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Chapter 21 : A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents

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Abstract:

This chapter describes European contributions to food safety aspects of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents (GPAs). Recent developments in the area of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which has become the technique of choice for surveillance of residues in food; validation of the performance of methods; and future perspectives, including the development of a risk-based surveillance program. There are several groups of substances approved for treating food-producing animals in the European Union, including antibacterials, anthelmintics, anticoccidials (or antiprotozoan drugs), sedatives, pesticides (applied as veterinary drugs), and anti-inflammatory drugs (steroidal and nonsteroidal). Legislation can be categorized into the following areas: (i) evaluation of safety, (ii) procedures for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs), (iii) measures to control residues in food produced within the European Union and imported from developing countries, and (iv) guidelines for validation of analytical methods. The major deficiencies in the area of antiparasitic drug residues are that few multiresidue methods are available to detect flukicide residues and that coverage of levamisole and/or benzimidazole metabolites is often poor. A number of laboratories have developed applications using high resolution MS (HRMS) that allow the detection of several classes of veterinary drugs. Some methods include as many as 100 veterinary drug residues. The impact of such developments on methodologies and legislation will provide a clearer knowledge of exposure to veterinary drug residues through improvements in the scope of residue surveillance programs.

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21

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Figure 1.

Overview of direct and indirect effects of veterinary drug residues on food safety.

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Group A residue or substance to be detected by type of animal, their feeding stuffs, including drinking water, and primary animal products

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Group B residue or substance to be detected by type of animal, their feeding stuffs, including drinking water, and primary animal products

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Sampling

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Listing of MRPLs

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Relationship between the different MS techniques and identification points earned

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Maximum permitted tolerances for relative ion intensities using a range of MS techniques

Citation: Danaher M, Prendergast D. 2010. A European Food Safety Perspective on Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Growth-Promoting Agents, p 326-342. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch21

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