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Chapter 3 : The Camper’s Uninvited Guests

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Abstract:

Venturing into wilderness environments can be exhilarating, and each year millions of people take time off to enjoy the pastime. During this relaxing endeavor, the majority of adventurers come into contact with different species of biting arthropods. Ticks, mosquitoes, lice, fleas, mites, bees, wasps, scorpions, and spiders can make time spent outdoors unpleasant, and they are potential carriers of disease. The major diseases in the United States which are transmitted to humans by ticks include Lyme disease, human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), and tularemia. The major manifestation of the first stage of the disease (early, localized infection) is the localized skin rash termed erythema migrans, which is present in up to 80% of patients. The majority of reported cases, however, are from the southeastern part of the United States, with approximately 80% of reported cases occurring during the months of May and June. In the western United States, wood ticks () are the primary carriers and vectors of infection, whereas the dog tick () and the Lone Star tick () represent the most common arthropod hosts in the eastern United States and the south-central region, respectively. A proper wardrobe is essential in preventing tick-transmitted diseases. Permethrin can be sprayed on clothing to prevent tick attachment, and insect repellents that employ N,N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide (DEET) can be applied to the skin for further protection.

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Eastern Equine Encephalitis
0.5611448
West Nile Fever
0.52502966
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
0.49312726
0.5611448
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Annular lesion of erythema migrans on the shoulder of a child.

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Maculopapular rash of RMSF on the legs (A) and hand (B).

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Small nodules on palpebral conjunctiva and sclera of a patient with oculoglandular tularemia.

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Major clinical manifestations of Lyme disease

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Comparison of symptoms of HME and HGA

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Common forms of tularemia

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Mosquito-borne infections

Citation: Schutze G, Jacobs R. 2009. The Camper’s Uninvited Guests, p 97-110. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch3

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