1887

Chapter 14 : Infections from Body Piercing and Tattoos

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Infections from Body Piercing and Tattoos, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815950/9781555814847_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815950/9781555814847_Chap14-2.gif

Abstract:

Tattoos and body piercing have received increased attention in recent years. Temporary tattoos and body jewelry (without actual piercing) are popular decorative items for children as well. These procedures include tattooing, body piercing, scarification, branding, and surgical modifications. Streptococci and staphylococci are the most common bacterial causes of local infection at the tattoo site and may cause cellulitis, impetigo, erysipelas, or furunculosis. Infections associated with endogenous microorganisms are not completely preventable, although the use of appropriate sterile techniques during tattoo application and proper aftercare of the new tattoo may serve to minimize the risk. Among the exogenously acquired diseases associated with tattoos, viral hepatitis has probably been reported most commonly. The earliest reported outbreaks of acute hepatitis following tattooing occurred in military personnel who had received their tattoos at the same parlor (in which hygienic techniques were not employed). All of the bacteria available for testing from patients were noted to be the USA300 genotype, the most common strain of CA-MRSA associated with skin infections. Genital piercings are predisposed to infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli, especially the , as well as anaerobes, staphylococci, and streptococci. Medical practitioners and the general public should be aware of the potential risks of infection associated with tattooing and body piercing. Early recognition of infection following tattooing or body piercing is important to prevent potential complications, but such infections can be difficult to appreciate because most health care professionals are unfamiliar with the clinical characteristics of infections associated with these procedures.

Citation: Patel M, Cobbs C. 2009. Infections from Body Piercing and Tattoos, p 331-348. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Toxic Shock Syndrome
0.48256814
Infectious Diseases
0.44617233
Aortic Valve Endocarditis
0.4446342
Hepatitis B virus
0.4323966
0.48256814
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815950.ch14
1. Ahmed-Jushuf, I. H.,, P. L. Selby, and, A. M. Brownjohn. 1984. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis following ear piercing. Postgrad. Med. J. 60: 7374.
2. Akhondi, H., and, A. R. Rahimi. 2002. Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis after tongue piercing. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 850851.
3. Alexandridou, A. 2002. Candida endophthalmitis after tattooing in an asplenic patient. Arch. Ophthalmol. 120: 518519.
4. Allen, R. K.,, D. L. Pierson, and, O. G. Rodman. 1979. Cutaneous inoculation tuberculosis, prosectors wart occurring in a physician. Cutis 23: 815818.
5. Altman, J. S., and, K. S. Manglani. 1997. Recurrent condyloma acuminatum due to piercing of the penis. Cutis 60: 237238.
6. Anderson,, W. R.,, D. J. Summerton,, D. M. Sharma, and, S. A. Holmes. 2003. The urologist’s guide to genital piercing. BJU Int. 91: 245251.
7. Antoszewski, B.,, M. Jedrzejczak, and, J. Kruk-Jeromin. 2007. Complications after body piercing in a patient suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus. Int. J. Dermatol. 46: 12501252.
8. Armstrong, M. L. 1994. Adolescents and tattoos: marks of identity or deviancy? Dermatol. Nurs. 6: 119124.
9. Armstrong,, M. L.,, A. E. Roberts,, D. C. Owen, and, J. R. Koch. 2004. Contemporary college students and body piercing. J. Adolesc. Health 35: 5861.
10. Bader, M. S.,, M. Hamodat, and, J. Hutchinson. 2007. A fatal case of Staphylococcus aureus: associated toxic shock syndrome following nipple piercing. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 39: 741743.
11. Barkan, D.,, R. A. Fanne,, A. Elazari-Scheiman,, S. Maayan, and, R. Beeri. 2007. Naval piercing as a cause for Streptococcus viridans endocarditis: case report, review of the literature and implications for antibiotic prophylaxis. Cardiology 108: 159160.
12. Batiste, C.,, R. C. Bansal, and, A. J. Razzouk. 2004. Echocardiographic features of an unruptured mycotic aneurysm of the right aortic sinus of valsalva. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 17: 474477.
13. Battin, M.,, L. V. Fong, and, J. L. Monro. 1991. Gerbode ventricular septal defect following endocarditis. Eur. J. Cardio-Thorac. Surg. 5: 613614.
14. Bengualid, V.,, V. Singh,, H. Singh, and, J. Berger. 2008. Mycobacterium fortuitum and anaerobic breast abscess following nipple piercing: case presentation and review of the literature. J. Adolesc. Health 42: 530532.
15. Biggar, R. J., and, G. E. Haughie. 1975. Medical problems of ear piercing. N. Y. State J. Med. 75: 14601462.
16. Buavirat,, A.,, K. Page-Shafer,, G. J. van Griensven,, J. S. Mandel,, J. Evans,, J. Chuaratanaphong,, S. Chiamwongpat,, R. Sacks, and, A. Moss. 2003. Risk of prevalent HIV infection associated with incarceration among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand: case-control study. BMJ 326: 308312.
17. Carroll,, S. T.,, R. H. Riffenburgh,, T. A. Roberts, and, E. B. Myhre. 2002. Tattoos and body piercings as indicators of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Pediatrics 109: 10211027.
18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Tetanus surveillance—United States, 1995–1997. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47 (SS-02): 113.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Tetanus surveillance—United States, 1998–2000. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52 (SS-03): 18.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections among tattoo recipients—Ohio, Kentucky, and Vermont, 2004–2005. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 677679.
21. Cetta, F.,, L. C. Graham,, R. C. Lichtenberg, and, C. A. Warnes. 1999. Piercing and tattooing in patients with congenital heart disease: patient and physician perspectives. J. Adolesc. Health 24: 160162.
22. Choong, K. Y., and, L. J. Roberts. 1996. Ritual Samoan body tattooing and associated sporotrichosis. Australas. J. Dermatol. 37: 5053.
23. Chowfin, A.,, A. Pott,, A. Paul, and, P. Carson. 1999. Spinal epidural abscess after tattooing. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 225226.
24. Collings, D. W., and, W. Murray. 1895. Three cases of inoculation of tuberculosis from tattooing. Br. Med. J. 1: 12001201.
25. Daniel, A. R., and, T. Shehab. 2005. Transmission of hepatitis C through swapping of body jewelry. Pediatrics 116: 12641265.
26. De Cuyper, C. 2008. Permanent makeup: indications and complications. Clin. Dermatol. 26: 3034.
27. de Kleer, N.,, M. Cohen,, J. Semple,, A. Simor, and, O. Antonyshyn. 2001. Nipple piercing may be contraindicated in male patients with chest implants. Ann. Plast. Surg. 47: 188190.
28. Demirtas, Y.,, Y. Sariguney,, O. Cukurluoglu,, S. Ayhan, and, C. Celebi. 2004. Nipple piercing: it is wiser to avoid in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Dermatol. Surg. 30:1184.
29. Doll, A. C. 1988. Tattooing in prison and HIV infection. Lancet i: 6667.
30. Dubose, J., and, J. W. Pratt. 2004. Victim of fashion: endocarditis after oral piercing. Curr. Surg. 61: 474477.
31. Dufour,, A.,, M. Alary,, C. Poulin,, F. Allard,, L. Noel,, G. Trottier,, D. Lepine, and, C. Hankins. 1996. Prevalence and risk behaviours for HIV infection among inmates of a provincial prison in Quebec City. AIDS 10: 10091015.
32. Dupont, P.,, P. Maragnes,, G. de la Gastine,, M. Jokic, and, M. Morin. 2006. Tricuspid valve endocarditis after umbilical piercing. Arch. Mal. Coeur Vaiss. 99: 629631.
33. Dyce,, O.,, J. R. Bruno,, D. Hong,, K. Silverstein,, M. J. Brown, and, N. Mirza. 2000. Tongue piercing … the new “rusty nail”? Head Neck 22: 728732.
34. Estebanez-Estebanez,, P.,, C. Colomo-Gomez,, M. V. Zunzunegui-Pastor,, M. Rua Figueroa,, M. Perez,, C. Ortiz,, P. Heras, and, F. Babin. 1990. Jails and AIDS. Risk factors for HIV infection in the prisons of Madrid. Gac. Sanit. 4: 100105. (In Spanish.)
35. Ferguson,, A. W.,, A. Jollands, M. Kirkpatrick,, S. D. Pringle, and, N. D. George. 2006. Infective endocarditis presenting with Parinaud’s dorsal midbrain syndrome. J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 43: 4143.
36. Fisher, C. G.,, M. A. Kacica, and, N. M. Bennett. 2005. Risk factors for cartilage infections of the ear. Am. J. Prev. Med. 29: 204209.
37. Friedel, J. M.,, J. Stehlik,, M. Desai, and, J. E. Granato. 2003. Infective endocarditis after oral body piercing. Cardiol. Rev. 11: 252255.
38. George, J., and, M. White. 1989. Infection as a consequence of ear piercing. Practitioner 23: 404406.
39. Gerberding, J. L. 1995. Management of occupational exposures to blood-borne viruses. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 444451.
40. Ghorpade, A. 2003. Lupus vulgaris over a tattoo mark—inoculation tuberculosis. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 17: 569571.
41. Ghorpade, A. 2006. Tattoo inoculation lupus vulgaris in two Indian ladies. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 20: 476477.
42. Ghorpade, A. 2002. Inoculation (tattoo) leprosy: a report of 31 cases. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 16: 494499.
43. Grice,, E. A.,, H. H. Kong,, G. Renaud,, A. C. Young,,NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, G. G. Bouffard,, R. W. Blakesley,, T. G. Wolfsberg,, M. L. Turner, and, J. A. Segre. 2008. A diversity profile of the human skin microbiota. Genome Res. 18: 10431050.
44. Guiard-Schmid,, J. B.,, H. Picard,, L. Slama,, C. Maslo,, C. Amiel,, G. Pialoux,, M. G. Lebrette, and, W. Rozenbaum. 2000. Piercing and its infectious complications: a public health issue in France. Presse Med. 29: 19481956.
45. Harding,, P. R.,, M. W. Yerkey,, G. Deye, and, D. Storey. 2002. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endocarditis secondary to tongue piercing. J. Miss. State Med. Assoc. 43: 109.
46. Hayes, M. O., and, G. A. Harkness. 2001. Body piercing as a risk factor for viral hepatitis: an integrative research review. Am. J. Infect. Control 29: 271274.
47. Hellard, M. E.,, C. K. Aitken, and, J. S. Hocking. 2007. Tattooing in prisons—not such a pretty picture. Am. J. Infect. Control 35: 477480.
48. Horney,, D. A.,, J. M. Gaither,, R. Lauer,, A. L. Norins, and, P. N. Mathur. 1985. Cutaneous inoculation tuberculosis secondary to “jailhouse tattooing.” Arch. Dermatol. 121: 648650.
49. Hoyer, A., and, M. Silberbach. 2005. Infective endocarditis. Pediatr. Rev. 26: 394400.
50. Hrdy, D. B. 1987. Cultural practices contributing to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Africa. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9: 11091119.
51. Hutin, J. M. F. 1853. Recherches sur les Tatouages. J. B. Baillier, Paris, France.
52. Jacobs, V. R.,, K. Golombeck,, W. Jonat, and, M. Kiechle. 2002. Three case reports of breast abscess after nipple piercing: underestimated health problems of a fashion phenomenon. Zentbl. Gynaekol. 124: 378385. (In German.)
53. Javaid, M., and, M. Shibu. 1999. Breast implant infection following nipple piercing. Br. J. Plast. Surg. 52: 676677.
54. Keen, W. E.,, A. C. Markum, and, M. Samadpour. 2004. Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections caused by commercial piercing of the upper ear cartilage. JAMA 291: 981985.
55. Kloppenburg, G., and, J. G. Maessen. 2007. Streptococcus endocarditis after tongue piercing. J. Heart Valve Dis. 16: 328330.
56. Korman, T. M.,, M. L. Grayson, and, J. D. Turnidge. 1997. Polymicrobial septicaemia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes following traditional tattooing. J. Infect. 35:203.
57. Kovarik, A.,, M. Setina,, M. Sulda,, P. Pazderkova, and, A. Mokracek. 2007. Infective endocarditis of the tricuspid valve caused by Staphylococcus aureus after ear piercing. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 39: 266268.
58. Kramer, F.,, S. A. Sasse,, J. C. Simms, and, J. M. Leedom. 1993. Primary cutaneous tuberculosis after a needlestick injury from a patient with AIDS and undiagnosed tuberculosis. Ann. Intern. Med. 119: 594595.
59. Laumann, A. E., and, A. J. Derick. 2006. Tattoos and body piercings in the United States: a national data set. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 55: 413421.
60. Lee, S.,, M. Chung,, J. Lee,, E. S. Kim, and, J. Suh. 2006. A case of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis after ear piercing in a patient with normal cardiac valve and a questionnaire survey on adverse events of body piercing in college students of Korea. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 38: 130132.
61. Lewis, C. G.,, M. K. Wells, and, W. C. Jennings. 2004. Mycobacterium fortuitum breast infection following nipple-piercing mimicking carcinoma. Breast J. 10: 363365.
62. Lick,, S. D.,, S. N. Edozie,, K. J. Woodside, and, V. R. Conti. 2005. Streptococcus viridans endocarditis from tongue piercing. J. Emerg. Med. 29: 5759.
63. Long, G. E., and, L. S. Rickman. 1994. Infectious complications of tattoos. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18: 610619.
64. Lovejoy, F. H., Jr., and, D. H. Smith. 1970. Life-threatening staphylococcal disease following ear piercing. Pediatrics 46: 301303.
65. Lowe, J., and, S. N. Chatterjee. 1939. Scarification, tattooing etc. in relation to leprous lesions of the skin. Lepr. India 11: 1418.
66. Makkai, T., and, I. McAllister. 2001. Prevalence of tattooing and body piercing in the Australian community. Commun. Dis. Intell. 25: 6772.
67. Mamtani, R.,, P. Malhotra,, P. S. Gupta, and, B. K. Jain. 1978. A comparative study of urban and rural tetanus in adults. Int. J. Epidemiol. 7: 185188.
68. Martinello, R. A., and, E. L. Cooney. 2003. Cerebellar brain abscess associated with tongue piercing. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:e32e34.
69. Mayers,, L. B.,, D. A. Judelson,, B. W. Moriarty, and, K. W. Rundell. 2002. Prevalence of body art (body piercing and tattooing) in university undergraduates and incidence of medical complications. Mayo Clin. Proc. 77: 2934.
70. McCarthy, V. P., and, W. M. Peoples. 1988. Toxic shock syndrome after ear piercing. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7: 741742.
71. Modest, G. A., and, J. J. W. Fangman. 2002. Nipple piercing and hyperprolactinemia. N. Engl. J Med. 347: 16261627.
72. Moe, I. 1989. Samoan navel tattoo, p. 117119. In V. Vale and, A. Juno (ed.), Modern Primitives. Re-Search, San Francisco, CA.
73. More, D. R.,, J. S. Seidel, and, P. A. Bryan. 1999. Ear-piercing techniques as a cause of auricular chondritis. Pediatr. Emerg. Care 15: 189192.
74. Morgan, L. G. 1952. Primary tuberculosis inoculation of an ear lobe: report of an unusual case and review of the literature. J. Pediatr. 40: 482485.
75. Morris, P.,, E. O’Sullivan,, M. Choo,, C. Barry, and, C. J. Thompson. 2006. A rare cause of sepsis in an 18 year old. Lemierre’s syndrome with external jugular vein thrombosis. Ir. Med. J. 99: 24.
76. Nishioka, S. A., and, T. W. Gyorkos. 2001. Tattoos as risk factors for transfusion-transmitted diseases. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 5: 2734.
77. Nishioka Sde,, A.,, T. W. Gyorkos,, L. Joseph,, J.-P. Collet, and, J. D. Maclean. 2002. Tattooing and risk for transfusion-transmitted diseases: the role of the type, number and design of the tattoos, and the conditions in which they were performed. Epidemiol. Infect. 128: 6371.
78. Ochsenfahrt, C.,, R. Friedl,, A. Hannekum, and, B. A. Schumacher. 2001. Endocarditis after nipple piercing in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 71: 365366.
79. Ollero,, M.,, E. Pujol,, A. Gimeno,, A. Gea,, P. Marquez, and, J. M. Iturriaga. 1991. Risky practices associated with HIV infection in seamen who travel in sub-Saharan West Africa. Rev. Clin. Esp. 189: 416421. (In Spanish.)
80. Olsen, J. C. 2001. Lingual abscess secondary to body piercing. J. Emerg. Med. 20: 409.
81. O’Malley, C. D.,, N. Smith,, R. Braun, and, D. R. Prevots. 1998. Tetanus associated with body piercing. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 13431344.
82. Papapanagioutou,, V. A.,, M. G. Foukarakis,, J. N. Fotiadis,, E. P. Matsakas, and, A. A. Zacharoulis. 1998. Native tricuspid valve endocarditis in a young woman. Postgrad. Med. J. 74: 637638.
83. Parker, C.,, G. Kaminski, and, D. Hill. 1986. Zygomycosis in a tattoo, caused by Saksenaea vasiformis. Aust. J. Dermatol. 27: 107111.
84. Perkins, C. S.,, J. Meisner, and, J. M. Harrison. 1997. A complication of tongue piercing. Br. Dent. J. 182: 147148.
85. Poritt, R. J., and, R. E. Olsen. 1947. Two simultaneous cases of leprosy developing in tattoos. Am. J. Pathol. 23: 805807.
86. Porter, C. J. W.,, J. W. Simcock, and, C. A. MacKinnon. 2005. Necrotising fasciitis and cellulitis after traditional Samoan tattooing: case reports. J. Infect. 50: 149152.
87. Pugatch, D.,, M. Mileno, and, J. D. Rich. 1998. Possible transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from body piercing. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 767768.
88. Raja, S. G.,, S. K. Shad, and, G. D. Dreyfus. 2004. Body piercing: a rare cause of mitral valve endocarditis. J. Heart Valve Dis. 5: 854856.
89. Ramage, I. J.,, N. Wilson, and, R. B. Thomson. 1997. Fashion victim: infective endocarditis after nasal piercing. Arch. Dis. Child. 77:187.
90. Rukstinat, G. J. 1941. Tattoos. A survey, with special reference to tattoos and scars as indicators of syphilis. Arch. Pathol. 31: 640655.
91. Samantha, S.,, M. Tweeten, and, L. S. Rickman. 1998. Infectious complications of body piercing. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 735740.
92. Samuel,, M. C.,, P. M. Doherty,, M. Bulterys, and, S. A. Jenison. 2001. Association between heroin use, needle sharing and tattoos received in prison with hepatitis B and C positivity among street-recruited injecting drug users in New Mexico, USA. Epidemiol. Infect. 127: 475484.
93. Satchitnananda, D. K.,, J. Walsh, and, P. M. Schofield. 2001. Bacterial endocarditis following repeated tattooing. Heart 85: 1112.
94. Sehgal, V. N. 1971. Inoculation leprosy appearing after seven years of tattooing. Dermatologica 142: 5861.
95. Sehgal, V. N. 1987. Upgrading borderline tuberculoid developing in tattoos. Int. J. Dermatol. 26: 332333.
96. Sehgal, V. N., and Joginder. 1989. Tuberculoid (TT) leprosy: localization on a tattoo. Lepr. Rev. 60: 241242.
97. Sehgal, V. N.,, S. Jain,, S. N. Bhattacharya, and, S. Chouhan. 1991. Borderline tuberculoid (BT) leprosy confined to a tattoo. Int. J. Lepr. 59: 323325.
98. Sewnath, M.,, T. Faber, and, R. Castelein. 2007. Pyogenic spondylitis as a complication of ear piercing: differentiating between spondylitis and discitis. Acta Orthop. Belg. 73: 128132.
99. Silverman,, A. L.,, J. S. Sekhon,, S. J. Saginaw,, D. Wiedbrauk,, M. Balasubramaniam, and, S. C. Gordon. 2000. Tattoo application is not associated with an increased risk for chronic viral hepatitis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95: 13121315.
100. Simplot, T. C., and, H. T. Hoffman. 1998. Comparison between cartilage and soft tissue ear piercing complications. Am. J. Otolaryngol. 4: 305310.
101. Singh, G.,, M. A. Tutakne,, V. D. Tiwari, and, R. K. Dutta. 1985. Inoculation leprosy developing after tattooing—a case report. Indian J. Lepr. 57: 887888.
102. Smith, B. F. 1950. Occurrence of hepatitis in recently tattooed service personnel. JAMA 144: 10741076.
103. Sow,, P. S.,, B. M. Diop,, H. L. Barry,, S. Badiane, and, A. M. Coll-Seck. 1993. Tetanus and traditional practices in Dakar (report of 141 cases). Dakar Med. 38: 5559.
104. Stirn, A. 2003. Body piercing: medical consequences and psychological motivations. Lancet 361: 12051215.
105. Thorner, M. 1894. Pathological conditions following piercing of the lobules of the ear. JAMA 22: 110112.
106. Tronel, H.,, H. Chaudemanche,, N. Pechier,, L. Doutrelant, and, B. Hoen. 2001. Endocarditis due to Neisseria mucosa after tongue piercing. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7: 275276.
107. Trupiano,, J. K.,, B. A. Sebek,, J. Goldfarb,, L. R. Levy,, G. S. Hall, and, G. W. Procop. 2001. Mastitis due to Mycobacterium abscessus after body piercing. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 131134.
108. Turkeltaub, S. H., and, M. B. Habal. 1990. Acute Pseudomonas chondritis as a sequel to ear piercing. Ann. Plast. Surg. 24: 279282.
109. Vale, V., and, A. Juno. 1989. Lyle Tuttle, p. 114117. In V. Vale and, A. Juno (ed.), Modern Primitives. Re-Search, San Francisco, CA.
110. Vargas,, J.,, M. Carballo,, M. Hernandez,, N. Rojas,, O. Jimenez,, J. Riera,, L. Romero,, A. J. Rodriguez-Morales, and, M. Silva. 2005. Rapid development of auricular infection due to imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa following self-administered piercing of the high ear. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 18231824.
111. Vatsyanyana. 1994. The Complete Kama Sutra: the First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text. Translated by Alain Danielou. Park Street Press, Rochester, NY.
112. Weinberg, J. B., and, R. A. Blackwood. 2003. Case report of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis after navel piercing. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22: 9495.
113. Wilde, A. G. 1929–1930. Vaccinia infected tattoo: case report. New Orleans Med. Surg. J. 82: 385386.
114. Wilson,, W.,, K. A. Taubert,, M. Gewitz,, P. B. Lockhart,, L. M. Baddour,, M. Levison,, A. Bolger,, C. H. Cabell,, M. Takahashi,, R. S. Baltimore,, J. W. Newburger,, B. L. Strom,, L. Y. Tani,, M. Gerber,, R. O. Bonow,, T. Pallasch,, S. T. Shulman,, A. H. Rowley,, J. C. Burns,, P. Ferrieri,, T. Gardner,, D. Goff, and, D. T. Durack. 2007. Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes and Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 138: 739760.
115. Wolf, E. K., and, A. E. Laumann. 2008. The use of blood-type tattoos during the Cold War. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58: 472476.
116. Wong, H.-W.,, Y.-K. Tay, and, C.-S. Sim. 2005. Papular eruption on a tattoo: a case of primary inoculation tuberculosis. Australas. J. Dermatol. 46: 8487.
117. Zardawi, I. M.,, F. Jones,, D. A. Clark, and, J. Holland. 2004. Gordonia terrae-induced suppurative granulomatous mastitis following nipple piercing. Pathology 36: 275278.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Overview of infectious complications of body piercing

Citation: Patel M, Cobbs C. 2009. Infections from Body Piercing and Tattoos, p 331-348. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Endocarditis associated with tattooing and body piercing

Citation: Patel M, Cobbs C. 2009. Infections from Body Piercing and Tattoos, p 331-348. In Schlossberg D (ed), Infections of Leisure, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815950.ch14

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error