1887

Chapter 19 : Naturally Occurring Toxins in Plants

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Naturally Occurring Toxins in Plants, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap19-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815936/9781555814595_Chap19-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses naturally occurring toxins that have been associated with the consumption of foods. The toxicity associated with ackee fruit () is due to the extremely high amounts of hypoglycin A that is present in the unripe arils (the extra seed covering) of ackee fruit. The plant part of that is consumed is known botanically as an aril. Treatment of poisoning with ackee involves management of hypoglycemia. Proteinase inhibitors are plant, bacterial, and animal proteins that inhibit the activities of proteinases, resulting in impaired protein digestion and nutritional deficiencies in animals. Tannins are present in a number of foods, including dry beans, green peas, cereal products, leafy and green vegetables, tea, coffee, and wine. Cassava is almost always peeled, as some of the highest concentrations of cyanogens are located in the “skin” of the root. The only safe measure for sensitive individuals to avoid the toxic effects of fava beans remains to avoid “favic” agents. The chapter covers very briefly a few naturally occurring toxicants primarily from food plant sources. A clear delineation of food safety cannot be established without a comprehensive understanding of the nature and mechanism of action of each potential toxicant and the biological distinctiveness of the individual consuming it.

Citation: Ottesen A, Magnuson B. 2010. Naturally Occurring Toxins in Plants, p 301-313. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch19

Key Concept Ranking

Acyl Coenzyme A
0.49932316
Flowering Plants
0.454384
Food Safety
0.45193085
Chemicals
0.44689807
Hydrogen Cyanide
0.43100405
Scanning Electron Microscopy
0.428145
0.49932316
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815936.ch19
1. Aikman, K.,, D. Bergman,, J. Ebinger, and, D. Siegler. 1996. Variation of cyanogenesis in some plant species of the midwestern United States. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 24:637645.
2. Baggchi, K. N.,, and H. D. Ganguli. 1943. Toxicology of young shoots of common bamboos (Bambusa arundinacdea Willd.). Indian Med. Gaz. 78:4042.
3. Bradbury, J. H. 2005. Working Together To Eliminate Cyanide Poisoning, Konzo and Tropical Ataxic Neuropathy (TAN). Australian National University, School of Botany and Zoology, Cassava Cyanide Disease Network (CCDN) News, Caberra, Australia, No. 6. Available at: http://www.anu.edu.au/BoZo/CCDN/newsletters/CCDNNEWS6.pdf.
4. Bradbury, M. E.,, S. V. Egan, and, J. H. Bradbury. 1999. Picrate paper kits for determination of total cyanogens in cassava roots and all forms of cyanogens in cassava products. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79:593601.
5. Brinker, A. M.,, and D. S. Seigler. 1989. Methods for the detection and quantitative determination of cyanide in plant materials. Phytochem. Bull. 21:2431.
6. Brown, M.,, R. P. Bates,, C. Mcgowan, and, J. A. Cornell. 1992. Influence of fruit maturity on the hypoglycin-A level in ackee (Blighia sapida). J. Food Saf. 12:167177.
7. Bull, M.,, J. Ailts,, C. Arndt,, M. Ahrens,, B. Sager, and, B. Wilson. 2004. Neuron depolarization. In NeuroScience Technical Bulletin, No. 6. Neuroscience, Osceola, WI. https://www.neurorelief.com/newsletterarchive.php?issue=236.
8. Carson, P. E.,, C. L. Flanagan,, C. E. Ickes, and, A. S. Alving. 1956. Enzymatic deficiency in primaquine-sensitive erythrocytes. Science 124:484485.
9. Chandra, A. K.,, S. Mukhopadhyay,, D. Lahari, and, S. Tripathy. 2004. Goitrogenic content of Indian cyanogenic plant foods and their in vitro anti-thyroidal activity. Indian J. Med. Res. 119:180185.
10. Chiwona-Karltun, L.,, L. Brimer,, J. D. Saka,, A. R. Mhone,, J. Mkumbira,, L. Johansson,, M. Bokanga,, N. Z. Mahungu, and, H. Rosling. 2004. Bitter taste in cassava roots correlates with cyanogenic glucoside levels. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:581590.
11. Collens, A. E. 1915. Alcohol from cassava. Bull. Dept. Agric. Trinidad Tobago 14:54.
12. Concon, J. M. 1988. Endogenous toxicants in foods derived from higher plants, p. 281–404. In Food Toxicology. Part A: Principles and Concepts. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
13. Conn, E. E. 1981. Secondary plant products, p. 479–500. In P. K. Stumpf, and E. E. Conn (ed.), The Biochemistry of Plants: a Comprehensive Treatise. Academic Press, New York, NY.
14. Corchia, C.,, A. Balata,, G. F. Meloni, and, T. Meloni. 1995. Favism in a female newborn infant whose mother ingested fava beans before delivery. J. Pediatr. 127:807808.
15. Cornell Animal Sciences. 2005. Sesquiterpene lactones and their toxicity to livestock. In Plants Poisonous to Livestock. Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/toxicagents/sesqlactone/sesqlactone.html.
16. Cumbana, A.,, E. Mirione,, J. Cliff, and, J. H. Bradbury. 2007. Reduction of cyanide content of cassava flour in Mozambique by the wetting method. Food Chem. 101:894897.
17. Dahler, J. M.,, C. A. McConchie, and, C. G. N. Turnbull. 1995. Quantification of cyanogenic glycosides in the seedlings of three macadamia species. Aus. J. Bot. 43:619928.
18. Davidson, A.,, and T. Stevenson. 1884. Poisoning by pois d’Achery (Phaseolus lunatus Lr.). Practitioner XXXII:35.
19. deBruijn, G. H. 1973. The cyanogen character of cassava (Manihot esculenta), p. 43–48. In B. Nestel and, R. MacLentyre (ed.), Chronic Cassava Toxicity; Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.
20. Dicenta, F.,, P. Martinez-Gomez,, N. Grane,, M. L. Martin,, A. Leon,, J. A. Canovas, and, V. Berenguer. 2002. Relationship between cyanogenic compounds in kernels, leaves, and roots of sweet and bitter kernelled almonds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:21492152.
21. Egan, S. V.,, H. H. Yeoh, and, J. H. Bradbury. 1998. Simple picrate paper kit for determination of the cyanogenic potential of cassava flour. J. Sci. Food Agric. 76:3948.
22. Ernesto, M.,, A. P. Cardoso,, D. Nicala,, E. Mirione,, F. Massaza,, J. Cliff,, M. R. Haque, and, J. H. Bradbury. 2002. Persistent Konzo and cyanogen toxicity from cassava in northern Mozambique. Acta Trop. 82:357362.
23. Fernandez, G. C.,, G. P. Pintado,, B. A. Blanco,, M. R. Arrieta,, R. R. Fernandez, and, R. F. Rosa. 2002. Cases of neurological symptoms associated with star anise consumption used as a carminative. An. Esp. Pediatr. 57:290294.
24. Furbee, B.,, and M. Wermuth. 1997. Life-threatening plant poisoning. Med. Toxicol. 13:849888.
25. Gossinger, H.,, K. Hurby,, A. Haubenstock,, A. Pohl, and, S. Davogg. 1983. Cardiac arrhythmias in a patient with grayanotoxin honey poisoning. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 25:328329.
26. Gunduz, A.,, T. Suleyman,, H. Uzan, and, M. Topbas. 2006. Mad honey poisoning. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 24:595598.
27. Gutierrez, N.,, C. M. Avila,, G. Duc,, P. Marget,, M. J. Suso,, M. T. Moreno, and, A. M. Torres. 2006. CAPs markers to assist selection for low vicine and convicine contents in faba bean (Viciea faba L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 114:5966.
28. Harbourne, J. 2001. Twenty five years of chemical ecology. Nat. Prod. Rep. 18:361379.
29. Henry, S. H.,, S. W. Page, and, P. M. Bolger. 1998. Hazard assessment of ackee fruit (Blighia sapida). Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 4:11751187.
30. Holstege, D. M.,, B. Puschner, and, T. Le. 2001. Determination of grayanotoxins in biological samples by LC-MS/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:16481651.
31. Ize-Ludlow, D.,, S. Ragone,, I. S. Bruck,, J. N. Bernstein,, M. Duchowny, and, B. M. Garcia-Pena. 2004a. Neurotoxicities in infants seen with the consumption of atar anise tea. Pediatrics 114:653656.
32. Ize-Ludlow, D.,, S. Ragone,, I. S. Bruck,, M. Duchowny, and, B. M. Garcia-Pena. 2004b. Chemical composition of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) and neurotoxicity in infants. JAMA 291:562563
33. Jamalian, J.,, and M. Ghorbani. 2005. Extraction of favism-inducing agents from whole seeds of faba bean (Vicia faba L var major). J. Sci. Food Agric. 85:10551060.
34. Jones, D. A. 1998. Why are so many food plants cyanogenic? Phytochemistry 47:155162.
35. Joskow, R.,, M. Belson,, H. Vesper,, L. Backer, and, C. Rubin. 2006. Ackee fruit poisoning: an outbreak investigation in Haiti 2000–2001, and review of the literature. Clin. Toxicol. 44:267273.
36. Kerkvliet, J. D. 1981. Analysis of a toxic Rhododendron honey. J. Apicult. Res. 20:249253.
37. Lane, J. F.,, W. T. Koch,, N. S. Leeds, and, G. Gorin. 1952. On the toxin of Illicium Anisatum. I. the isolation and characterization of a convulsant principle: anisatin. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74:32113215.
38. Liener, I. 1979. Significance for humans of biologically active factors in soybeans and other food legumes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 56:121129.
39. Luzzatto, L.,, E. A. Usanga, and, S. Reddy. 1969. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient red cells resistance to infection by malarial parasites. Science 164:839842.
40. Mager, J.,, M. Chevion, and, G. Glaser. 1980. Favism, p. 265–294. In I. E. Liener (ed.), Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY.
41. Meda, H. A.,, B. Diallo,, J. P. Buchet,, D. Lison,, H. Barennes,, A. Ouangre,, M. Sanou,, S. Cousens,, F. Tall, and, P. Van de Perre. 1999. Epidemic of fatal encephalopathy in preschool children in Burkina Faso and consumption of unripe ackee (Blighia sapida) fruit. Lancet 353:536540.
42. Mehta, A.,, P. J. Mason, and, T. J. Vulliamy. 2000. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Baillieres Clin. Haematol. 13:2138.
43. Minodier, P.,, P. Pommier,, E. Moulene,, K. Retournaz,, N. Prost, and, L. Deharo. 2003. Star anise poisoning in infants. Arch. Pediatr. 10:619621.
44. Montgomery, R. D. 1964. Observations on the cyanide content and toxicity of tropical pulses. West Indian Med. J. 13:111.
45. Montgomery, R. D. 1965. The medical significance of cyanogen in plant foodstuffs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 17:103113.
46. Montgomery, R. D. 1980. Cyanogens, p. 143–160. In I. E. Liener (ed.), Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY.
47. Ottesen, A.,, and G. C. Ziobro. 2006. Use of “DNA barcoding” to detect adulteration of Star Anise (Illicium verum) by other Illicium species, abstr. C-21. 2006 FDA Sci. Forum Poster Abstr. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~frf/forum06/C-21.htm.
48. Ozhan, H.,, R. Akdemir,, M. Yazici,, H. Gunduz,, S. Duran, and, C. Uyan. 2004. Cardiac emergencies caused by honey ingestion: a single centre experience. Emerg. Med. J. 21:742744.
49. Poulton, J. E. 1990. Cyanogenesis in plants. Plant Physiol. 94:401405.
50. Reddy, N. R.,, M. D. Pierson,, S. K. Sathes, and, D. K. Salunkhe. 1985. Dry bean tannins: a review of nutritional implications. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62:541549.
51. Schmidt, T. J.,, H. M. Schmidt,, E. Muller,, W. Peters,, F. R. Fronczek,, A. Truesdale, and, N. H. Fischer. 1998. New sesquiterpene lactones from Illicium floridanum. J. Nat. Prod. 61:230236.
52. Scott, P. M.,, B. B. Coldwell, and, G. S. Wiberg. 1971. Grayanotoxins. Occurrence and analysis in honey and a comparison of toxicities in mice. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 9:179184.
53. Seigler, D. S.,, G. F. Pauli,, A. Nahrstedt, and, R. Leen. 2002. Cyanogenic allosides and glucosides from Passiflora edulis and Carica papaya. Phytochemistry 60:873882.
54. Selmar, D.,, R. Lieberei,, B. Biehl, and, E. E. Conn. 1989. α-Hydroxynitrile lyase in Hevea brasiliensis and its significance for rapid cyanogenesis. Physiol. Plant. 75:97101.
55. Seyama, I.,, and T. Narahashi. 1981. Modulation of sodium channels of squid nerve membranes by grayanotoxin I. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 219:614624.
56. Spencer, P. S. 1999. Food toxins, AMPA receptors, and motor neuron diseases. Drug Metab. Rev. 31:561587.
57. Spencer, P. S.,, and V. S. Palmer. 2003. Lathyrism: aqueous leaching reduces grass-pea neurotoxicity. Lancet 362:17751776.
58. Sutlupinar, N.,, A. Mat, and, Y. Satganoglu. 1993. Poisoning by toxic honey in Turkey. Arch. Toxicol. 67:148150.
59. Tanaka, K.,, E. A. Kean, and, B. Johnson. 1976. Jamaican vomiting sickness: biochemical investigations of two cases. N. Engl. J. Med. 295:461467.
60. Teklehaimanot, R.,, B. M. Abegaz,, E. Wuhib,, A. Kassina,, Y. Kidane,, N. Kebede,, T. Alemu, and, P. S. Spencer. 1993. Pattern of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) consumption and beta-N-oxalyl-alpha-beta-diaminoproprionic acid (beta-Odap) content of food samples in the lathyrism endemic region of northwest Ethiopia. Nutr. Res. 13:11131126.
61. Tewe, O. O.,, and E. A. Iyayi. 1973. Cyanogenic glycosides, p. 43–96. In P. R. Cheeke (ed.), Toxicants of Plant Origin, Volume II. Glycosides. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
62. Tshala-Katumbay, D. D.,, and P. S. Spencer. 2007. Toxic disorders of the upper motor neuron system, p. 353–372. In A. Eisen and, P. Shaw. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Motor Neuron Disorders and Related Diseases, vol. 82, 3rd series. Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, NY.
63. Tsuge, K.,, M. Kataoka, and, Y. Seto. 2001. Rapid determination of cyanide and azide in beverages by microdiffusion spectrophoto-metric method. J. Anal. Toxicol. 25:228236.
64. Viehoever, A. 1940. Edible and poisonous beans of the lima type (Phaseolus lunatus L.): a comparative study, including other similar beans. Thai. Sci. Bull. 2:199.
65. Wajcman, H.,, and F. Galacteros. 2004. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a protection against malaria and a risk for hemolytic accidents. Comptes Rendus Biol. 327:711720.
66. Ware, G. M. 2002. Method validation study of hypoglycin A determination in ackee fruit. J. AOAC Int. 85:933938.
67. Wertheim, A. H. 1974. Raw beans, anyone?, p. 32–38. In The Natural Poisons in Natural Foods. Lyle Stuart, Inc., Secaucus, NJ.
68. Xavier-Filho, J.,, and F. A. P. Campos. 1989. Proteinase inhibitors, p. 1–27. In P. R. Cheeke (ed.), Toxicants of Plant Origin, Vol. III: Proteins and Amino Acids. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
69. Yamada, K.,, S. Takada,, S. Nakamura, and, Y. Hirata. 1968. The structures of anisatin and neoanisatin. Tetrahedron 24:199229.
70. Yilmaz, O.,, M. Eser,, A. Sahiner,, L. Altintop, and, O. Yesildag. 2006. Hypotension, bradycardia and syncope caused by honey poisoning. Resuscitation 68:405408.
71. Yoshida, A. 1973. Hemolytic anemia and G6PD deficiency. Science 179:532537.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Selected compounds

Citation: Ottesen A, Magnuson B. 2010. Naturally Occurring Toxins in Plants, p 301-313. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Cyanogens in foods

Citation: Ottesen A, Magnuson B. 2010. Naturally Occurring Toxins in Plants, p 301-313. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Cyanide as HCN in foods

Citation: Ottesen A, Magnuson B. 2010. Naturally Occurring Toxins in Plants, p 301-313. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch19

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error