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Chapter 7 : Parasite Identification

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Abstract:

This section deals with the parasite identification. The commonly identified protozoa such as flagellates, ciliates, coccidia, microsporidia, sporozoa (blood and tissue), amebae with their species are discussed in the section. Nematodes in tissue, blood and tissue, intestinal regions are presented giving detailed information. Cestodes such as , , , , , , are described in detail. The section focuses on trematodes in liver and lungs, blood, such as , species. All the parasites are diagnosed using the diagnostic methods. The standard O&P exam is recommended for recovery and identification of eggs in stool specimens, primarily from the wet preparation examination of the concentration sediment. The life cycle of each parasite with their pathogenic, epidemiology and control measures are listed in detail. Additional information on parasites is also given in the section.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
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Parasites Pathogenesis
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Traveler's Diarrhea
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Rheumatic Heart Disease
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Zoonotic Diseases
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The first four images are E. histolytica trophozoites (note the ingested RBCs). Image 5 is a precyst with one chromatoidal bar. This organism would need to be identified as “Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (might or might not be the true pathogen, E. histolytica).”
Images from left to right: The first four images are E. histolytica trophozoites (note the ingested RBCs). Image 5 is a precyst with one chromatoidal bar. This organism would need to be identified as “Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (might or might not be the true pathogen, E. histolytica).”

: The first four images are trophozoites (note the ingested RBCs). Image 5 is a precyst with one chromatoidal bar. This organism would need to be identified as “/ (might or might not be the true pathogen, ).”

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The first two images in the Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar group are trophozoites (no ingested RBCs within the trophozoite cytoplasm). The third image is a cyst containing a chromatoidal bar. This organism would need to be identified as Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (it might be the true pathogen, E. histolytica, or the nonpathogenic species, E. dispar).
Images from left to right: The first two images in the Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar group are trophozoites (no ingested RBCs within the trophozoite cytoplasm). The third image is a cyst containing a chromatoidal bar. This organism would need to be identified as Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (it might be the true pathogen, E. histolytica, or the nonpathogenic species, E. dispar).

: The first two images in the / group are trophozoites (no ingested RBCs within the trophozoite cytoplasm). The third image is a cyst containing a chromatoidal bar. This organism would need to be identified as / (it might be the true pathogen, , or the nonpathogenic species, ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The first two images are E. hartmanni trophozoites. The next two are E. hartmanni cysts containing chromatoidal bars (often the cyst contains only two nuclei). Note these amebae can often be confused with E. histolytica or E. dispar; they would be separated on the basis of size.
Images from left to right: The first two images are E. hartmanni trophozoites. The next two are E. hartmanni cysts containing chromatoidal bars (often the cyst contains only two nuclei). Note these amebae can often be confused with E. histolytica or E. dispar; they would be separated on the basis of size.

: The first two images are trophozoites. The next two are cysts containing chromatoidal bars (often the cyst contains only two nuclei). Note these amebae can often be confused with or ; they would be separated on the basis of size.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The far left two images in the bottom row are E. coli trophozoites (as is the middle image in the top row). The next two images are E. coli cysts. Note that there are five or more nuclei in the cysts.
Images from left to right: The far left two images in the bottom row are E. coli trophozoites (as is the middle image in the top row). The next two images are E. coli cysts. Note that there are five or more nuclei in the cysts.

: The far left two images in the bottom row are trophozoites (as is the middle image in the top row). The next two images are cysts. Note that there are five or more nuclei in the cysts.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The first three images are E. gingivalis trophozoites; note the ingested PMNs. Image 4 is an E. polecki cyst; note the large inclusion in the cyst (not seen in other Entamoeba species).
Images from left to right: The first three images are E. gingivalis trophozoites; note the ingested PMNs. Image 4 is an E. polecki cyst; note the large inclusion in the cyst (not seen in other Entamoeba species).

: The first three images are trophozoites; note the ingested PMNs. Image 4 is an cyst; note the large inclusion in the cyst (not seen in other species).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The left-hand image is a trophozoite of E. nana. The next image is another E. nana trophozoite (note the unusual nuclear chromatin arrangement; there is tremendous nuclear variation in this species). The two images to the right are E. nana cysts (note that some are round while some are the more typical oval shape).
Images from left to right: The left-hand image is a trophozoite of E. nana. The next image is another E. nana trophozoite (note the unusual nuclear chromatin arrangement; there is tremendous nuclear variation in this species). The two images to the right are E. nana cysts (note that some are round while some are the more typical oval shape).

: The left-hand image is a trophozoite of . The next image is another trophozoite (note the unusual nuclear chromatin arrangement; there is tremendous nuclear variation in this species). The two images to the right are cysts (note that some are round while some are the more typical oval shape).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) I. bütschlii trophozoite and cyst; (bottom), two trophozoites and one cyst containing the large glycogen vacuole.
Images from left to right: (Top) I. bütschlii trophozoite and cyst; (bottom), two trophozoites and one cyst containing the large glycogen vacuole.

: (Top) trophozoite and cyst; (bottom), two trophozoites and one cyst containing the large glycogen vacuole.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images: (Top) Drawing of B. hominis central-body form. (Bottom) Central-body forms on a trichrome-stained smear.
Images: (Top) Drawing of B. hominis central-body form. (Bottom) Central-body forms on a trichrome-stained smear.

(Top) Drawing of central-body form. (Bottom) Central-body forms on a trichrome-stained smear.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.1
Plate 7.1

Row 1 (left to right): trophozoite, / trophozoite, and / cyst; row 2: trophozoites (left and middle) and cyst (right); row 3: trophozoite, trophozoite, and cyst; row 4: cyst (wet preparation), cyst, and cyst.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.2
Plate 7.2

Row 1 (left to right): central-body forms (note that the cell in the right image is dividing; this is occasionally seen in fecal specimens; row 2: trophozoites (note that the middle image has nuclear variation, which is common with this organism; the right organism mimics ); row 3: trophozoites and (on the right) cyst; row 4: trophozoite and cysts.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Drawing of trophozoite and cyst (left); Giardia trophozoites (center); Giardia cysts (right).
Images from left to right: Drawing of trophozoite and cyst (left); Giardia trophozoites (center); Giardia cysts (right).

: Drawing of trophozoite and cyst (left); trophozoites (center); cysts (right).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The first drawing is a Dientamoeba trophozoite; the next three photographs are D. fragilis trophozoites (note that organisms can have either a single nucleus or multiple nuclei, most of which contain fragments of nuclear chromatin).
Images from left to right: The first drawing is a Dientamoeba trophozoite; the next three photographs are D. fragilis trophozoites (note that organisms can have either a single nucleus or multiple nuclei, most of which contain fragments of nuclear chromatin).

: The first drawing is a trophozoite; the next three photographs are trophozoites (note that organisms can have either a single nucleus or multiple nuclei, most of which contain fragments of nuclear chromatin).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The top row shows a drawing of a C. mesnili trophozoite and cyst and then two C. mesnili trophozoites. The bottom row shows two cysts (note the curved fibril, the “shepherd’s crook”).
Images from left to right: The top row shows a drawing of a C. mesnili trophozoite and cyst and then two C. mesnili trophozoites. The bottom row shows two cysts (note the curved fibril, the “shepherd’s crook”).

: The top row shows a drawing of a trophozoite and cyst and then two trophozoites. The bottom row shows two cysts (note the curved fibril, the “shepherd’s crook”).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Life cycle for Trichomonas tenax.
Life cycle for Trichomonas tenax.

Life .

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Drawing of P. hominis; photograph of P. hominis trophozoite (note that the undulating membrane extends to the bottom of the organism and the axostyle/supporting rod extends through the bottom).
Images from left to right: Drawing of P. hominis; photograph of P. hominis trophozoite (note that the undulating membrane extends to the bottom of the organism and the axostyle/supporting rod extends through the bottom).

: Drawing of ; photograph of trophozoite (note that the undulating membrane extends to the bottom of the organism and the axostyle/supporting rod extends through the bottom).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: E. hominis trophozoite and cysts; R. intestinalis trophozoite and cyst.
Images from left to right: E. hominis trophozoite and cysts; R. intestinalis trophozoite and cyst.

: trophozoite and cysts; trophozoite and cyst.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top row) drawings of B. coli trophozoite and cyst; (bottom row) B. coli trophozoite, cyst, and trophozoites in intestinal tissue.
Images from left to right: (Top row) drawings of B. coli trophozoite and cyst; (bottom row) B. coli trophozoite, cyst, and trophozoites in intestinal tissue.

: (Top row) drawings of trophozoite and cyst; (bottom row) trophozoite, cyst, and trophozoites in intestinal tissue.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.3
Plate 7.3

Row 1: trophozoites; row 2: trophozoites in mucus (left) and trophozoite (wet mount) (right); row 3: cysts (left and middle) and cyst (wet mount) (right); row 4 (left to right): trophozoite, cyst, and cyst (wet mount).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.4
Plate 7.4

Row 1: trophozoites; row 2: trophozoite (the nuclear chromatin has not yet completely fragmented; it can therefore mimic ) (left) and trophozoites (middle and right); row 3 (left to right): trophozoite, trophozoite, and trophozoite; row 4: trophozoites. : See section on Protozoa, Flagellates (Other Body Sites).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Cryptosporidium oocysts (4 to 6 µm) stained with modified acid-fast stain. These oocysts stain more consistently than those of Cyclospora cayetanensis. In some oocysts, the sporozoites can be seen; oocysts are infectious even if the sporozoites are not visible. In the middle are C. cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium, and an artifact can be seen (note that the Cyclospora oocyst did not retain the stain). On the right are developing Cryptosporidium at the microvillous surface (courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology).
Images from left to right: Cryptosporidium oocysts (4 to 6 µm) stained with modified acid-fast stain. These oocysts stain more consistently than those of Cyclospora cayetanensis. In some oocysts, the sporozoites can be seen; oocysts are infectious even if the sporozoites are not visible. In the middle are C. cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium, and an artifact can be seen (note that the Cyclospora oocyst did not retain the stain). On the right are developing Cryptosporidium at the microvillous surface (courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology).

: oocysts (4 to 6 µm) stained with modified acid-fast stain. These oocysts stain more consistently than those of . In some oocysts, the sporozoites can be seen; oocysts are infectious even if the sporozoites are not visible. In the middle are and , and an artifact can be seen (note that the oocyst did not retain the stain). On the right are developing at the microvillous surface (courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The first image shows C. cayetanensis oocysts (8 to 10 µm) stained with modified acid-fast stain. There is a range of clear to deeply stained oocysts; there is a lot of variation with modified acid-fast staining (modified acid-fast variable). The second image shows autofluorescent oocysts on filters commonly used for calcofluor white staining.
Images from left to right: The first image shows C. cayetanensis oocysts (8 to 10 µm) stained with modified acid-fast stain. There is a range of clear to deeply stained oocysts; there is a lot of variation with modified acid-fast staining (modified acid-fast variable). The second image shows autofluorescent oocysts on filters commonly used for calcofluor white staining.

: The first image shows oocysts (8 to 10 µm) stained with modified acid-fast stain. There is a range of clear to deeply stained oocysts; there is a lot of variation with modified acid-fast staining (modified acid-fast variable). The second image shows autofluorescent oocysts on filters commonly used for calcofluor white staining.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top row) Drawing of an immature oocyst, drawing of a mature oocyst containing two sporocysts, and an immature oocyst stained with modified acid-fast stain (note that the entire oocyst stains). (Bottom row) Immature oocyst, mature oocyst (wet mounts), and mature oocyst stained with modified acid-fast stain.
Images from left to right: (Top row) Drawing of an immature oocyst, drawing of a mature oocyst containing two sporocysts, and an immature oocyst stained with modified acid-fast stain (note that the entire oocyst stains). (Bottom row) Immature oocyst, mature oocyst (wet mounts), and mature oocyst stained with modified acid-fast stain.

: (Top row) Drawing of an immature oocyst, drawing of a mature oocyst containing two sporocysts, and an immature oocyst stained with modified acid-fast stain (note that the entire oocyst stains). (Bottom row) Immature oocyst, mature oocyst (wet mounts), and mature oocyst stained with modified acid-fast stain.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawing illustrates the infective spore (1.5 to 2.5 µm) containing the coiled polar tubule. (Top left) Spores in stool, stained with Ryan modified trichrome blue (some of the spores show the horizontal “stripe” that indicates the presence of the polar tubule); (top right) calcofluor staining of spores in a urine sediment. (Bottom) Spore development in the human intestine. Note the small size of the spores in tissue.
Images from left to right: The drawing illustrates the infective spore (1.5 to 2.5 µm) containing the coiled polar tubule. (Top left) Spores in stool, stained with Ryan modified trichrome blue (some of the spores show the horizontal “stripe” that indicates the presence of the polar tubule); (top right) calcofluor staining of spores in a urine sediment. (Bottom) Spore development in the human intestine. Note the small size of the spores in tissue.

: The drawing illustrates the infective spore (1.5 to 2.5 µm) containing the coiled polar tubule. (Top left) Spores in stool, stained with Ryan modified trichrome blue (some of the spores show the horizontal “stripe” that indicates the presence of the polar tubule); (top right) calcofluor staining of spores in a urine sediment. (Bottom) Spore development in the human intestine. Note the small size of the spores in tissue.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawing illustrates the infective spore (1.5 to 2.5 µm), containing the coiled polar tubule. (Top) Gram stain showing spores within a white blood cell; (bottom row left), nasopharyngeal aspirate with spores (Ryan blue modified trichrome stain); (bottom row right), urine sediment with direct FA reagent (to the genus Encephalitozoon).
Images from left to right: The drawing illustrates the infective spore (1.5 to 2.5 µm), containing the coiled polar tubule. (Top) Gram stain showing spores within a white blood cell; (bottom row left), nasopharyngeal aspirate with spores (Ryan blue modified trichrome stain); (bottom row right), urine sediment with direct FA reagent (to the genus Encephalitozoon).

: The drawing illustrates the infective spore (1.5 to 2.5 µm), containing the coiled polar tubule. (Top) Gram stain showing spores within a white blood cell; (bottom row left), nasopharyngeal aspirate with spores (Ryan blue modified trichrome stain); (bottom row right), urine sediment with direct FA reagent (to the genus ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.5
Plate 7.5

Row 1: sporozoites (EM; courtesy of USDA) (left) and spp. on the surface of the intestinal tract epithelium (right); row 2: organisms on the surface of the intestinal tract (EM) (left) and oocysts stained with modified acid-fast stain (middle and right); row 3: autofluorescent oocysts (left) and oocysts stained with safranin (right); row 4: oocyst (the large object), oocyst (the medium-size object), and an artifact (the small dark-staining object at the top of the image) (left), oocysts (modified acid-fast variable staining) (center), and oocyst (mature) (right).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.6
Plate 7.6

Row 1: oocysts (from left to right: modified acid-fast stain, immature, and mature); row 2: oocysts (from left to right: modified acid-fast stain, wet mount, calcofluor, modified acid-fast stain, wet mount); row 3: microsporidial spores in intestinal tissue (routine H&E stain) (left), spores from an eye specimen (silver stain) (center), and spores (modified trichrome stain; note the horizontal lines representing the polar tubules) (right); row 4: spores in urine sediment (calcofluor) (left), spores using experimental DFA reagent (center), and spores (modified trichrome stain) (right).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top row) Early ring form; the next three show developing trophozoites (note the parasite is very ameboid and there are Schüffner’s dots/stippling present); (bottom row) mature schizont containing ~16 to 18 merozoites, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte. Also note the enlarged RBCs.
Images from left to right: (Top row) Early ring form; the next three show developing trophozoites (note the parasite is very ameboid and there are Schüffner’s dots/stippling present); (bottom row) mature schizont containing ~16 to 18 merozoites, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte. Also note the enlarged RBCs.

: (Top row) Early ring form; the next three show developing trophozoites (note the parasite is very ameboid and there are Schüffner’s dots/stippling present); (bottom row) mature schizont containing ~16 to 18 merozoites, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte. Also note the enlarged RBCs.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top row) Ring in the accolé or appliqué form, double rings per cell, and developing rings (RBCs contain Maurer’s clefts); (bottom row) mature schizont, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte (note the crescent shape of gametocytes).
Images from left to right: (Top row) Ring in the accolé or appliqué form, double rings per cell, and developing rings (RBCs contain Maurer’s clefts); (bottom row) mature schizont, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte (note the crescent shape of gametocytes).

: (Top row) Ring in the accolé or appliqué form, double rings per cell, and developing rings (RBCs contain Maurer’s clefts); (bottom row) mature schizont, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte (note the crescent shape of gametocytes).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top row) Two developing ring forms and two typical band forms; (bottom row) mature schizont “rosette” formation, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte.
Images from left to right: (Top row) Two developing ring forms and two typical band forms; (bottom row) mature schizont “rosette” formation, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte.

: (Top row) Two developing ring forms and two typical band forms; (bottom row) mature schizont “rosette” formation, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top row) Two developing ring forms and two developing trophozoites (note that all four images contain true stippling, Schüffner’s dots; dots appear later in the cycle in P. vivax); (bottom row) mature schizont, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte. Note the enlarged RBCs, oval shape, and the fimbriated edges of some of the RBCs.
Images from left to right: (Top row) Two developing ring forms and two developing trophozoites (note that all four images contain true stippling, Schüffner’s dots; dots appear later in the cycle in P. vivax); (bottom row) mature schizont, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte. Note the enlarged RBCs, oval shape, and the fimbriated edges of some of the RBCs.

: (Top row) Two developing ring forms and two developing trophozoites (note that all four images contain true stippling, Schüffner’s dots; dots appear later in the cycle in ); (bottom row) mature schizont, male microgametocyte, and female macrogametocyte. Note the enlarged RBCs, oval shape, and the fimbriated edges of some of the RBCs.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top row) Babesia rings (note the Maltese cross formation in some of the RBCs; also note the three rings outside of the RBC in the first image, a situation that occurs with Babesia but very rarely with Plasmodium spp.). (Bottom row) Babesia rings; the third image is photographed at a lower magnification.
Images from left to right: (Top row) Babesia rings (note the Maltese cross formation in some of the RBCs; also note the three rings outside of the RBC in the first image, a situation that occurs with Babesia but very rarely with Plasmodium spp.). (Bottom row) Babesia rings; the third image is photographed at a lower magnification.

: (Top row) rings (note the Maltese cross formation in some of the RBCs; also note the three rings outside of the RBC in the first image, a situation that occurs with but very rarely with spp.). (Bottom row) rings; the third image is photographed at a lower magnification.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) T. gondii tachyzoites seen in bone marrow and bradyzoites seen in human tissue. (Bottom) Intracellular tachyzoites and extracellular tachyzoites from the mouse peritoneal cavity.
Images from left to right: (Top) T. gondii tachyzoites seen in bone marrow and bradyzoites seen in human tissue. (Bottom) Intracellular tachyzoites and extracellular tachyzoites from the mouse peritoneal cavity.

: (Top) tachyzoites seen in bone marrow and bradyzoites seen in human tissue. (Bottom) Intracellular tachyzoites and extracellular tachyzoites from the mouse peritoneal cavity.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.7
Plate 7.7

. Row 1: developing ring forms (in some RBCs there may be more than one ring; this is more commonly seen in , but does occur in infections); row 2: developing trophozoites (note ameboid forms and Schüffner’s dots); row 3: developing schizonts; row 4 (left to right): mature schizont, female macrogametocytes, and male microgametocyte.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.8
Plate 7.8

and spp. Row 1: developing ring forms of (note multiple rings per cell, “headphone” rings, and, in the third image, an appliqué form); row 2: ring forms (in the second image note the Maurer’s clefts [not true stippling]) (left and middle) and crescent-shaped gametocyte (right); row 3: gametocyte, exflagellation of the male microgametocyte (can occur in any of the species of in a tube of EDTA blood if the cap is removed and the blood cools to room temperature; parasites assume they are in the mosquito) (middle), and ookinete (occurs in the mosquito cycle and can mimic a gametocyte) (right); row 4: various ring forms of spp. (some of the rings are in the “Maltese cross” configuration).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.9
Plate 7.9

Rows 1 and 2: developing trophozoites (note the band form configuration); row 3: developing schizonts; row 4: mature “rosette” schizont (the last two images are from thick blood films).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Plate 7.10

. Rows 1 and 2: developing trophozoites (the parasites are much less ameboid than ; note the presence of Schüffner’s dots and the oval RBCs); row 3: developing schizonts; row 4: mature schizont and male and female gametocytes.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Drawing of amastigotes in bone marrow (visceral leishmaniasis). (Top) Amastigotes in bone marrow. (Bottom) Promastigote stages from culture.
Images from left to right: Drawing of amastigotes in bone marrow (visceral leishmaniasis). (Top) Amastigotes in bone marrow. (Bottom) Promastigote stages from culture.

: Drawing of amastigotes in bone marrow (visceral leishmaniasis). (Top) Amastigotes in bone marrow. (Bottom) Promastigote stages from culture.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: T. brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense trypomastigotes (stained with any blood stain [Giemsa, Wright-Giemsa combination, any of the rapid blood stains]).
Images from left to right: T. brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense trypomastigotes (stained with any blood stain [Giemsa, Wright-Giemsa combination, any of the rapid blood stains]).

: or trypomastigotes (stained with any blood stain [Giemsa, Wright-Giemsa combination, any of the rapid blood stains]).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: T. cruzi amastigotes in cardiac tissue, and typical trypomastigotes (note the large kinetoplast, much larger than that seen in the African sleeping sickness trypomastigotes).
Images from left to right: T. cruzi amastigotes in cardiac tissue, and typical trypomastigotes (note the large kinetoplast, much larger than that seen in the African sleeping sickness trypomastigotes).

: amastigotes in cardiac tissue, and typical trypomastigotes (note the large kinetoplast, much larger than that seen in the African sleeping sickness trypomastigotes).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.11
Plate 7.11

Row 1 (left to right): amastigotes within macrophage (note the nucleus and bar within each amastigote) (courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), in bone marrow and amastigotes in bone marrow; row 2 (left to right): promastigotes in culture (wet mount), promastigotes stained with a blood stain, and individual promastigotes (higher power); row 3 (left to right): cutaneous lesion (active), cutaneous lesion (healed), and cutaneous lesion; row 4 (left to right): cutaneous lesion (the bandage slipped, inoculating the skin; hence, there are now two lesions), mucocutaneous lesions (note the lack of nasal septum), and (visceral leishmaniasis/kala azar, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.12
Plate 7.12

Row 1: or (African trypomastigotes); row 2 (left to right): or (African trypomastigote), Winterbottom’s sign (African trypanosomiasis, swollen lymph node at posterior cervical region), and Romaña’s sign (Chagas’ disease, edema of the eyelid); row 3: trypomastigotes (left and middle) and heart showing cardiomyopathy (dilation and thinning of the apical myocardium and marked concentric muscular hypertrophy) (right) (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman); row 4 (left to right): amastigotes in tissue, amastigotes in tissue (higher magnification), and xenodiagnosis (trypanosome-free bugs are allowed to feed on individuals suspected of having Chagas’ disease; if organisms are present in the blood meal, the parasites multiply and can be detected in the bug’s intestinal contents, which should be examined for 3 months).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) N. fowleri trophozoite (stained), trophozoites in brain tissue, and trophozoites and cysts on the surface of an agar plate (growth on nonnutrient agar with bacterial overlay as a food source). (Bottom) Flagellated stage, indirect immunofluorescence of trophozoites in tissue (courtesy of CDC), and trophozoite (fresh, wet preparation).
Images from left to right: (Top) N. fowleri trophozoite (stained), trophozoites in brain tissue, and trophozoites and cysts on the surface of an agar plate (growth on nonnutrient agar with bacterial overlay as a food source). (Bottom) Flagellated stage, indirect immunofluorescence of trophozoites in tissue (courtesy of CDC), and trophozoite (fresh, wet preparation).

: (Top) trophozoite (stained), trophozoites in brain tissue, and trophozoites and cysts on the surface of an agar plate (growth on nonnutrient agar with bacterial overlay as a food source). (Bottom) Flagellated stage, indirect immunofluorescence of trophozoites in tissue (courtesy of CDC), and trophozoite (fresh, wet preparation).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) Acanthamoeba trophozoites (note the spiky pseudopods) and cyst (note the double wall). (Bottom) Acanthamoeba skin lesion (courtesy of G. H. Healy), Acanthamoeba cyst in corneal tissue, Balamuthia trophozoites in brain tissue, and Sappinia trophozoite (note the double nuclei in upper left) (courtesy of G. Visvesvara).
Images from left to right: (Top) Acanthamoeba trophozoites (note the spiky pseudopods) and cyst (note the double wall). (Bottom) Acanthamoeba skin lesion (courtesy of G. H. Healy), Acanthamoeba cyst in corneal tissue, Balamuthia trophozoites in brain tissue, and Sappinia trophozoite (note the double nuclei in upper left) (courtesy of G. Visvesvara).

: (Top) trophozoites (note the spiky pseudopods) and cyst (note the double wall). (Bottom) skin lesion (courtesy of G. H. Healy), cyst in corneal tissue, trophozoites in brain tissue, and trophozoite (note the double nuclei in upper left) (courtesy of G. Visvesvara).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Drawing of T. vaginalis (note that the undulating membrane stops about halfway down the organism), wet mount of organisms, and stained T. vaginalis trophozoite.
Images from left to right: Drawing of T. vaginalis (note that the undulating membrane stops about halfway down the organism), wet mount of organisms, and stained T. vaginalis trophozoite.

: Drawing of (note that the undulating membrane stops about halfway down the organism), wet mount of organisms, and stained trophozoite.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) Unfertilized egg, fertilized egg, decorticate egg (lost the bumpy coat), and adult male worm. (Bottom) Unfertilized egg (note the very bumpy shell and somewhat elongated shape), fertilized egg, fertilized egg containing larva, and fertilized egg containing larva (the shell is less bumpy than most).
Images from left to right: (Top) Unfertilized egg, fertilized egg, decorticate egg (lost the bumpy coat), and adult male worm. (Bottom) Unfertilized egg (note the very bumpy shell and somewhat elongated shape), fertilized egg, fertilized egg containing larva, and fertilized egg containing larva (the shell is less bumpy than most).

: (Top) Unfertilized egg, fertilized egg, decorticate egg (lost the bumpy coat), and adult male worm. (Bottom) Unfertilized egg (note the very bumpy shell and somewhat elongated shape), fertilized egg, fertilized egg containing larva, and fertilized egg containing larva (the shell is less bumpy than most).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) Drawings of T. trichiura eggs. (Bottom) The first three images are typical eggs, with the barrel shape and polar plugs; the last egg is Capillaria, which has striations on the eggshell that are not found on the Trichuris eggshell.
Images from left to right: (Top) Drawings of T. trichiura eggs. (Bottom) The first three images are typical eggs, with the barrel shape and polar plugs; the last egg is Capillaria, which has striations on the eggshell that are not found on the Trichuris eggshell.

: (Top) Drawings of eggs. (Bottom) The first three images are typical eggs, with the barrel shape and polar plugs; the last egg is , which has striations on the eggshell that are not found on the eggshell.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) Drawing of a hookworm egg (N. americanus or A. duodenale), drawing of a Trichostrongylus egg (it appears longer, with one end more pointed than the hookworm egg), and the mouth parts of adult Necator (note the cutting plates). (Bottom) Three typical hookworm eggs (the third contains a larval worm; this finding suggests that fresh, unpreserved stool was left at room temperature for some time before being examined or being placed in fixative; if this egg hatches, the rhabditiform larva would have to be differentiated from that of S. stercoralis) (left and middle) and the mouth parts (teeth) of Ancylostoma (right).
Images from left to right: (Top) Drawing of a hookworm egg (N. americanus or A. duodenale), drawing of a Trichostrongylus egg (it appears longer, with one end more pointed than the hookworm egg), and the mouth parts of adult Necator (note the cutting plates). (Bottom) Three typical hookworm eggs (the third contains a larval worm; this finding suggests that fresh, unpreserved stool was left at room temperature for some time before being examined or being placed in fixative; if this egg hatches, the rhabditiform larva would have to be differentiated from that of S. stercoralis) (left and middle) and the mouth parts (teeth) of Ancylostoma (right).

: (Top) Drawing of a hookworm egg ( or ), drawing of a egg (it appears longer, with one end more pointed than the hookworm egg), and the mouth parts of adult (note the cutting plates). (Bottom) Three typical hookworm eggs (the third contains a larval worm; this finding suggests that fresh, unpreserved stool was left at room temperature for some time before being examined or being placed in fixative; if this egg hatches, the rhabditiform larva would have to be differentiated from that of ) (left and middle) and the mouth parts (teeth) of (right).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) Short mouth opening of Strongyloides rhabditiform larva, longer mouth opening of hookworm rhabditiform larva, drawing of slit in tail of Strongyloides filariform larva, and pointed tail of hookworm filariform larva. (Bottom) Short mouth (buccal) opening and packet of genital primordial cells of the Strongyloides rhabditiform larva.
Images from left to right: (Top) Short mouth opening of Strongyloides rhabditiform larva, longer mouth opening of hookworm rhabditiform larva, drawing of slit in tail of Strongyloides filariform larva, and pointed tail of hookworm filariform larva. (Bottom) Short mouth (buccal) opening and packet of genital primordial cells of the Strongyloides rhabditiform larva.

: (Top) Short mouth opening of rhabditiform larva, longer mouth opening of hookworm rhabditiform larva, drawing of slit in tail of filariform larva, and pointed tail of hookworm filariform larva. (Bottom) Short mouth (buccal) opening and packet of genital primordial cells of the rhabditiform larva.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images: The photograph on the left shows an adult pinworm full of eggs. The photograph on the right shows the typical eggs (football shaped with one side somewhat flattened). These eggs are often embryonated, containing larval forms. (Photomicrograph of adult worm by Zane Price [from L. S. Garcia, Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed., ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2007].)
Images: The photograph on the left shows an adult pinworm full of eggs. The photograph on the right shows the typical eggs (football shaped with one side somewhat flattened). These eggs are often embryonated, containing larval forms. (Photomicrograph of adult worm by Zane Price [from L. S. Garcia, Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed., ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2007].)

The photograph on the left shows an adult pinworm full of eggs. The photograph on the right shows the typical eggs (football shaped with one side somewhat flattened). These eggs are often embryonated, containing larval forms. (Photomicrograph of adult worm by Zane Price [from L. S. Garcia, , 5th ed., ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2007].)

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) Linear tracts on the bottom of the foot and linear tracts on the hand. (Bottom) Linear tracts on the buttocks of a child (who had sat down in a sandbox containing sand contaminated with dog/cat hookworm larvae). (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: a cooperative collection prepared by H. Zaiman.)
Images from left to right: (Top) Linear tracts on the bottom of the foot and linear tracts on the hand. (Bottom) Linear tracts on the buttocks of a child (who had sat down in a sandbox containing sand contaminated with dog/cat hookworm larvae). (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: a cooperative collection prepared by H. Zaiman.)

: (Top) Linear tracts on the bottom of the foot and linear tracts on the hand. (Bottom) Linear tracts on the buttocks of a child (who had sat down in a sandbox containing sand contaminated with dog/cat hookworm larvae). (From : a cooperative collection prepared by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: T. canis (left) and T. cati eggs (middle two images); Adult Toxocara worms (right). Notice the similarity of these eggs to those of A. lumbricoides.
Images from left to right: T. canis (left) and T. cati eggs (middle two images); Adult Toxocara worms (right). Notice the similarity of these eggs to those of A. lumbricoides.

: (left) and eggs (middle two images); Adult worms (right). Notice the similarity of these eggs to those of .

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawing shows an encysted larva; both photographs show larvae, the one on the right being sectioned (histopathology).
Images from left to right: The drawing shows an encysted larva; both photographs show larvae, the one on the right being sectioned (histopathology).

: The drawing shows an encysted larva; both photographs show larvae, the one on the right being sectioned (histopathology).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Diagrams of human microfilariae—W. bancrofti, B. malayi, O. volvulus, L. loa, M. perstans, M. streptocerca, and M. ozzardi. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.)
Images from left to right: Diagrams of human microfilariae—W. bancrofti, B. malayi, O. volvulus, L. loa, M. perstans, M. streptocerca, and M. ozzardi. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.)

: Diagrams of human microfilariae—, and . (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.13
Plate 7.13

Row 1 (left to right): microfilaria (note the sheath and two terminal nuclei), head (sheath not visible), and tail (again, note the sheath and two terminal nuclei); row 2 (left to right): microfilaria (note the sheath), tail (note that nuclei run all the way to the end of the tail; the sheath is not visible), and tail (note that nuclei go to the tip of the tail; the sheath is visible); row 3: in eye (left and middle) and calabar swelling (note the swollen left knee) (right) (all three images from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman); row 4 (left to right): head of microfilaria (note the nuclei and sheath), tail (note that the nuclei end before the end of the tail; the sheath is visible), and elephantiasis (occurs with certain types of filariasis) (right image from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Plate 7.14
Plate 7.14

Row 1 (left to right): (removal of nodule from scalp), (organisms seen in skin biopsy), and (cross section of worms within a nodule); row 2 (left to right): (worms removed from nodule), (example of “river blindness”), and (this microfilaria does not have a sheath); row 3: (worm removal) (left and middle) and spp. in the heart of a dog (right) (three images courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology); row 4 (left to right): spp. (worm in eyelid), spp. (worm being removed from eye) (two images from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman), and spp. (worm in cross section), (courtesy of A. Linscott).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of T. saginata; the photographs show the same structures. Note the number of uterine branches (many more than in T. solium). Also, note that the scolex does not contain hooklets, like that of T. solium (see p. 353).
Images from left to right: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of T. saginata; the photographs show the same structures. Note the number of uterine branches (many more than in T. solium). Also, note that the scolex does not contain hooklets, like that of T. solium (see p. 353).

: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of ; the photographs show the same structures. Note the number of uterine branches (many more than in ). Also, note that the scolex does not contain hooklets, like that of (see p. 353).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of T. solium; the photographs show the same structures. Note the number of uterine branches (many fewer than that in T. saginata). Also note that the scolex has hooklets, unlike that of T. saginata (see p. 351).
Images from left to right: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of T. solium; the photographs show the same structures. Note the number of uterine branches (many fewer than that in T. saginata). Also note that the scolex has hooklets, unlike that of T. saginata (see p. 351).

: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of ; the photographs show the same structures. Note the number of uterine branches (many fewer than that in . Also note that the scolex has hooklets, unlike that of (see p. 351).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of D. latum; the photographs show the same structures. The gravid proglottids are often passed as a chain (which can be several feet long). Some of the eggs are seen with “popped” open opercula (trapdoors).
Images from left to right: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of D. latum; the photographs show the same structures. The gravid proglottids are often passed as a chain (which can be several feet long). Some of the eggs are seen with “popped” open opercula (trapdoors).

: The drawings depict the scolex, egg, and gravid proglottid of ; the photographs show the same structures. The gravid proglottids are often passed as a chain (which can be several feet long). Some of the eggs are seen with “popped” open opercula (trapdoors).

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawing depicts the H. nana egg; the photographs show the same structures. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and the polar filaments that lie between the oncosphere and the thin eggshell. The key difference between this egg and that of the rat tapeworm (H. diminuta) is the lack of polar filaments in the latter.
Images from left to right: The drawing depicts the H. nana egg; the photographs show the same structures. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and the polar filaments that lie between the oncosphere and the thin eggshell. The key difference between this egg and that of the rat tapeworm (H. diminuta) is the lack of polar filaments in the latter.

: The drawing depicts the egg; the photographs show the same structures. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and the polar filaments that lie between the oncosphere and the thin eggshell. The key difference between this egg and that of the rat tapeworm () is the lack of polar filaments in the latter.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawing depicts the H. diminuta egg; the photographs show the same structures. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and the lack of polar filaments. The key difference between this egg and that of H. nana is the presence of polar filaments between the onco-sphere and the thin eggshell in H. nana eggs.
Images from left to right: The drawing depicts the H. diminuta egg; the photographs show the same structures. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and the lack of polar filaments. The key difference between this egg and that of H. nana is the presence of polar filaments between the onco-sphere and the thin eggshell in H. nana eggs.

: The drawing depicts the egg; the photographs show the same structures. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and the lack of polar filaments. The key difference between this egg and that of is the presence of polar filaments between the onco-sphere and the thin eggshell in eggs.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) The drawings depict the scolex, gravid proglottid, and egg packet of D. caninum. (Bottom) The photographs demonstrate the typical egg packets. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and striated eggshells of the individual eggs within the egg packet. Individually, the eggs normally resemble Taenia eggs.
Images from left to right: (Top) The drawings depict the scolex, gravid proglottid, and egg packet of D. caninum. (Bottom) The photographs demonstrate the typical egg packets. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and striated eggshells of the individual eggs within the egg packet. Individually, the eggs normally resemble Taenia eggs.

: (Top) The drawings depict the scolex, gravid proglottid, and egg packet of . (Bottom) The photographs demonstrate the typical egg packets. Note the six-hooked embryo (oncosphere) and striated eggshells of the individual eggs within the egg packet. Individually, the eggs normally resemble eggs.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: (Top) The photographs depict the hydatid cyst showing daughter scolices and the immature scolices (hydatid sand). (Bottom) Higher magnification of the immature scolices and the hooklets that remain after the scolices have disintegrated.
Images from left to right: (Top) The photographs depict the hydatid cyst showing daughter scolices and the immature scolices (hydatid sand). (Bottom) Higher magnification of the immature scolices and the hooklets that remain after the scolices have disintegrated.

: (Top) The photographs depict the hydatid cyst showing daughter scolices and the immature scolices (hydatid sand). (Bottom) Higher magnification of the immature scolices and the hooklets that remain after the scolices have disintegrated.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Drawing and photograph of F. buski egg. The operculum blends into the shell; there are no opercular shoulders into which the operculum fits. In the photograph, the operculum has popped open. This egg and that of several other trematodes, including F. hepatica, look almost identical and cannot be differentiated visually.
Images from left to right: Drawing and photograph of F. buski egg. The operculum blends into the shell; there are no opercular shoulders into which the operculum fits. In the photograph, the operculum has popped open. This egg and that of several other trematodes, including F. hepatica, look almost identical and cannot be differentiated visually.

: Drawing and photograph of egg. The operculum blends into the shell; there are no opercular shoulders into which the operculum fits. In the photograph, the operculum has popped open. This egg and that of several other trematodes, including , look almost identical and cannot be differentiated visually.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawings on the left show D. latum (A) and P. westermani (B). Although the eggs are different sizes, there is some similarity between the two. The photograph shows P. westermani. Note the opercular shoulders visible with P. westermani. It is critical that these eggs be measured carefully, including specimens used for proficiency testing.
Images from left to right: The drawings on the left show D. latum (A) and P. westermani (B). Although the eggs are different sizes, there is some similarity between the two. The photograph shows P. westermani. Note the opercular shoulders visible with P. westermani. It is critical that these eggs be measured carefully, including specimens used for proficiency testing.

: The drawings on the left show (A) and (B). Although the eggs are different sizes, there is some similarity between the two. The photograph shows . Note the opercular shoulders visible with . It is critical that these eggs be measured carefully, including specimens used for proficiency testing.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: Drawing and photograph of F. hepatica egg. The operculum blends into the shell; there are no opercular shoulders into which the operculum fits. In the photograph, the operculum has popped open. This egg and that of F. buski (and several other trematodes) look almost identical and cannot be differentiated visually.
Images from left to right: Drawing and photograph of F. hepatica egg. The operculum blends into the shell; there are no opercular shoulders into which the operculum fits. In the photograph, the operculum has popped open. This egg and that of F. buski (and several other trematodes) look almost identical and cannot be differentiated visually.

: Drawing and photograph of egg. The operculum blends into the shell; there are no opercular shoulders into which the operculum fits. In the photograph, the operculum has popped open. This egg and that of (and several other trematodes) look almost identical and cannot be differentiated visually.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The drawing and first three eggs are those of C. sinensis, while the photograph of the egg on the right is another similar egg, either H. heterophyes or M. yokogawai. Differentiation of these three trematodes can be difficult.
Images from left to right: The drawing and first three eggs are those of C. sinensis, while the photograph of the egg on the right is another similar egg, either H. heterophyes or M. yokogawai. Differentiation of these three trematodes can be difficult.

: The drawing and first three eggs are those of , while the photograph of the egg on the right is another similar egg, either or . Differentiation of these three trematodes can be difficult.

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Image of Images from left to right: The eggs on the left with the large lateral spines are S. mansoni, those in the middle with the terminal spines are S. haematobium, and those on the right with the very small lateral spines are S. japonicum.
Images from left to right: The eggs on the left with the large lateral spines are S. mansoni, those in the middle with the terminal spines are S. haematobium, and those on the right with the very small lateral spines are S. japonicum.

: The eggs on the left with the large lateral spines are , those in the middle with the terminal spines are , and those on the right with the very small lateral spines are .

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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References

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Tables

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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
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Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2009. Parasite Identification, p 255-373. In Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815967.ch7

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