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Chapter 16 : Biogenic Amines in Foods

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Abstract:

This chapter discusses the formation and degradation of biogenic amines, their occurrence in foods, their significance in food safety, their potential use as quality indicators, and the available methods for their determination. The main mechanism of biogenic formation is the decarboxylation of free amino acids by specific enzymes of microbial origin, which leads to the production of amines. The concentration of available free amino acids plays a fundamental role in the formation of amines in foods, in that they are their precursors and, moreover, constitute a substrate for microbial growth. Histamine-producing microorganisms include a large number of strains from various species and families, isolated from a variety of food products. Pseudomonads are the most commonly reported bacterial group for putrescine and cadaverine formation. The addition of preservatives to foods influences the microbial population dynamics and, consequently, the production of biogenic amines. The physiological effects of tyramine include peripheral vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, increased respiration, elevated blood glucose, and release of norepinephrine. In addition to being slightly toxic itself, tyramine reacts with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (MAOI) drugs, giving rise to hypertensive crisis. MAO is an enzyme in the digestive tract that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of a variety of neurotransmitters as well as the monoamines of dietary origin, i.e., dopamine, phenyletylamine, serotonin, and tyramine. MAO has two subtypes, MAO-A and MAO-B, which can be found on the short arm of the X chromosome and seem to be derived from a duplication of a common ancestral gene.

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16

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Biogenic Amines
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Meat and Meat Products
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Fermented Meat Products
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Amino Acid Decarboxylase
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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
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Agmatine
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Frequency of symptoms of 150 patients affected in 30 separate outbreaks of HFP in Britain (data from Gilbert et al. [1980]).

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16
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Tables

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Table 1.

Most important biogenic amines in foods

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16
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Table 2.

Biogenic amine content in various food products and beverages

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Histamine poisoning dose-response data for humans

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Safety criteria for histamine established in European Union Regulation 2073/2005 for the microbiological criteria for foodstuffs

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Biogenic amines proposed as spoilage indicators for fish and meat products

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 6.

HPLC conditions for determination of biogenic amines in foods

Citation: Koutsoumanis K, Tassou C, Nychas G. 2010. Biogenic Amines in Foods, p 248-274. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch16

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