Chapter 13 : From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815950/9781555814847_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815950/9781555814847_Chap13-2.gif


This chapter reviews the clinical syndromes and epidemiology of the most commonly encountered sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as the clinical and behavioral aspects of travel and sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemiology. Long-term travelers such as expatriates are at increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and STIs. Sexual intercourse with commercial sex workers (CSWs) is very common among travelers, expatriates, and military personnel and is one of the major risk factors for HIV and other STDs. A study of Hong Kong residents found that condom use was higher when they used CSWs in Hong Kong (91%) than when they used CSWs from mainland China (66%) and that self-reported STD rates were four times higher in those who had traveled to the mainland, 33% of travelers to the mainland had used services of CSWs, and 11% had used these services on the most recent trip. Several review papers have addressed special problems facing HIV-infected travelers. A major concern for all HIV-infected travelers is the risk for opportunistic infections. Persons who are sexually active with multiple partners should have periodic screening for STDs, especially gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and HIV, at least on an annual basis.

Citation: Zenilman J. 2009. From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel, p 311-330. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Human herpesvirus 8
Genital Infections
Yellow Fever Vaccine
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Vaginal discharge syndrome. organisms on a wet mount are shown. BV. Clue cells with a ground-glass appearance are shown.

Citation: Zenilman J. 2009. From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel, p 311-330. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Classical and nonclassical examples of genital ulcers. These lesions could not be differentiated solely on the basis of physical examination. Primary syphilis chancre. Note that the edges are ragged and the lesion is hemorrhagic, in contrast to the classical description. Chancroid. This multicentric ulcer was painful and had an undermined border. Primary herpes. These lesions were extremely painful and presented after the vesicle phase. There was large associated lymphadenopathy.

Citation: Zenilman J. 2009. From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel, p 311-330. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch13
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abdullah,, A. S.,, S. H. Ebrahim,, R. Fielding, and, D. E. Morisky. 2004. Sexually transmitted infections in travelers: implications for prevention and control. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 533538.
2. Adimora, A. A.,, V. J. Schoenbach, and, I. A. Doherty. 2006. HIV and African Americans in the southern United States: sexual networks and social context. Sex. Transm. Dis. 33: S39S45.
3. Adler, M. W. 1980. The terrible peril: a historical perspective on the venereal diseases. Br. Med. J. 281: 206211.
4. Anonymous. 2003. Workshop Summary: Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for STD Prevention. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
5. Arvidson, M.,, I. Kallings,, S. Nilsson,, D. Hellberg, and, P. A. Mardh. 1997. Risky behavior in women with history of casual travel sex. Sex. Transm. Dis. 24: 418421.
6. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme. 2005. Annual report of the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme, 2004. Commun. Dis. Intell. 29: 137142.
7. Bacaner,, N.,, B. Stauffer,, D. R. Boulware,, P. F. Walker, and, J. S. Keystone. 2004. Travel medicine considerations for North American immigrants visiting friends and relatives. JAMA 291: 28562864.
8. Bauwens,, J. E.,, H. Orlander,, M. P. Gomez,, M. Lampe,, S. Morse,, W. E. Stamm,, R. Cone,, R. Ashley,, P. Swenson, and, K. K. Holmes. 2002. Epidemic lymphogranuloma venereum during epidemics of crack cocaine use and HIV infection in the Bahamas. Sex. Transm. Dis. 29: 253259.
9. Bellis, M. A.,, K. Hughes,, R. Thomson, and, A. Bennett. 2004. Sexual behaviour of young people in international tourist resorts. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80: 4347.
10. Benotsch,, E. G.,, J. J. Mikytuck,, K. Ragsdale, and, S. D. Pinkerton. 2006. Sexual risk and HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men travelers to Key West, Florida: a mathematical modeling analysis. AIDS Patient Care STDS 20: 549556.
11. Bhadelia, N.,, M. Klotman, and, D. Caplivski. 2007. The HIV-positive traveler. Am. J. Med. 120: 574580.
12. Bonneux,, L.,, P. Van der Stuyft,, H. Taelman,, P. Cornet,, C. Goilav,, G. van der Groen, and, P. Piot. 1988. Risk factors for infection with human immunodeficiency virus among European expatriates in Africa. BMJ 297: 581584.
13. Cabada,, M. M.,, F. Maldonado,, I. Bauer,, K. Verdonck,, C. Seas, and, E. Gotuzzo. 2007. Sexual behavior, knowledge of STI prevention, and prevalence of serum markers for STI among tour guides in Cuzco/Peru. J. Travel Med. 14: 151157.
14. Cabada,, M. M.,, M. Montoya,, J. I. Echevarria,, K. Verdonck,, C. Seas, and, E. Gotuzzo. 2003. Sexual behavior in travelers visiting Cuzco. J. Travel Med. 10: 214218.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, K. A. Workowski, and, S. M. Berman. 2006. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 55: 194.
16. Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT). 2006. Statement on travellers and sexually transmitted infections. An Advisory Committee statement (ACS). Can. Commun. Dis. Rep. 32: 124.
17. Corey, L., and, H. H. Handsfield. 2000. Genital herpes and public health: addressing a global problem. JAMA 283: 791794.
18. Corey, L., and, P. G. Spear. 1986. Infections with herpes simplex viruses (2). N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 749757.
19. Cross, A. B., and, J. R. Harris. 1976. Reappraisal of the problem of British mariners and sexually transmitted infection. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 52: 7177.
20. Croughs, M.,, A. Van Gompel,, E. de Boer, and, J. Van Den Ende. 2008. Sexual risk behavior of travelers who consulted a pretravel clinic. J. Travel Med. 15: 612.
21. Datta,, S. D.,, L. A. Koutsky,, S. Ratelle,, E. R. Unger,, J. Shlay,, T. McClain,, B. Weaver,, P. Kerndt,, J. Zenilman,, M. Hagensee,, C. J. Suhr, and, H. Weinstock. 2008. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cytology in women screened for cervical cancer in the United States, 2003–2005. Ann. Intern. Med. 148: 493500.
22. Day, S., and, H. Ward. 1997. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease. Genitourin. Med. 73: 161168.
23. de Graaf, R.,, G. van Zessen, and, H. Houweling. 1998. Underlying reasons for sexual conduct and condom use among expatriates posted in AIDS endemic areas. AIDS Care 10: 651665.
24. de Graaf, R.,, G. van Zessen,, H. Houweling,, R. J. Ligthelm, and, R. van den Akker. 1997. Sexual risk of HIV infection among expatriates posted in AIDS endemic areas. AIDS 11: 11731181.
25. Dhawan, D., and, K. H. Mayer. 2006. Microbicides to prevent HIV transmission: overcoming obstacles to chemical barrier protection. J. Infect. Dis. 193: 3644.
26. DiCarlo, R. P.,, B. S. Armentor, and, D. H. Martin. 1995. Chancroid epidemiology in New Orleans men. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 446452.
27. Dillon, S. M.,, M. Cummings,, S. Rajagopalan, and, W. C. McCormack. 1997. Prospective analysis of genital ulcer disease in Brooklyn, New York. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24: 945950.
28. Dupin,, N.,, R. Jdid,, Y. T. N’Guyen,, I. Gorin,, N. Franck, and, J. P. Escande. 2001. Syphilis and gonorrhoea in Paris: the return. AIDS 15: 814815.
29. Edlin, B. R.,, K. L. Irwin,, S. Faruque,, C. B. McCoy,, C. Word,, Y. Serrano,, J. A. Inciardi,, B. P. Bowser,, R. F. Schilling,, S. D. Holmberg, et al. 1994. Intersecting epidemics—crack cocaine use and HIV infection among inner-city young adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 14221427.
30. Egger,, M.,, J. Pauw,, A. Lopatatzidis,, D. Medrano,, F. Paccaud, and, G. D. Smith. 2000. Promotion of condom use in a high-risk setting in Nicaragua: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 355: 21012105.
31. Elliott,, J. H.,, A. M. Mijch,, A. C. Street, and, N. Crofts. 2003. HIV, ethnicity and travel: HIV infection in Vietnamese Australians associated with injecting drug use. J. Clin. Virol. 26: 133142.
32. Erbelding,, E. J.,, D. Vlahov,, K. E. Nelson,, A. M. Rompalo,, S. Cohn,, P. Sanchez,, T. C. Quinn,, W. Brathwaite, and, D. L. Thomas. 1997. Syphilis serology in human immunodeficiency virus infection: evidence for false-negative fluorescent treponemal testing. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 13971400.
33. Fenton, K. A.,, M. Chinouya,, O. Davidson, and, A. Copas. 2001. HIV transmission risk among sub-Saharan Africans in London travelling to their countries of origin. AIDS 15: 14421445.
34. Fenton,, K. A.,, C. Ison,, A. P. Johnson,, E. Rudd,, M. Soltani,, I. Martin,, T. Nichols, and, D. M. Livermore. 2003. Ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in England and Wales in 2002. Lancet 361: 18671869.
35. Fontanet,, A. L.,, J. Saba,, V. Chandelying,, C. Sakondhavat,, P. Bhiraleus,, S. Rugpao,, C. Chongsomchai,, O. Kiriwat,, S. Tovanabutra,, L. Dally,, J. M. Lange, and, W. Rojanapithayakorn. 1998. Protection against sexually transmitted diseases by granting sex workers in Thailand the choice of using the male or female condom: results from a randomized controlled trial. AIDS 12: 18511859.
36. Fredricks,, D. N.,, T. L. Fiedler,, K. K. Thomas,, B. B. Oakley, and, J. M. Marrazzo. 2007. Targeted PCR for detection of vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 32703276.
37. Garnett, G. P. 1998. The basic reproductive rate of infection and the course of HIV epidemics. AIDS Patient Care STDs 12: 435449.
38. Gaydos, C. A., and, T. C. Quinn. 2005. Urine nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 18: 5566.
39. Ghanem, K. G.,, J. A. Giles, and, J. M. Zenilman. 2005. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the inevitable epidemic. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 19: 351365.
40. Gilks,, C. F.,, P. Godfrey-Faussett,, B. I. Batchelor,, J. C. Ojoo,, S. J. Ojoo,, R. J. Brindle,, J. Paul,, J. Kimari,, M. C. Bruce,, J. Bwayo,, F. A. Plummer, and, D. A. Warrell. 1997. Recent transmission of tuberculosis in a cohort of HIV-1-infected female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS 11: 911918.
41. Goldenberg, S.,, J. Shoveller,, M. Koehoorn, and, A. Ostry. 2008. Barriers to STI testing among youth in a Canadian oil and gas community. Health Place 14: 718729.
42. Goldenberg, S.,, J. Shoveller,, A. Ostry, and, M. Koehoorn. 2008. Youth sexual behaviour in a boomtown: implications for the control of sexually transmitted infections. Sex. Transm. Infect. 84: 220223.
43. Gray-Swain, M. R., and, J. F. Peipert. 2006. Pelvic inflammatory disease in adolescents. Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 18: 503510.
44. Hart, G. 1974. Factors influencing venereal infection in a war environment. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 50: 6872.
45. Hawkes, S.,, G. J. Hart,, E. Bletsoe,, C. Shergold, and, A. M. Johnson. 1995. Risk behaviour and STD acquisition in genitourinary clinic attenders who have travelled. Genitourin. Med. 71: 351354.
46. Hawkes,, S.,, G. J. Hart,, A. M. Johnson,, C. Shergold,, E. Ross,, K. M. Herbert,, P. Mortimer,, J. V. Parry, and, D. Mabey. 1994. Risk behaviour and HIV prevalence in international travellers. AIDS 8: 247252.
47. Hearst, N., and, S. Chen. 2004. Condom promotion for AIDS prevention in the developing world: is it working? Stud. Fam. Plann. 35: 3947.
48. Hiltunen-Back, E.,, O. Haikala,, P. Koskela,, A. Vaalasti, and, T. Reunala. 2002. Epidemics due to imported syphilis in Finland. Sex. Transm. Dis. 29: 746751.
49. Holmes, K. K.,, R. Levine, and, M. Weaver. 2004. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bull. W. H. O. 82: 454461.
50. Hook, E. W., III, and, K. K. Holmes. 1985. Gonococcal infections. Ann. Intern. Med. 102: 229243.
51. Hook, E. W., III, and, C. M. Marra. 1992. Acquired syphilis in adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 326: 10601069.
52. Hopperus Buma,, A. P.,, R. L. Veltink,, E. J. van Ameijden,, C. H. Tendeloo, and, R. A. Coutinho. 1995. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases in Dutch marines and naval personnel on a United Nations mission in Cambodia. Genitourin. Med. 71: 172175.
53. Jackson,, D. J.,, J. P. Rakwar,, B. Chohan,, K. Mandaliya,, J. J. Bwayo,, J. O. Ndinya-Achola,, N. J. Nagelkerke,, J. K. Kreiss, and, S. Moses. 1997. Urethral infection in a workplace population of East African men: evaluation of strategies for screening and management. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 833838.
54. Jones, D. L.,, K. L. Irwin,, J. Inciardi,, B. Bowser,, R. Schilling,, C. Word,, P. Evans,, S. Faruque,, H. V. McCoy,, B. R. Edlin, et al. 1998. The high-risk sexual practices of crack-smoking sex workers recruited from the streets of three American cities. Sex. Transm. Dis. 25: 187193.
55. Karpati, A.,, S. Galea,, T. Awerbuch, and, R. Levins. 2002. Variability and vulnerability at the ecological level: implications for understanding the social determinants of health. Am. J. Public Health 92: 17681772.
56. Kilmarx,, P. H.,, K. Limpakarnjanarat,, S. Supawitkul,, S. Korattana,, N. L. Young,, B. S. Parekh,, R. A. Respess,, T. D. Mastro, and, M. E. St Louis. 1998. Mucosal disruption due to use of a widely-distributed commercial vaginal product: potential to facilitate HIV transmission. AIDS 12: 767773.
57. Koutsky,, L. A.,, K. A. Ault,, C. M. Wheeler,, D. R. Brown,, E. Barr,, F. B. Alvarez,, L. M. Chiacchierini, and, K. U. Jansen. 2002. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. 347: 16451651.
58. Lau,, J. T.,, A. S. Tang, and, H. Y. Tsui. 2003. The relationship between condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and location of commercial sex transaction among male Hong Kong clients. AIDS 17: 105112.
59. Lau, J. T., and, J. Thomas. 2001. Risk behaviours of Hong Kong male residents travelling to mainland China: a potential bridge population for HIV infection. AIDS Care 13: 7181.
60. Lenoir,, C. D.,, N. E. Adler,, D. L. Borzekowski,, J. M. Tschann, and, J. M. Ellen. 2006. What you don’t know can hurt you: perceptions of sex-partner concurrency and partner-reported behavior. J. Adolesc. Health 38: 179185.
61. Malone,, J. D.,, K. C. Hyams,, R. E. Hawkins,, T. W. Sharp, and, F. D. Daniell. 1993. Risk factors for sexually-transmitted diseases among deployed U.S. military personnel. Sex. Transm. Dis. 20: 294298.
62. Manhart,, L. E.,, K. K. Holmes,, L. A. Koutsky,, T. R. Wood,, D. L. Kenney,, Q. Feng, and, N. B. Kiviat. 2006. Human papillomavirus infection among sexually active young women in the United States: implications for developing a vaccination strategy. Sex. Transm. Dis. 33: 502508.
63. Marrazzo,, J. M.,, H. C. Wiesenfeld,, P. J. Murray,, B. Busse,, L. Meyn,, M. Krohn, and, S. L. Hillier. 2006. Risk factors for cervicitis among women with bacterial vaginosis. J. Infect. Dis. 193: 617624.
64. McCarthy, A. E., and, M. D. Mileno. 2006. Prevention and treatment of travel-related infections in compromised hosts. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 19: 450455.
65. Mercer,, C. H.,, K. A. Fenton,, K. Wellings,, A. J. Copas,, B. Erens, and, A. M. Johnson. 2007. Sex partner acquisition while overseas: results from a British national probability survey. Sex. Transm. Infect. 83: 517522.
66. Moore,, J.,, C. Beeker,, J. S. Harrison,, T. R. Eng, and, L. S. Doll. 1995. HIV risk behavior among Peace Corps volunteers. AIDS 9: 795799.
67. Moses,, S.,, E. Muia,, J. E. Bradley,, N. J. Nagelkerke,, E. N. Ngugi,, E. K. Njeru,, G. Eldridge,, J. Olenja,, K. Wotton, and, F. A. Plummer. 1994. Sexual behaviour in Kenya: implications for sexually transmitted disease transmission and control. Soc. Sci. Med. 39: 16491656.
68. Peipert, J. F. 2003. Clinical practice. Genital chlamydial infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 349: 24242430.
69. Peipert,, J. F.,, R. B. Ness,, J. Blume,, D. E. Soper,, R. Holley,, H. Randall,, R. L. Sweet,, S. J. Sondheimer,, S. L. Hendrix,, A. Amortegui,, G. Trucco, and, D. C. Bass. 2001. Clinical predictors of endometritis in women with symptoms and signs of pelvic inflammatory disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 184: 856863.
70. Peipert,, J. F.,, R. B. Ness,, D. E. Soper, and, D. Bass. 2000. Association of lower genital tract inflammation with objective evidence of endometritis. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 8: 8387.
71. Rojanapithayakorn, W., and, R. Hanenberg. 1996. The 100% condom program in Thailand. AIDS 10: 17.
72. Rompalo,, A. M.,, J. Lawlor, P. Seaman,, T. C. Quinn,, J. M. Zenilman, and, E. W. Hook III. 2001. Modification of syphilitic genital ulcer manifestations by coexistent HIV infection. Sex. Transm. Dis. 28: 448454.
73. Royce, R. A.,, A. Sena,, W. Cates, Jr., and, M. S. Cohen. 1997. Sexual transmission of HIV. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 10721078.
74. Salit, I. E.,, M. Sano,, A. K. Boggild, and, K. C. Kain. 2005. Travel patterns and risk behaviour of HIV-positive people travelling internationally. CMAJ 172: 884888.
75. Sarwal, S.,, T. Wong,, C. Sevigny, and, L. K. Ng. 2003. Increasing incidence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in Canada. CMAJ 168: 872873.
76. Shafer,, M. A.,, C. B. Boyer,, R. A. Shaffer,, J. Schachter,, S. I. Ito, and, S. K. Brodine. 2002. Correlates of sexually transmitted diseases in a young male deployed military population. Mil. Med. 167: 496500.
77. Sobel, J. D. 1997. Vaginitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 18961903.
78. Soper, D. 2004. Trichomoniasis: under control or undercontrolled? Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 190: 281290.
79. Sucato, G.,, A. Wald,, E. Wakabayashi,, J. Vieira, and, L. Corey. 1998. Evidence of latency and reactivation of both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 in the genital region. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 10691072.
80. Tilzey, A. J., and, J. E. Banatvala. 2002. Protection from HIV on electives: questionnaire survey of UK medical schools. BMJ 325: 10101011.
81. United States Department of State. 2002. Trafficking in Persons Report—2002. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
82. Van der Bij,, A. K.,, J. Spaargaren, S. A. Morre,, H. S. Fennema,, A. Mindel,, R. A. Coutinho, and, H. J. de Vries. 2006. Diagnostic and clinical implications of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men: a retrospective case-control study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 186194.
83. Wald, A.,, M. L. Huang,, D. Carrell,, S. Selke, and, L. Corey. 2003. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA on mucosal surfaces: comparison with HSV isolation in cell culture. J. Infect. Dis. 188: 13451351.
84. Wald,, A., J. Zeh,, S. Selke,, T. Warren,, A. J. Ryncarz,, R. Ashley,, J. N. Krieger, and, L. Corey. 2000. Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 342: 844850.
85. Ward, H.,, S. Day,, A. Green,, K. Cooper, and, J. Weber. 2004. Declining prevalence of STI in the London sex industry, 1985 to 2002. Sex. Transm. Infect. 80: 374376.
86. Warner,, L.,, M. Macaluso,, D. Newman,, H. Austin,, D. Kleinbaum,, M. Kamb,, J. Douglas,, C. K. Malotte, and, J. M. Zenilman. 2006. Condom effectiveness for prevention of C trachomatis infection. Sex. Transm. Infect. 82: 265.
87. Wasserheit, J. N. 1992. Epidemiological synergy. Interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sex. Transm. Dis. 19: 6177.
88. Wasserheit, J. N., and, S. O. Aral. 1996. The dynamic topology of sexually transmitted disease epidemics: implications for prevention strategies. J. Infect. Dis. 174 (Suppl. 2): S201S213.
89. Weinstock, H.,, S. Berman, and, W. Cates, Jr. 2004. Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect. Sex Reprod. Health 36: 610.
90. Winer,, R. L.,, S. K. Lee,, J. P. Hughes,, D. E. Adam,, N. B. Kiviat, and, L. A. Koutsky. 2003. Genital human papillomavirus infection: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of female university students. Am. J. Epidemiol. 157: 218226.
91. Wong, M. L.,, R. K. Chan, and, D. Koh. 2007. HIV prevention among travelers: why do men not use condoms when they engage in commercial sex overseas? Sex. Transm. Dis. 34: 237244.
92. Wong,, M. L.,, R. K. Chan,, D. Koh,, M. E. Barrett,, S. K. Chew, and, S. S. Wee. 2005. A comparative study of condom use and self-reported sexually transmitted infections between foreign Asian and local clients of sex workers in Singapore. Sex. Transm. Dis. 32: 439445.


Generic image for table

Major STDs

Citation: Zenilman J. 2009. From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel, p 311-330. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch13
Generic image for table

Recent papers on travel STDs

Citation: Zenilman J. 2009. From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel, p 311-330. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch13
Generic image for table

STD prevention strategy

Citation: Zenilman J. 2009. From Boudoir to Bordello: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Travel, p 311-330. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch13

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error