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Chapter 20 : Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States

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Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

In this chapter, the use of the term residue relates primarily to the trace amounts of materials found in foods of various origins resulting from the application of chemicals during production. In order to focus on the type of sampling and the underlying statistical basis, the approach used for estimating the incidence of residues in animal products is presented in this chapter. The primary focus of the enforcement analytical work was related to antibiotic/antimicrobial assays and accounted for >99% of the samples. In sheep the incidence is 2.2%, approximately 2.5 times that reported in 2004, while in goats the 2005 frequency is 43% of that of 2004. A common acrylamide-forming reaction occurs when naturally occurring sugars react with asparagine at elevated temperatures. The most important point to be made is that acrylamide is considered a potential carcinogen and that the levels found in foods can be reduced during food preparation. The administration of the pesticide regulatory system is quite complex. Pesticide residues were not detected in 62.7% of domestic and 71.8% of imported samples. Of those samples, 2.4% of domestic and 6.1% of imported samples had violative levels. The problems with the U.S. food supplies are not the overall-occurring chemical residues but more likely the wide variety of bacteriological residues occurring from processing and distribution systems.

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Fruits and Vegetables
0.6600013
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
0.5604163
Food Safety
0.54886186
Chemicals
0.43745315
0.6600013
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References

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1. Anonymous. 2007. Transcript of USDA-FDA update on adulterated animal feed. Release no. 0158.07. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://news.tradingcharts.com/futures/6/9/94022496.html.
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Tables

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Table 1.

Estimated livestock and poultry production

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
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Table 2.

Residue profiles for production classes for 2004

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Distribution of samples and analytical assays for 2004

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Residue profiles for production classes for 2005

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Distribution of samples and analytical assays for 2005

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
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Table 6.

Results of sampling and analyses from 1 October to 30 September of the periods 2000–2001, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
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Table 7.

Acrylamide levels in foods

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
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Table 8.

Incidence of pesticide residue in domestic and imported foods, 1993–2003

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
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Table 9.

Violative pesticide residues in domestic and imported foods, 2003

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 10.

Listing of common fruits and vegetables, in descending rank of pesticide usage

Citation: Katz S, Ward P. 2010. Chemical Residues: Incidence in the United States, p 314-325. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch20

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