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Chapter 27 : Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service

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Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter describes the science-based intervention strategies for a manager to use in a food service operation. Most of the chemical hazards cannot be eliminated or reduced by intervention strategies available to the cook, such as washing, peeling, or cooking food. Occasionally, there is a loss of control/deviation of the hazard control processes on the farm. The environment surrounding the facility can be contaminated with pests, birds, insects, standing water, and possible sewage backup. There can be spp. and at up to an estimated 10 CFU per gram or ml. spp. are a common bacterial contaminant of raw poultry products. is chosen as the target organism because it is frequently found in many foods, and the severity of the illness is high, with over two deaths per 1,000,000 people. The food safety objective (FSO) for is to reduce it to 1 cell per 25 grams of food, or basically, a 5-log reduction. The hazard can be controlled when the customer tells the server that he/she has a sensitivity, and the server asks the cook if the food contains that ingredient and informs the customer. A regular self-inspection (daily, weekly, and monthly) must be completed to verify that intervention strategies with policies, procedures, and standards are being carried out and to determine if there are any process deviations that need corrective action.

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27

Key Concept Ranking

Food Safety
0.7589336
Salmonella enterica
0.6470462
Clostridium botulinum
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Flow chart of the raw food contamination problem “from farm to fork.” Source: ).

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Food system with science-based food safety design. Source: ).

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Food safety management system with five process groups. Source: ).

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Flow chart for hazard control at food service for the food safety management system. Source: ).

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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References

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1. FDA. 2005. Food Code. U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fc05-toc.html.
2. FDA. 2007. Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/prodgui3.html.
3. Federal Register. 2001. Performance standards for the production of processed meat and poultry products, proposed rule. 66:1258912636.
4. Goodfellow, S. J.,, and W. L. Brown. 1978. Fate of Salmonella inoculated into beef for cooking. J. Food Prot. 41:598605.
5. ICMSF. 1996. Microorganisms in Foods 5: Microbiological Specifications of Food Pathogens. Blackie Academic & Professional, New York, NY.
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8. Meng, J,, M. P. Doyle,, T. Zhoa,, and S. Zhoa. 2007. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, p. 249–270. In M. P. Doyle and, L. R. Beuchat (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
9. Nachamkin, I. 2007. Campylobacter jejuni, p. 237–248. In M. P. Doyle and, L. R. Beuchat (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, ASM Press, Washington, DC.
10. NSF International. 2007. American National Standard/NSF International Standard for Food Equipment—Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers. NSF International, Ann Arbor, MI.
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13. Snyder, O. P. 1994a. Developing and Implementing HACCP-Based Retail Food Operations, 2007 ed. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management, St. Paul, MN.
14. Snyder, O. P. 1994b. Technology of HACCP-Based, Chilled Food Production Systems, 2007 ed. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management, St. Paul, MN.
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16. Snyder, O. P. 2007a. HITM Archives. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management, St. Paul, MN.
17. Snyder, O. P. 2007b. Removal of bacteria from fingertips and the residual amount remaining on the hand washing nailbrush. Food Prot. Trends 27:597602.
18. Stern, N.,, and S. Pretanik. 2006. Counts of Campylobacter spp. on U.S. broiler carcasses. J. Food Prot. 69:10341039.
19. Stumbo, C. R. 1973. Thermobacteriology in Food Processing, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York, NY.
20. Todd, E. C. D.,, J. D. Greig,, C. A. Bartleson,, and B. S. Michaels. 2007. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 2. Description of outbreaks by size, severity, and settings. J. Food Prot. 70:19751993.
21. USDA/FSIS. 2001. Draft Compliance Guidelines for Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products. Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FRPubs/97-013P/RTEGuide.pdf.
22. USDA/FSIS. 2007. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 9, Animal and Animal Products. Part 417, Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_07/9cfr417_07.html.
23. WTO. 1995. The WTO agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS agreement). World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.wto.org/IABenglish/tratop_e/sps_e/spsagr_e.htm.

Tables

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Table 1.

Common biological, chemical, and physical hazards

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Table 2.

Level of risk for some pathogens

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Table 3.

Food hazards (H) and FSOs

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Table 4.

Food groups for food safety process analysis

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Table 5.

Food pathogen control data summary: infective microorganisms (inactivated by pasteurization)

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Food pathogen control data summary: toxin producers and/or spore-formers (not inactivated by pasteurization)

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27
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Table 7.

Retail food HACCP operation intervention plan

Citation: Snyder, Jr. O. 2010. Interventions for Hazard Control at Food Service, p 436-449. In Juneja V, Sofos J (ed), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815936.ch27

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