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Chapter 10 : Closed Due to Rabies

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Abstract:

In most areas of the world where the disease is endemic, dogs and other carnivores remain the common sources of human rabies virus infection, resulting in little change over time in the epidemiology of the disease. Routine public health activities consisting of animal rabies control, health communication and education, and preexposure prophylaxis and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) will remain the most cost-effective methods for preventing human rabies. The most effective way to prevent exposure to rabies is to educate the public to avoid contact with all wild and unfamiliar domestic animals. Each year in the United States, as many as 40,000 persons receive rabies PEP and perhaps as many as 20,000 receive preexposure vaccination. The importance of immediate and thorough washing of all bite wounds and scratches with soap and water cannot be overemphasized, since it may, in itself, be one of the most effective measures for preventing rabies; tetanus prophylaxis and measures to control bacterial infection should be given as necessary. The regimen for preexposure vaccination consists of three 1.0-ml doses (0.5 ml for purified Vero cell rabies vaccine) given i.m. in the deltoid area on days 0, 7, and 21 or 28. Americans planning to travel to or reside in countries where canine rabies is enzootic should be informed about the risk of rabies and consider the possible benefits of rabies preexposure vaccination.

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10

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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Average annual numbers of cases of terrestrial rabies in the United States, 2003 to 2007.

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Average annual numbers of cases of bat rabies in the United States, 2003 to 2007.

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Distribution of terrestrial rabies virus variants and associated reservoirs in the United States, 2007.

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Spatiotemporal distribution of raccoon rabies in North America.

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Brain biopsy showing Negri bodies, cellular inclusions found most frequently in the pyramidal cells of Ammon’s horn and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. They are also found in the cells of the medulla and various other ganglia. In addition to the presence of these characteristic histopathologic changes, direct fluorescent antibody testing establishes a specific diagnosis of rabies. Source: CDC/Daniel P. Perl (http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/quicksearch.asp).

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Rabies in animals and humans in the United States (including Puerto Rico) from 2002 to 2007

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Locations and presumed animal sources of human rabies in the United States from 1980 to 2008

Citation: Blanton J, Krebs J. 2009. Closed Due to Rabies, p 251-273. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch10

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