxybenzoate saxitoxin analogues isolated from the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 16:10291033.
113. Noguchi, T.,, and K. Hashimoto. 1984. Current topics on swellfish poisons. Cultured swellfishes possess little or no poison. Kagaku 39:155160.
114. Noguchi, T.,, D. F. Hwang,, O. Arakawa,, K. Daigo,, S. Sato,, H. Ozaki,, N. Kawai,, M. Ito,, and K. Hashimoto. 1988. Palytoxin as the causative agent in parrotfish poisoning. Toxicon 26:34.
115. Noguchi, T.,, D. F. Hwang,, O. Arakawa,, H. Sugita,, Y. Deguchi,, Y. Shida,, and K. Hashimoto. 1987. Vibrio alginolyticus, a tetrodotoxin-producing bacterium, in the intestines of the fish Fugu vermicularis vermicularis. Mar. Biol. 94:625630.
116. Noguchi, T.,, J. K. Jeon,, O. Arakawa,, H. Sugita,, Y. Deguchi,, Y. Shida,, and K. Hashimoto. 1986. Occurrence of tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin in Vibrio sp. isolated from the intestines of a xanthid crab, Atergatis floridus. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 99:311314.
117. Ofuji, K.,, M. Satake,, T. McMahon,, K. J. James,, H. Naoki,, Y. Oshima,, and T. Yasumoto. 2001. Structures of azaspiracid analogs, azaspiracid-4 and azaspiracid-5, causative toxins of azaspiracid poisoning in Europe. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65:740742.
118. Ofuji, K.,, M. Satake,, T. McMahon,, J. Silke,, K. J. James,, H. Naoki,, Y. Oshima,, and T. Yasumoto. 1999. Two analogs of azaspiracid isolated from mussels, Mytilus edulis, involved in human intoxication in Ireland. Nat. Toxins 7:99102.
119. Onuma, Y.,, M. Satake,, T. Ukena,, J. Roux,, S. Chanteau,, N. Rasolofonirina,, M. Ratsimaloto,, H. Naoki,, and T. Yasumoto. 1999. Identification of putative palytoxin as the cause of clupeotoxism. Toxicon 37:5565.
120. Oshima, Y. 1995. Postcolumn derivatization liquid chromatographic method for paralytic shellfish toxins. J. AOAC Int. 78:528532.
121. Oshima, Y.,, S. I. Blackburn,, and G. M. Hallegraeff. 1993. Comparative study on paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum from three different countries. Mar. Biol. 116:471476.
122. Oshima, Y.,, T. Hayakawa,, M. Hashimoto,, Y. Kotaki,, and T. Yasumoto. 1982. Classification of Protogonyaulax tamarensis from northern Japan into three strains by toxin composition. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48:851854.
123. Palafox, N. A.,, L. G. Jain,, A. Z. Pinano,, T. M. Gulick,, R. K. Williams,, and I. J. Schatz. 1988. Successful treatment of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol. JAMA 259:27402742.
124. Pearn, J. H.,, R. J. Lewis,, T. Ruff,, M. Tait,, J. Quinn,, W. Murtha,, G. King,, A. Mallett,, and N. C. Gillespie. 1990. Ciguatera and mannitol: experience with a new treatment regimen. Med. J. Aust. 153:306307.
125. Perl, T. M.,, L. Bedard,, T. Kosatsky,, J. C. Hockin,, E. C. Todd,, and R. S. Remis. 1990. An outbreak of toxic encephalopathy caused by eating mussels contaminated with domoic acid. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:17751780.
126. Pocklington, R.,, J. E. Milley,, S. S. Bates,, C. J. Bird,, A. S. W. de Freitas,, and M. A. Quilliam. 1990. Trace determination of domoic acid in seawater and phytoplankton by high-performance liquid chromatography of the fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl (FMOC) derivative. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 38:351368.
127. Poli, M. A. 1996. Three dimensional binding assays for the detection of marine toxins. In D. G. Baden (ed.), Proceedings of the Workshop Conference on Seafood Intoxications: Pan American Implications of Natural Toxins in Seafood. University of Miami, Miami, FL.
128. Poli, M. A.,, S. M. Musser,, R. W. Dickey,, P. P. Eilers,, and S. Hall. 2000. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and brevetoxin metabolites: a case study from Florida. Toxicon 38:981993.
129. Poli, M. A.,, K. S. Rein,, and D. G. Baden. 1995. Radioimmunoassay for PbTx-2-type brevetoxins: epitope specificity of two anti-PbTx sera. J. AOAC Int. 78:538542.
130. Poli, M. A.,, V. R. Rivera,, D. D. Neal,, D. G. Baden,, S. A. Messer,, S. M. Plakas,, R. W. Dickey,, K. E. Said,, L. Flewelling,, D. Green,, and J. White. 2007. An electrochemiluminescence-based competitive displacement immunoassay for the type-2 brevetoxins in oyster extracts. J. AOAC Int. 90:173178.
131. Powell, C. L.,, and G. J. Doucette. 1999. A receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins: recent advances and applications. Nat. Toxins. 7:393400.
132. Quilliam, M. A. 1995. Analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue by liquid-chromatography with fluoro-metric and mass-spectrometric detection. J. AOAC Int. 78:555570.
133. Quilliam, M. A.,, P. G. Sim,, A. W. McCulloch,, and A. G. McInnes. 1989. High-performance liquid chromatography of domoic acid, a marine neurotoxin, with application to shellfish and plankton. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 36:139154.
134. Quilliam, M.,, D. Wechsler,, S. Marcus,, B. Ruck,, M. Wekell,, and T. Hawryluk. 2004. Detection and identification of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in Florida pufferfish responsible for incidents of neurologic illness, p. 116–118. In K. A. Steidinger,, J. H. Landsberg,, C. R. Tomas, and, G. A. Vargo (ed.), Harmful Algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, St. Petersburg, FL.
135. Rodrigue, D. C.,, R. A. Etzel,, S. Hall,, E. de Porras,, O. H. Velasquez,, R. V. Tauxe,, E. M. Kilbourne,, and P. A. Blake. 1990. Lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Guatemala. Am. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42:267271.
136. Ruberu, S. R.,, Y. G. Liu,, C. T. Wong,, S. K. Perera,, G. W. Langlois,, G. J. Doucette,, and C. L. Powell. 2003. Receptor binding assay for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins: optimization and inter-laboratory comparison. J. AOAC Int. 86:737745.
137. Satake, M.,, M. Murata,, and T. Yasumoto. 1993. The structure of CTX3C, a ciguatoxin congener isolated from cultured Gambierdiscus toxicus. Tetrahedron Lett. 34:19751978.
138. Satake, M.,, K. Ofuji,, H. Naoki,, K. J. James,, A. Furey,, T. McMahon,, J. Silke,, and T. Yasumoto. 1998. Azaspiracid, a new marine toxin having unique spiro ring assemblies, isolated from Irish mussels, Mytilus edulis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120:99679968.
139. Schnorf, H.,, M. Taurarii,, and T. Cundy. 2002. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a double-blind randomized trial of mannitol therapy. Neurology 58:873880.
140. Seki, T.,, M. Satake,, L. Mackenzie,, H. F. Kaspar,, and T. Yasumoto. 1995. Gymnodimine, a new marine toxin of unprecedented structure isolated from New Zealand oysters and the dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium sp. Tetrahedron Lett. 36:70937096.
141. Shimizu, Y.,, H. N. Chou,, H. Bando,, G. Van Duyne,, and J. Clardy. 1986. Structure of brevetoxin A (GB-1 toxin), the most potent toxin in the Florida red tide organism Gymnodinium breve (Ptychodiscus brevis). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108:514515.
142. Sommer, H.,, and K. F. Meyer 1937. Paralytic shellfish poisoning. Arch. Pathol. 24:560598.
143. Steidinger, K. A.,, L. S. Tester,, and F. J. R. Taylor. 1980. A redescription of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressa (Böhm) stat. nov. from Pacific red tides. Phycologia 19:329337.
144. Sullivan, J. J.,, and W. T. Iwaoka. 1983. High pressure liquid chromatography determination of toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 66:297303.
145. Suzuki, T.,, T. Jin,, Y. Shirota,, T. Mitsuya,, Y. Okumura,, and T. Kamiyama. 2005. Quantification of lipophilic toxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in Japanese bivalves by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and comparison with mouse bioassay. Fish. Sci. 71:13701378.
146. Tachibana, K.,, P. J. Scheuer,, Y. Tsukitani,, H. Kikuchi,, D. Van Engen,, J. Clardy,, Y. Gopichand,, and F. J. Schmitz. 1981. Okadaic acid, a cytotoxic polyether from two marine sponges of the genus Halichondria. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103:24692471.
147. Takemoto, T.,, K. Daigo,, Y. Kondo,, and K. Kondo. 1966. Studies on the constituents of Chondria armata. VIII. On the structure of domoic acid. I. J. Pharm. Soc. Jpn. 86:874877. (In Japanese.)
148. Teitelbaum, J. S.,, R. J. Zatorre,, S. Carpenter,, D. Gendron,, A. C. Evans,, A. Gjedde,, and N. R. Cachman. 1990. Neurologic sequelae of domoic acid intoxication due to the ingestion of contaminated mussels. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:17811787.
149. Todd, E. C. D. 1993. Domoic acid and amnesic shellfish poisoning: a review. J. Food Prot. 56:6983.
150. Torigoe, K.,, M. Murata,, T. Yasumoto,, and T. Iwashita. 1988. Prorocentrilide, a toxic nitrogenous macrocycle from a marine dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum lima. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110:78767877.
151. Trainer, V. L.,, and D. G. Baden. 1991. An enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Florida red tide brevetoxins. Toxicon 29:13871394.
152. Turrell, E. A.,, and L. Stobo. 2007. A comparison of the mouse bioassay with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the detection of lipophilic toxins in shellfish from Scottish waters. Toxicon 50:442447.
153. Ukena, T.,, M. Satake,, M. Usami,, Y. Oshima,, H. Naoki,, T. Fujita,, Y. Kan,, and T. Yasumoto. 2001. Structure elucidation of ostreocin D, a palytoxin analog isolated from the Dinoflagellate Ostreopsis siamensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65:25852588.
154. Usami, M.,, M. Satake,, S. Ishida,, A. Inoue,, Y. Kan,, and T. Yasumoto. 1995. Palytoxin analogs from the dinoflagellate Ostreopsis siamensis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117:53895390.
155. Usleber, E.,, E. Schneider,, and G. Terplan. 1991. Direct enzyme immunoassay in microtitration plate and test strip format for the detection of saxitoxin in shellfish. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13:275277.
156. Vale, P.,, R. Bireb,, and P. Hess. 2008. Confirmation by LC–MS/MS of azaspiracids in shellfish from the Portuguese north-western coast. Toxicon 51:14491456.
157. Van Dolah, F. M.,, E. L. Finley,, B. L. Haynes,, G. J. Doucette,, P. D. Moeller,, and J. S. Ramsdell. 1994. Development of rapid and sensitive high throughput pharmacologic assays for marine phycotoxins. Nat. Toxins 2:189196.
158. Van Dolah, F. M.,, T. A. Leighfield,, B. L. Haynes,, D. R. Hampson,, and J. S. Ramsdell. 1997. A microplate receptor assay for the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, domoic acid, utilizing a cloned glutamate-receptor. Anal. Biochem. 245:102105.
159. Van Duyne, G. D. 1990. X-ray crystallographic studies of marine toxins. ACS Symp. Ser. 418:144165.
160. Velez, P.,, J. Sierralta,, C. Alcayaga,, M. Fonseca,, H. Loyola,, D. C. Johns,, G. F. Tomaselli,, E. Marban,, and B. A. Suarez-Isla. 2001. A functional assay for paralytic shellfish toxins that uses recombinant sodium channels. Toxicon 39:929935.
161. Vernoux, J. P.,, and R. J. Lewis. 1997. Isolation and characterisation of Caribbean ciguatoxins from the horse-eye jack (Caranx latus). Toxicon 35:889900.
162. Vick, J. A.,, and J. S. Wiles. 1975. The mechanism of action and treatment of palytoxin poisoning. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 34:214223.
163. Waskiewicz, S.,, C. J. Carlson,, H. W. Magnussen,, E. J. Craven,, and D. M. Galerman. 1951. In H. W. Magnussen and, C. J. Carlson (ed.), A Study of Processing Methods for Toxic Butter Clams. Fisheries Experimental Commission of Alaska, Ketchikan, AK.
164. Wekell, J. C.,, E. J. Gauglitz,, H. J. Barnett,, C. L. Hatfield,, and M. Eklund. 1994. The occurrence of domoic acid in razor clams (Siliqua patula), Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), and anchovies (Engraulis mordax). J. Shellfish Res. 13:587593.
165. Withers, N. W. 1982. Ciguatera fish poisoning. Ann. R. Med. 33:97111.
166. Work, T. M.,, B. Barr,, A. M. Beale,, L. Fritz,, M. A. Quilliam,, and J. L. C. Wright. 1993. Epidemiology of domoic acid poisoning in brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) and Brandt cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in California. J. Zoo Wild. Med. 24:5462.
167. Wright, J. L. 1998. Domoic acid—ten years after. Nat. Toxins 6:9192.
168. Wright, J. L.,, C. J. Bird,, A. S. de Freitas,, D. Hampson,, J. McDonald,, and M. A. Quilliam. 1990. Chemistry, biology, and toxicology of domoic acid and its isomers. Can. Dis. Wkly. Rep. 16(Suppl. 1E):2126.
169. Wright, J. L. C.,, R. K. Boyd,, A. S. W. de Freitas,, M. Falk,, R. A. Foxhall,, W. D. Jamieson,, M. V. Laycock,, A. W. McCulloch,, A. G. McInnes,, P. Odense,, V. P. Pathak,, M. A. Quilliam,, M. A. Ragan,, P. G. Sim,, P. Thibault,, J. A. Walter,, M. Gilgan,, D. J. A. Richard,, and D. Dewar. 1989. Identification of domoic acid, a neuroexcitatory amino acid, in toxic mussels from eastern Prince Edward Island. Can. J. Chem. 67:481490.
170. Yasumoto, T.,, A. Inoue,, W. Sugawara,, Y. Fukuyo,, H. Oguri,, T. Igarashi,, and N. Fujita. 1980a. Environmental studies on a toxic dinoflagellate responsible for ciguatera. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 46:13971404.
171. Yasumoto, T.,, and T. Michishita. 1985. Fluorometric determination of tetrodotoxin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49:30773080.
172. Yasumoto, T.,, M. Murata,, Y. Oshima,, M. Sano,, G. K. Matsumoto,, and J. Clardy. 1985. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins. Tetrahedron 41:10191025.
173. Yasumoto, T.,, I. Nakajima,, R. Bagnis,, and R. Adachi. 1977. Finding of a dinoflagellate as a likely culprit of ciguatera. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 43:10211026.
174. Yasumoto, T.,, Y. Oshima,, W. Sugawara,, Y. Fukuyo,, H. Oguri,, T. Igarashi,, and N. Fujita. 1980b. Identification of Dinophysis fortii as the causative organism of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 46:14051412.
175. Yasumoto, T.,, Y. Oshima,, and M. Yamaguchi. 1978. Occurrence of a new type of shellfish poisoning in the Tohoku District. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 44:12491255.
176. Yasumoto, T.,, and M. Satake. 1996. Chemistry, etiology and determination methods of ciguatera toxins. J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev. 15:91107.
177. Yasumoto, T.,, D. Yasumura,, Y. Ohizumi,, M. Takahashi,, A. C. Alcala,, and L. C. Alcala. 1986a. Palytoxin in two species of xanthid crab from the Philippines. Agric. Biol. Chem. 50:163167.
178. Yasumoto, T.,, D. Yasumura,, M. Yotsu,, T. Michishita,, A. Endo,, and Y. Kotaki. 1986b. Bacterial production of tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin. Agric. Biol. Chem. 50:793795.
179. Yasumoto, T.,, and M. Yotsu-Yamashita. 1996. Chemical and etiologic studies on tetrodotoxin and its analogs. J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev. 15:8190.
180. Yotsu, M.,, T. Yamazaki,, Y. Meguro,, A. Endo,, M. Murata,, H. Naoki,, and T. Yasumoto. 1987. Production of tetradotoxin and its derivatives by Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the skin of a pufferfish. Toxicon 25:225228.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error