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Chapter 9 : With Man’s Worst Friend (The Rat)

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Abstract:

This chapter highlights the zoonotic diseases of rats, and in certain cases the same diseases in other rodents, which have clinical relevance in the United States and its territories. In an attempt to feed more often because of the blockage, the flea ingests the host's blood into its esophagus, where it mixes with yersiniae growing in this location and in the proventriculus. Aminoglycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicin are the most effective antibiotics in vivo against . Rarely, the patient presents with uveitis, myocarditis, cranial nerve palsy, or the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, which is attributed to decreasing bacterial numbers in the patient's blood and a massive cytokine release and occurs during initial treatment of the spirochetal infection with an effective antibiotic. As with other microbial infections, the disease's severity relates to the organism's serotype, the number of bacteria ingested, and the host's susceptibility. In a retrospective study of 23 patients with -associated illness, 22 of the cases had the organism isolated from blood by an automated blood culture system, with which a slightly elevated growth index was noted. This study also described a new -associated syndrome consisting of bacteremia and fever and accompanied by leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The major clinical difference between monkeypox and smallpox is the pronounced lymphadenopathy noted in the majority of patients infected with monkeypox virus.

Citation: Fox J. 2009. With Man’s Worst Friend (The Rat), p 221-250. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch9

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FIGURE 1

Infected finger of a child with monkeypox (Marshfield, WI, index case). The patient was bitten by a prairie dog on 27 May 2003; the primary inoculation site was the right index finger. The photo was taken 14 days after the prairie dog bite (11 days after the onset of febrile illness [hospital day 5]). (Courtesy of Kurt Reed, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI.)

Citation: Fox J. 2009. With Man’s Worst Friend (The Rat), p 221-250. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch9
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Clinical signs of rat-bite fever

Citation: Fox J. 2009. With Man’s Worst Friend (The Rat), p 221-250. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch9
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Selected ectoparasites of rodents with zoonotic potential

Citation: Fox J. 2009. With Man’s Worst Friend (The Rat), p 221-250. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch9
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Reports of -induced dermatitis in humans in the United States from 1931 through 2008

Citation: Fox J. 2009. With Man’s Worst Friend (The Rat), p 221-250. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch9

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