1887

Chapter 4 : Specimen Test Options: Routine Diagnostic Methods and Body Sites

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Specimen Test Options: Routine Diagnostic Methods and Body Sites, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815967/9781555814540_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815967/9781555814540_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

This section focuses on ova and parasite examination of stool specimens using routine diagnostic methods and body sites. Diagnostic parasitology includes laboratory procedures that are designed to detect organisms within clinical specimens by using morphologic criteria and visual identification, rather than culture, biochemical tests, and/ or physical growth characteristics. The most common specimen submitted to the diagnostic laboratory is the stool specimen. The most commonly performed procedure in parasitology is the ova and parasite examination (O&P exam), which consists of three separate protocols: the direct wet mount, the concentration, and the permanent stained smear. Several other diagnostic techniques are available for the recovery and identification of parasitic organisms from the intestinal tract. A roundworm parasite that has worldwide distribution and is commonly found in children is , known as pinworm or seatworm. Diagnosis of pinworm infection is usually based on the recovery of typical eggs, which are described as thick-shelled, football-shaped eggs with one slightly flattened side. Most routine clinical laboratories do not have the animal care facilities necessary to provide animal inoculation capabilities for the diagnosis of parasitic infections. In certain parasitic infections, the standard diagnostic laboratory procedures may not be sufficient to confirm infection or specimen collection may not be practical or cost-effective. In these circumstances, alternative methods may be helpful; these include antibody, antigen, and nucleic acid detection. In the absence of reliable serologic diagnostic tests, skin tests have been used to provide indirect evidence of infection.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Specimen Test Options: Routine Diagnostic Methods and Body Sites, p 61-86. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch4
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815967.ch04
1. Arakaki, T.,, M. Iwanaga,, F. Kinjo,, A. Saito,, R. Asato, and, T. Ikeshiro. 1990. Efficacy of agar-plate culture in detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. J. Parasitol. 76:425428.
2. Beal, C.,, R. Goldsmith,, M. Kotby,, M. Sherif,, A. El-Tagi,, A. Farid,, S. Zakaria, and, J. Eapen. 1992. The plastic envelope method, a simplified technique for culture diagnosis of trichomoniasis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:22652268.
3. Beal, C. B.,, P. Viens,, R. G. L. Grant, and, J. M. Hughes. 1970. A new technique for sampling duodenal contents: demonstration of upper small-bowel pathogens. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19:349352.
4. Beaver, P. C. 1949. A nephelometric method of calibrating the photoelectric meter for making egg-counts by direct fecal smear. J. Parasitol. 35:13.
5. Beaver, P. C. 1950. The standardization of fecal smears for estimating egg production and worm burden. J. Parasitol. 36:451456.
6. Borchardt, K. A.,, and R.F. Smith. 1991. An evaluation of an InPouch TV culture method for diagnosing Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Genitourin. Med. 67:149152.
7. Garcia, L. S. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
8. Garcia, L. S. (Coordinating Ed.). 2003. Selection and Use of Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Cumitech 30A. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
9. Garcia, L. S. (Coordinating Ed.). 2008. Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Blood-Borne Parasitic Diseases. Cumitech 46. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
10. Harada, U.,, and O. Mori. 1955. A new method for culturing hookworm. Yonago Acta Med. 1:177179.
11. Hsieh, H. C. 1962. A test-tube filter-paper method for the diagnosis of Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Strongyloides stercoralis. WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 255:2730.
12. Isenberg, H. D. (ed.). 2004. Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 2nd ed., vol. 1, 2, and 3. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
13. Koga, K. S.,, C. Kasuya,, K. Khamboonruang,, M. Sukhavat,, M. Ieda,, N. Takatsuka,, K. Kita, and, H. Ohtomo. 1991. A modified agar plate method for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 45:518521.
14. Markell, E. K.,, M. Voge, and, D. T. John. 1992. Medical Parasitology, 7th ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
15. Melvin, D. M.,, and M.M. Brooke. 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, p. 163189. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare publication no. (CDC) 85-8282. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
16. NCCLS/CLSI. 2000. Laboratory Diagnosis of Blood-borne Parasitic Diseases. Approved guideline M15-A. NCCLS/CLSI, Wayne, PA.
17. NCCLS/CLSI. 2005, Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract. Approved guideline M28-2A. NCCLS/CLSI, Wayne, PA.
18. Stoll, N. R.,, and W.C. Hausheer. 1926. Concerning two options in dilution egg counting: small drop and displacement. Am. J. Hyg. 6:134145.
19. Wilson, M.,, P. Schantz, and, N. Pieniazek. 1995. Diagnosis of parasitic infections: immunologic and molecular methods, p. 1159–1170. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover, and, R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4.1

Body site, procedures and specimens, recommended methods and relevant parasites, and comments

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Specimen Test Options: Routine Diagnostic Methods and Body Sites, p 61-86. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.2

Serologic, antigen, and probe tests used in the diagnosis of parasitic infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Specimen Test Options: Routine Diagnostic Methods and Body Sites, p 61-86. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch4

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error