1887

Chapter 17 : Respiratory Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Respiratory Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

Acute respiratory tract illnesses are the most common health conditions affecting humans. Six "classic" respiratory viruses have been known for decades: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, human parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, and the coronaviruses (CoVs) OC43 and 229E. The seasonality of most newly described respiratory viruses remains mostly investigational. Classification of viruses that primarily infect the respiratory tract are provided in this chapter. Relative importance of major respiratory viruses in upper and lower respiratory tract diseases are provided in this chapter. Vaccination and antiviral therapy are highly effective at limiting the spread of influenza virus, but these approaches are not available for other respiratory viruses. The major differences between human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and RSV are gene order and the absence of NS1 and NS2 genes in HMPV. The potential for coinfections involving HMPV and other respiratory viruses, especially RSV, is high given their overlap in seasonality. It begins with a profuse watery nasal discharge which may become mucopurulent and viscous. The number of real and potential respiratory viruses has increased considerably, and improved laboratory methods to detect them now abound.

Citation: Robinson C. 2009. Respiratory Viruses, p 203-248. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch17
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Temporal patterns of four common respiratory viruses detected over a 6-year period by The Children’s Hospital Virology Laboratory, Denver, CO. Numbers of detections are as indicated, except during a large outbreak of influenza A in November and December of 2003 when approximately 950 and 400 specimens were positive for influenza A, respectively.

Citation: Robinson C. 2009. Respiratory Viruses, p 203-248. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Transmission patterns of influenza A virus. The current hypothesis is that wild aquatic birds are the major reservoir of most types of influenza A, some of which can be transmitted to domestic birds and mammals. The double-headed arrow indicates that transmission of influenza A virus between pigs and humans has been demonstrated. Transmission of influenza A from birds to felines and dogs is not depicted. (Reprinted from Trampuz et al., 2004, with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Robinson C. 2009. Respiratory Viruses, p 203-248. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815974.ch17
1. Abe, S.,, K. Ishihara,, M. Adachi,, H. Sasaki,, K. Tanaka, and, K. Okuda. 2006. Professional oral care reduces influenza infection in elderly. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. 43:157164.
2. Abed, Y.,, and G. Boivin. 2008. Human metapneumovirus infection in immunocompromised child. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:854856.
3. Abed, Y.,, D. Wang, and, G. Boivin. 2007. WU polyomavirus in children, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:19391941.
4. Aberle, S. W.,, J. H. Aberle,, C. Steininger,, S. Matthes-Martin,, E. Pracher, and, T. Popow-Kraupp. 2003. Adenovirus DNA in serum of children hospitalized due to an acute respiratory adenovirus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 187:311314.
5. Abzug, M. J.,, and M. J. Levin. 1991. Neonatal adenovirus infection: four patients and review of the literature. Pediatrics 87:890896.
6. Agapov, E.,, K. C. Sumino,, M. Gaudreault-Keener,, G. A. Storch, and, M. J. Holtzman. 2006. Genetic variability of human metapneumovirus infection: evidence of a shift in viral genotype without a change in illness. J. Infect. Dis. 193:396403.
7. Aguilar, J. C.,, M. P. Perez-Brena,, M. L. Garcia,, N. Cruz,, D. D. Erdman, and, J. E. Echevarria. 2000. Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 in clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR 50. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:11911195.
8. Ali, T.,, N. Scott,, W. Kallas,, M. E. Halliwell,, C. Savino,, E. Rosenberg,, M. Ferraro, and, E. Hohmann. 2004. Detection of influenza antigen with rapid antibody-based tests after intranasal influenza vaccination (FluMist). Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:760762.
9. Allander, T.,, K. Andreasson,, S. Gupta,, A. Bjerkner,, G. Bogdanovic,, M. A. Persson,, T. Dalianis,, T. Ramqvist, and, B. Andersson. 2007a. Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J. Virol. 81:41304136.
10. Allander, T.,, T. Jartti,, S. Gupta,, H. G. Niesters,, P. Lehtinen,, R. Osterback,, T. Vuorinen,, M. Waris,, A. Bjerkner,, A. Tiveljung-Lindell,, B. G. van den Hoogen,, T. Hyypia, and, O. Ruuskanen. 2007b. Human bocavirus and acute wheezing in children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:904910.
11. Allander, T.,, M. T. Tammi,, M. Eriksson,, A. Bjerkner,, A. Tiveljung-Lindell, and, B. Andersson. 2005. Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1289112896.
12. Alymova, I. V.,, G. Taylor,, T. Takimoto,, T. H. Lin,, P. Chand,, Y. S. Babu,, C. Li,, X. Xiong, and, A. Portner. 2004. Efficacy of novel hemagglutinin-neuraminidase inhibitors BCX 2798 and BCX 2855 against human parainfluenza viruses in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:14951502.
13. Anderson, E. J.,, J. A. Guzman-Cottrill,, M. Kletzel,, K. Thor-mann,, C. Sullivan,, X. Zheng, and, B. Z. Katz. 2008. High-risk adenovirus-infected pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplant recipients and preemptive cidofovir therapy. Pediatr. Transplant. 12:219227.
14. Angeles, M. M.,, M. Camps,, T. Pumarola,, M. J. Antonio,, E. Martinez,, J. Mensa,, E. Garcia,, G. Penarroja,, P. Dambrava,, I. Casas,, M. T. Jimenez de Anta, and, A. Torres. 2006. The role of viruses in the aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Antivir. Ther. 11:351359.
15. Ansari, S. A.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, S. A. Sattar,, S. Rivard, and, M. Rahman. 1991. Potential role of hands in the spread of respiratory viral infections: studies with human parainfluenza virus 3 and rhinovirus 14. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:21152119.
16. Arguedas, A.,, H. R. Stutman, and, J. G. Blanding. 1990. Parainfluenza type 3 meningitis. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Clin. Pediatr. (Philadelphia) 29:175178.
17. Arnold, J. C.,, K. K. Singh,, S. A. Spector, and, M. H. Sawyer. 2006. Human bocavirus: prevalence and clinical spectrum at a children’s hospital. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:283288.
18. Arruda, E.,, A. Pitkaranta,, T. J. Witek, Jr.,, C. A. Doyle, and, F. G. Hayden. 1997. Frequency and natural history of rhinovirus infections in adults during autumn. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:28642868.
19. Aslanzadeh, J.,, X. Zheng,, H. Li,, J. Tetreault,, I. Ratkiewicz,, S. Meng,, P. Hamilton, and, Y. W. Tang. 2008. Prospective evaluation of rapid antigen tests for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:16821685.
20. Atmar, R. L. 2007. Influenza viruses, p. 1340–1351. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry, and, M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
21. Avadhanula, V.,, C. A. Rodriguez,, J. P. Devincenzo,, Y. Wang,, R. J. Webby,, G. C. Ulett, and, E. E. Adderson. 2006. Respiratory viruses augment the adhesion of bacterial pathogens to respiratory epithelium in a viral species- and cell type-dependent manner. J. Virol. 80:16291636.
22. Babcock, H. M.,, L. R. Merz, and, V. J. Fraser. 2006. Is influenza an influenza-like illness? Clinical presentation of influenza in hospitalized patients. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 27:266270.
23. Barenfanger, J.,, C. Drake,, N. Leon,, T. Mueller, and, T. Troutt. 2000. Clinical and financial benefits of rapid detection of respiratory viruses: an outcomes study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:28242828.
24. Barnard, D. L.,, C. W. Day,, K. Bailey,, M. Heiner,, R. Montgomery,, L. Lauridsen,, S. Winslow,, J. Hoopes,, J. K. Li,, J. Lee,, D. A. Carson,, H. B. Cottam, and, R. W. Sidwell. 2006. Enhancement of the infectivity of SARS-CoV in BALB/c mice by IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors, including ribavirin. Antivir. Res. 71:5363.
25. Bartlett, E. J.,, A. Castano,, S. R. Surman,, P. L. Collins,, M. H. Skiadopoulos, and, B. R. Murphy. 2007. Attenuation and efficacy of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates containing stabilized mutations in the P/C and L genes. Virol. J. 4:67.
26. Bastien, N.,, N. Chui,, J. L. Robinson,, B. E. Lee,, K. Dust,, L. Hart, and, Y. Li. 2007. Detection of human bocavirus in Canadian children in a 1-year study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:610613.
27. Bastien, N.,, J. L. Robinson,, A. Tse,, B. E. Lee,, L. Hart, and, Y. Li. 2005. Human coronavirus NL-63 infections in children: a 1-year study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:45674573.
28. Bean, B.,, B. M. Moore,, B. Sterner,, L. R. Peterson,, D. N. Gerding, and, H. H. Balfour, Jr. 1982. Survival of influenza viruses on environmental surfaces. J. Infect. Dis. 146:4751.
29. Beckham, J. D.,, A. Cadena,, J. Lin,, P. A. Piedra,, W. P. Glezen,, S. B. Greenberg, and, R. L. Atmar. 2005. Respiratory viral infections in patients with chronic, obstructive pulmonary disease. J. Infect. 50:322330.
30. Belser, J. A.,, O. Blixt,, L. M. Chen,, C. Pappas,, T. R. Maines,, H. N. Van Hoeven,, N. R. Donis,, J. Busch,, R. McBride,, J. C. Paulson,, J. M. Katz, and, T. M. Tumpey. 2008. Contemporary North American influenza H7 viruses possess human receptor specificity: implications for virus transmissibility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:75587563.
31. Belshe, R. B. 2007. Translational research on vaccines: influenza as an example. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 82:745749.
32. Belshe, R. B.,, K. M. Edwards,, T. Vesikari,, S. V. Black,, R. E. Walker,, M. Hultquist,, G. Kemble, and, E. M. Connor. 2007. Live attenuated versus inactivated influenza vaccine in infants and young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 356:685696.
33. Belshe, R. B.,, F. K. Newman,, E. L. Anderson,, P. F. Wright,, R. A. Karron,, S. Tollefson,, F. W. Henderson,, H. C. Meissner,, S. Madhi,, D. Roberton,, H. Marshall,, R. Loh,, P. Sly,, B. Murphy,, J. M. Tatem,, V. Randolph,, J. Hackell,, W. Gruber, and, T. F. Tsai. 2004a. Evaluation of combined live, attenuated respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza 3 virus vaccines in infants and young children. J. Infect. Dis. 190:20962103.
34. Belshe, R. B.,, F. K. Newman,, T. F. Tsai,, R. A. Karron,, K. Reisinger,, D. Roberton,, H. Marshall,, R. Schwartz,, J. King,, F. W. Henderson,, W. Rodriguez,, J. M. Severs,, P. F. Wright,, H. Keyserling,, G. A. Weinberg,, K. Bromberg,, R. Loh,, P. Sly,, P. McIntyre,, J. B. Ziegler,, J. Hackell,, A. Deatly,, A. Georgiu,, M. Paschalis,, S. L. Wu,, J. M. Tatem,, B. Murphy, and, E. Anderson. 2004b. Phase 2 evaluation of parainfluenza type 3 cold passage mutant 45 live attenuated vaccine in healthy children 6-18 months old. J. Infect. Dis. 189:462470.
35. Bennett, B. L.,, R. P. Garofalo,, S. G. Cron,, Y. M. Hosakote,, R. L. Atmar,, C. G. Macias, and, P. A. Piedra. 2007. Immunopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J. Infect. Dis. 195:15321540.
36. Bhat, N.,, J. G. Wright,, K. R. Broder,, E. L. Murray,, M. E. Greenberg,, M. J. Glover,, A. M. Likos,, D. L. Posey,, A. Klimov,, S. E. Lindstrom,, A. Balish,, M. J. Medina,, T. R. Wallis,, J. Guarner,, C. D. Paddock,, W. J. Shieh,, S. R. Zaki,, J. J. Sejvar,, D. K. Shay,, S. A. Harper,, N. J. Cox,, K. Fukuda, and, T. M. Uyeki. 2005. Influenza-associated deaths among children in the United States, 2003-2004. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:25592567.
37. Biacchesi, S.,, M. H. Skiadopoulos,, G. Boivin,, C. T. Hanson,, B. R. Murphy,, P. L. Collins, and, U. J. Buchholz. 2003. Genetic diversity between human metapneumovirus subgroups. Virology 315:19.
38. Bialasiewicz, S.,, D. M. Whiley,, S. B. Lambert,, K. Jacob,, C. Bletchly,, D. Wang,, M. D. Nissen, and, T. P. Sloots. 2008. Presence of the newly discovered human polyomaviruses KI and WU in Australian patients with acute respiratory tract infection. J. Clin. Virol. 41:6368.
39. Bitko, V.,, A. Musiyenko,, O. Shulyayeva, and, S. Barik. 2005. Inhibition of respiratory viruses by nasally administered siRNA. Nat. Med. 11:5055.
40. Blydt-Hansen, T.,, K. Subbarao,, P. Quennec, and, J. McDonald. 1999. Recovery of respiratory syncytial virus from stethoscopes by conventional viral culture and polymerase chain reaction. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18:164165.
41. Boivin, G.,, Z. Coulombe, and, C. Wat. 2003a. Quantification of the influenza virus load by real-time polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal swabs of patients treated with oseltamivir. J. Infect. Dis. 188:578580.
42. Boivin, G.,, S. G. De Serres,, C. Cote,, R. Gilca,, Y. Abed,, L. Rochette,, M. G. Bergeron, and, P. Dery. 2003b. Human metapneumovirus infections in hospitalized children. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:634640.
43. Boivin, G.,, S. G. De Serres,, M. E. Hamelin,, S. Cote,, M. Argouin,, G. Tremblay,, R. Maranda-Aubut,, C. Sauvageau,, M. Ouakki,, N. Boulianne, and, C. Couture. 2007. An outbreak of severe respiratory tract infection due to human metapneumovirus in a long-term care facility. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:11521158.
44. Boivin, G.,, I. Hardy,, G. Tellier, and, J. Maziade. 2000. Predicting influenza infections during epidemics with use of a clinical case definition. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:11661169.
45. Boone, S. A.,, and C. P. Gerba. 2007. Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:16871696.
46. Booth, C. M.,, L. M. Matukas,, G. A. Tomlinson,, A. R. Rachlis,, D. B. Rose,, H. A. Dwosh,, S. L. Walmsley,, T. Mazzulli,, M. Avendano,, P. Derkach,, I. E. Ephtimios,, I. Kitai,, B. D. Mederski,, S. B. Shadowitz,, W. L. Gold,, L. A. Hawryluck,, E. Rea,, J. S. Chenkin,, D. W. Cescon,, S. M. Poutanen, and, A. S. Detsky. 2003. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 144 patients with SARS in the greater Toronto area. JAMA 289:28012809.
47. Borek, A. P.,, S. H. Clemens,, V. K. Gaskins,, D. Z. Aird, and, A. Valsamakis. 2006. Respiratory syncytial virus detection by Remel Xpect, Binax Now RSV, direct immunofluorescent staining, and tissue culture. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:11051107.
48. Bossert, B.,, and K. K. Conzelmann. 2002. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nonstructural (NS) proteins as host range determinants: a chimeric bovine RSV with NS genes from human RSV is attenuated in interferon-competent bovine cells. J. Virol. 76:42874293.
49. Bradley, J. P.,, L. B. Bacharier,, J. Bonfiglio,, K. B. Schechtman,, R. Strunk,, G. Storch, and, M. Castro. 2005. Severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is affected by cigarette smoke exposure and atopy. Pediatrics 115:e7e14.
50. Brady, M. T.,, J. Evans, and, J. Cuartas. 1990. Survival and disinfection of parainfluenza viruses on environmental surfaces. Am. J. Infect. Control 18:1823.
51. Brandt, C. D.,, H. W. Kim,, J. O. Arrobio,, B. C. Jeffries,, S. C. Wood,, R. M. Chanock, and, R. H. Parrott. 1973. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection in Washington, D.C. 3. Composite analysis of eleven consecutive yearly epidemics. Am. J. Epidemiol. 98:355364.
52. Brandt, C. D.,, H. W. Kim,, A. J. Vargosko,, B. C. Jeffries,, J. O. Arrobio,, B. Rindge,, R. H. Parrott, and, R. M. Chanock. 1969. Infections in 18,000 infants and children in a controlled study of respiratory tract disease. I. Adenovirus pathogenicity in relation to serologic type and illness syndrome. Am. J. Epidemiol. 90:484500.
53. Brankston, G.,, L. Gitterman,, Z. Hirji,, C. Lemieux, and, M. Gardam. 2007. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7:257265.
54. Bright, R. A.,, M. J. Medina,, X. Xu,, G. Perez-Oronoz,, T. R. Wallis,, X. M. Davis,, L. Povinelli,, N. J. Cox, and, A. I. Klimov. 2005. Incidence of adamantane resistance among influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated worldwide from 1994 to 2005: a cause for concern. Lancet 366:11751181.
55. Broughton, S.,, K. P. Sylvester,, G. Fox,, M. Zuckerman,, M. Smith,, A. D. Milner,, G. F. Rafferty, and, A. Greenough. 2007. Lung function in prematurely born infants after viral lower respiratory tract infections. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:10191024.
56. Byington, C. L.,, H. Castillo,, K. Gerber,, J. A. Daly,, L. A. Brimley,, S. Adams,, J. C. Christenson, and, A. T. Pavia. 2002. The effect of rapid respiratory viral diagnostic testing on antibiotic use in a children’s hospital. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 156:12301234.
57. Calvo, C.,, M. L. Garcia-Garcia,, F. Pozo,, O. Carvajal,, P. Perez-Brena, and, I. Casas. 2008. Clinical characteristics of human bocavirus infections compared with other respiratory viruses in Spanish children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27:677680.
58. Cannell, J. J.,, R. Vieth,, J. C. Umhau,, M. F. Holick,, W. B. Grant,, S. Madronich,, C. F. Garland, and, E. Giovannucci. 2006. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:11291140.
59. Casiano-Colon, A. E.,, B. B. Hulbert,, T. K. Mayer,, E. E. Walsh, and, A. R. Falsey. 2003. Lack of sensitivity of rapid antigen tests for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. J. Clin. Virol. 28:169174.
60. Castro-Rodriguez, J. A.,, C. Daszenies,, M. Garcia,, R. Meyer, and, R. Gonzales. 2006. Adenovirus pneumonia in infants and factors for developing bronchiolitis obliterans: a 5-year follow-up. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 41:947953.
61. Catalano-Pons, C.,, C. Giraud,, F. Rozenberg,, J. F. Meritet,, P. Lebon, and, D. Gendrel. 2007. Detection of human bocavirus in children with Kawasaki disease. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 13:12201222.
62. Cate, T. R. 1998. Impact of influenza and other community-acquired viruses. Semin. Respir. Infect. 13:1723.
63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Acute respiratory disease associated with adenovirus serotype 14--four states, 2006-2007. MMWR Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56:11811184.
64. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2008. MMWR Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57:160.
65. Chan, K. H.,, S. Y. Lam,, P. Puthavathana,, T. D. Nguyen,, H. T. Long,, C. M. Pang,, K. M. Chan,, C. Y. Cheung,, W. H. Seto, and, J. S. Peiris. 2007. Comparative analytical sensitivities of six rapid influenza A antigen detection test kits for detection of influenza A subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1. J. Clin. Virol. 38:169171.
66. Chan, K. H.,, N. Maldeis,, W. Pope,, A. Yup,, A. Ozinskas,, J. Gill,, W. H. Seto,, K. F. Shortridge, and, J. S. Peiris. 2002. Evaluation of the Directigen FluA+B test for rapid diagnosis of influenza virus type A and B infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:16751680.
67. Chan, M. C.,, C. Y. Cheung,, W. H. Chui,, S. W. Tsao,, J. M. Nicholls,, Y. O. Chan,, R. W. Chan,, H. T. Long,, L. L. Poon,, Y. Guan, and, J. S. Peiris. 2005. Proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by influenza A (H5N1) viruses in primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Respir. Res. 6:135.
68. Chan, P. K.,, J. S. Tam,, C. W. Lam,, E. Chan,, A. Wu,, C. K. Li,, T. A. Buckley,, K. C. Ng,, G. M. Joynt,, F. W. Cheng,, K. F. To,, N. Lee,, D. S. Hui,, J. L. Cheung,, I. Chu,, E. Liu,, S. S. Chung, and, J. J. Sung. 2003. Human metapneumovirus detection in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:10581063.
69. Chanock, R. M.,, B. R. Murphy, and, P. L. Collins. 2001. Parainfluenza viruses, p. 1341–1379. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, S. E. Straus, and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
70. Chemaly, R. F.,, S. Ghosh,, G. P. Bodey,, N. Rohatgi,, A. Safdar,, M. J. Keating,, R. E. Champlin,, E. A. Aguilera,, J. J. Tarrand, and, I. I. Raad. 2006. Respiratory viral infections in adults with hematologic malignancies and human stem cell transplantation recipients: a retrospective study at a major cancer center. Medicine (Baltimore) 85:278287.
71. Chen, H.,, G. J. Smith,, S. Y. Zhang,, K. Qin,, J. Wang,, K. S. Li,, R. G. Webster,, J. S. Peiris, and, Y. Guan. 2005. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature 436:191192.
72. Cheng, W. X.,, Y. Jin,, Z. J. Duan,, Z. Q. Xu,, H. M. Qi,, Q. Zhang,, J. M. Yu,, L. Zhu,, M. Jin,, N. Liu,, S. X. Cui,, H. Y. Li, and, Z. Y. Fang. 2008. Human bocavirus in children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis: a case-control study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47:161167.
73. Chi, C. Y.,, S. M. Wang,, C. C. Lin,, H. C. Wang,, J. R. Wang,, I. J. Su, and, C. C. Liu. 2008. Clinical features of children infected with different strains of influenza B in southern Taiwan. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27:640645.
74. Chi, X. S.,, A. Hu,, T. V. Bolar,, W. Al-Rimawi,, P. Zhao,, J. S. Tam,, R. Rappaport, and, S. M. Cheng. 2005. Detection and characterization of new influenza B virus variants in 2002. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:23452349.
75. Chieochansin, T.,, S. Chutinimitkul,, S. Payungporn,, T. Hiranras,, R. Samransamruajkit,, A. Theamboolers, and, Y. Poovorawan. 2007. Complete coding sequences and phylogenetic analysis of human bocavirus (HBoV). Virus Res. 129:5457.
76. Chiu, S. S.,, K. H. Chan,, K. W. Chu,, S. W. Kwan,, Y. Guan,, L. L. Poon, and, J. S. Peiris. 2005. Human coronavirus NL63 infection and other coronavirus infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory disease in Hong Kong, China. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:17211729.
77. Choi, E. H.,, H. J. Lee,, S. J. Kim,, B. W. Eun,, N. H. Kim,, J. A. Lee,, J. H. Lee,, E. K. Song,, S. H. Kim,, J. Y. Park, and, J. Y. Sung. 2006. The association of newly identified respiratory viruses with lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children, 2000-2005. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:585592.
78. Chonmaitree, T.,, K. Revai,, J. J. Grady,, A. Clos,, J. A. Patel,, S. Nair,, J. Fan, and, K. J. Henrickson. 2008. Viral upper respiratory tract infection and otitis media complication in young children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:815823.
79. Choudhuri, J. A.,, L. G. Ogden,, A. J. Ruttenber,, D. S. Thomas,, J. K. Todd, and, E. A. Simoes. 2006. Effect of altitude on hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatrics 117:349356.
80. Chu, C. M.,, V. C. Cheng,, I. F. Hung,, M. M. Wong,, K. H. Chan,, K. S. Chan,, R. Y. Kao,, L. L. Poon,, C. L. Wong,, Y. Guan,, J. S. Peiris, and, K. Y. Yuen. 2004. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax 59:252256.
81. Chung, H. L.,, H. J. Park,, S. Y. Kim, and, S. G. Kim. 2007. Age-related difference in immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. Pediatr. Allergy Immunol. 18:9499.
82. Collins, P. L.,, R. M. Chanock, and, B. R. Murphy. 2001. Respiratory syncytial virus, p. 1341–1379. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, S. E. Straus, and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
83. Connor, R. J.,, Y. Kawaoka,, R. G. Webster, and, J. C. Paulson. 1994. Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates. Virology 205:1723.
84. Cooper, N. J.,, A. J. Sutton,, K. R. Abrams,, A. Wailoo,, D. Turner, and, K. G. Nicholson. 2003. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors in treatment and prevention of influenza A and B: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 326:1235.
85. Corneli, H. M.,, J. J. Zorc,, P. Majahan,, K. N. Shaw,, R. Holubkov,, S. D. Reeves,, R. M. Ruddy,, B. Malik,, K. A. Nelson,, J. S. Bregstein,, K. M. Brown,, M. N. Denenberg,, K. A. Lillis,, L. B. Cimpello,, J. W. Tsung,, D. A. Borgialli,, M. N. Baskin,, G. Teshome,, M. A. Goldstein,, D. Monroe,, J. M. Dean, and, N. Kuppermann. 2007. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of dexamethasone for bronchiolitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 357:331339.
86. Cortez, K. J.,, D. D. Erdman,, T. C. Peret,, V. J. Gill,, R. Childs,, A. J. Barrett, and, J. E. Bennett. 2001. Outbreak of human parainfluenza virus 3 infections in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant population. J. Infect. Dis. 184:10931097.
87. Counihan, M. E.,, D. K. Shay,, R. C. Holman,, S. A. Lowther, and, L. J. Anderson. 2001. Human parainfluenza virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than five years of age in the United States. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 20:646653.
88. Crowe, J. E.,, and J. V. Williams. 2003. Immunology of viral respiratory tract infection in infancy. Paediatr. Respir. Rev. 4:112119.
89. Daley, A. J.,, R. Nallusamy, and, D. Isaacs. 2000. Comparison of influenza A and influenza B virus infection in hospitalized children. J. Paediatr. Child Health 36:332335.
90. Daley, P.,, S. Castriciano,, M. Chernesky, and, M. Smieja. 2006. Comparison of flocked and rayon swabs for collection of respiratory epithelial cells from uninfected volunteers and symptomatic patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:22652267.
91. Dare, R.,, S. Sanghavi,, A. Bullotta,, M. C. Keightley,, K. St. George,, R. M. Wadowsky,, D. L. Paterson,, K. R. McCurry,, T. A. Reinhart,, S. Husain, and, C. R. Rinaldo. 2007. Diagnosis of human metapneumovirus infection in immunosuppressed lung transplant recipients and children evaluated for pertussis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:548552.
92. Debiaggi, M.,, F. Canducci,, M. Sampaolo,, M. C. Marinozzi,, M. Parea,, C. Terulla,, A. A. Colombo,, E. P. Alessandrino,, L. Z. Bragotti,, M. Arghittu,, A. Goglio,, R. Migliavacca,, E. Romero, and, M. Clementi. 2006. Persistent symptomless human metapneumovirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. J. Infect. Dis. 194:474478.
93. de Jong, J. C.,, A. G. Wermenbol,, M. W. Verweij-Uijterwaal,, K. W. Slaterus,, P. Wertheim-Van Dillen,, G. J. van Doornum,, S. H. Khoo, and, J. C. Hierholzer. 1999. Adenoviruses from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, including two strains that represent new candidate serotypes Ad50 and Ad51 of species B1 and D, respectively. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:39403945.
94. de Jong, M. D.,, C. P. Simmons,, T. T. Thanh,, V. M. Hien,, G. J. Smith,, T. N. Chau,, D. M. Hoang,, N. V. Chau,, T. H. Khanh,, V. C. Dong,, P. T. Qui,, B. V. Cam,, Q. Ha do,, Y. Guan,, J. S. Peiris,, N. T. Chinh,, T. T. Hien, and, J. Farrar. 2006. Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia. Nat. Med. 12:12031207.
95. Dessau, R. B.,, G. Lisby, and, J. L. Frederiksen. 2001. Corona-viruses in brain tissue from patients with multiple sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 101:601604.
96. DeVincenzo, J. 2008. Passive antibody prophylaxis for RSV. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27:6970.
97. DeVincenzo, J.,, J. E. Cehelsky,, R. Alvarez,, S. Elbashir,, J. Harborth,, I. Toudjarska,, L. Nechev,, V. Murugaiah,, V. A. Van Vliet,, A. K. Vaishnaw, and, R. Meyers. 2008. Evaluation of the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ALN-RSV01, a novel RNAi antiviral therapeutic directed against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Antivir. Res. 77:225231.
98. Devincenzo, J. P. 2005. Factors predicting childhood respiratory syncytial virus severity: what they indicate about pathogenesis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24:S177S183.
99. Devincenzo, J. P.,, C. B. Hall,, D. W. Kimberlin,, P. J. Sanchez,, W. J. Rodriguez,, B. A. Jantausch,, L. Corey,, J. S. Kahn,, J. A. Englund,, J. A. Suzich,, F. J. Palmer-Hill,, L. Branco,, S. Johnson,, N. K. Patel, and, F. M. Piazza. 2004. Surveillance of clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial virus for palivizumab (Synagis)-resistant mutants. J. Infect. Dis. 190:975978.
100. Deyde, V. M.,, X. Xu,, R. A. Bright,, M. Shaw,, C. B. Smith,, Y. Zhang,, Y. Shu,, L. V. Gubareva,, N. J. Cox, and, A. I. Klimov. 2007. Surveillance of resistance to adamantanes among influenza A (H3N2) and A (H1N1) viruses isolated worldwide. J. Infect. Dis. 196:249257.
101. Dignan, F.,, C. Alvares,, U. Riley,, M. Ethell,, D. Cunningham,, J. Treleaven,, S. Ashley,, J. Bendig,, G. Morgan, and, M. Potter. 2006. Parainfluenza type 3 infection post stem cell transplant: high prevalence but low mortality. J. Hosp. Infect. 63:452458.
102. Doan, M. L.,, G. B. Mallory,, S. L. Kaplan,, M. K. Dishop,, M. G. Schecter,, E. D. McKenzie,, J. S. Heinle, and, O. Elidemir. 2007. Treatment of adenovirus pneumonia with cidofovir in pediatric lung transplant recipients. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 26:883889.
103. Dominguez, S. R.,, M. S. Anderson,, M. P. Glode,, C. C. Robinson, and, K. V. Holmes. 2006. Blinded case-control study of the relationship between human coronavirus NL63 and Kawasaki syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 194:16971701.
104. Dominguez, S. R.,, T. Briese,, G. Palacios,, J. Hui,, J. Villari,, V. Kapoor,, R. Tokarz,, M. P. Glode,, M. S. Anderson,, C. C. Robinson,, K. V. Holmes, and, W. I. Lipkin. 2008. Multiplex MassTag-PCR for respiratory pathogens in pediatric nasopharyngeal washes negative by conventional diagnostic testing shows a high prevalence of viruses belonging to a newly recognized rhinovirus clade. J. Clin. Virol. 43:219222.
105. Donaldson, G. C. 2006. Climate change and the end of the respiratory syncytial virus season. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:677679.
106. Dowell, S. F. 2001. Seasonal variation in host susceptibility and cycles of certain infectious diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:369374.
107. Drosten, C.,, S. Gunther,, W. Preiser,, W. S. van der Werf,, H. R. Brodt,, S. Becker,, H. Rabenau,, M. Panning,, L. Kolesnikova,, R. A. Fouchier,, A. Berger,, A. M. Burguiere,, J. Cinatl,, M. Eickmann,, N. Escriou,, K. Grywna,, S. Kramme,, J. C. Manuguerra,, S. Muller,, V. Rickerts,, M. Sturmer,, S. Vieth,, H. D. Klenk,, A. D. Osterhaus,, H. Schmitz, and, H. W. Doerr. 2003. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:19671976.
108. Douglas, R. C.,, R. B. Couch, and, K. M. Lindgren. 1967. Cold doesn’t affect the “common cold” in a study of rhinovirus infections. JAMA 199:2930.
109. Duan, S. M.,, X. S. Zhao,, R. F. Wen,, J. J. Huang,, G. H. Pi,, S. X. Zhang,, J. Han,, S. L. Bi,, L. Ruan, and, X. P. Dong. 2003. Stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and environment and its sensitivity to heating and UV irradiation. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 16:246255.
110. Ebihara, T.,, R. Endo,, H. Kikuta,, N. Ishiguro,, H. Ishiko,, M. Hara,, Y. Takahashi, and, K. Kobayashi. 2004. Human metapneumovirus infection in Japanese children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:126132.
111. Ebihara, T.,, R. Endo,, H. Kikuta,, N. Ishiguro,, M. Yoshioka,, X. Ma, and, K. Kobayashi. 2003. Seroprevalence of human metapneumovirus in Japan. J. Med. Virol. 70:281283.
112. Echavarria, M.,, M. Forman,, M. J. van Tol,, J. M. Vossen,, P. Charache, and, A. C. Kroes. 2001. Prediction of severe disseminated adenovirus infection by serum PCR. Lancet 358:384385.
113. Echavarria, M.,, D. Maldonado,, G. Elbert,, C. Videla,, R. Rappaport, and, G. Carballal. 2006. Use of PCR to demonstrate presence of adenovirus species B, C, or F as well as coinfection with two adenovirus species in children with flu-like symptoms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:625627.
114. Echavarria, M.,, J. L. Sanchez,, S. A. Kolavic-Gray,, C. S. Polyak,, F. Mitchell-Raymundo,, B. L. Innis,, D. Vaughn,, R. Reynolds, and, L. N. Binn. 2003. Rapid detection of adenovirus in throat swab specimens by PCR during respiratory disease outbreaks among military recruits. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:810812.
115. Ehrlich, H. J.,, M. Muller,, H. M. Oh,, P. A. Tambyah,, C. Joukhadar,, E. Montomoli,, D. Fisher,, G. Berezuk,, S. Fritsch,, A. Low-Baselli,, N. Vartian,, R. Bobrovsky,, B. G. Pavlova,, E. M. Pollabauer,, O. Kistner, and, P. N. Barrett. 2008. A clinical trial of a whole-virus H5N1 vaccine derived from cell culture. N. Engl. J. Med. 358:25732584.
116. Eisenhut, M. 2006. Extrapulmonary manifestations of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection—a systematic review. Crit. Care 10:R107.
117. Endo, R.,, N. Ishiguro,, H. Kikuta,, S. Teramoto,, R. Shirkoohi,, X. Ma,, T. Ebihara,, H. Ishiko, and, T. Ariga. 2007. Seroepidemiology of human bocavirus in Hokkaido prefecture, Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:32183223.
118. Englund, J. A.,, M. Boeckh,, J. Kuypers,, W. G. Nichols,, R. C. Hackman,, R. A. Morrow,, D. N. Fredricks, and, L. Corey. 2006. Brief communication: fatal human metapneumovirus infection in stem-cell transplant recipients. Ann. Intern. Med. 144:344349.
119. Englund, J. A.,, P. A. Piedra,, A. Jewell,, K. Patel,, B. B. Baxter, and, E. Whimbey. 1996. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections in immunocompromised adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:16491653.
120. Erard, V.,, J. W. Chien,, H. W. Kim,, W. G. Nichols,, M. E. Flowers,, P. J. Martin,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2006. Airflow decline after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: the role of community respiratory viruses. J. Infect. Dis. 193:16191625.
121. Erdman, D. D.,, G. A. Weinberg,, K. M. Edwards,, F. J. Walker,, B. C. Anderson,, J. Winter,, M. Gonzalez, and, L. J. Anderson. 2003. GeneScan reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of six common respiratory viruses in young children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:42984303.
122. Esper, F.,, E. D. Shapiro,, C. Weibel,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry, and, J. S. Kahn. 2005a. Association between a novel human coronavirus and Kawasaki disease. J. Infect. Dis. 191:499502.
123. Esper, F.,, C. Weibel,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry, and, J. S. Kahn. 2005b. Evidence of a novel human coronavirus that is associated with respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. J. Infect. Dis. 191:492498.
124. Esper, F.,, C. Weibel,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry, and, J. S. Kahn. 2006. Coronavirus HKU1 infection in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:775779.
125. Espy, M. J.,, J. C. Hierholzer, and, T. F. Smith. 1987. The effect of centrifugation on the rapid detection of adenovirus in shell vials. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 88:358360.
126. Espy, M. J.,, T. F. Smith,, M. W. Harmon, and, A. P. Kendal. 1986. Rapid detection of influenza virus by shell vial assay with monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:677679.
127. Faden, H.,, R. J. Wynn,, L. Campagna, and, R. M. Ryan. 2005. Outbreak of adenovirus type 30 in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Pediatr. 146:523527.
128. Faix, D. J.,, H. S. Houng,, J. C. Gaydos,, S. K. Liu,, J. T. Connors,, X. Brown,, L. V. Asher,, D. W. Vaughn, and, L. N. Binn. 2004. Evaluation of a rapid quantitative diagnostic test for adenovirus type 4. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:391397.
129. Falsey, A. R. 2005. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in elderly and high-risk adults. Exp. Lung Res. 31(Suppl. 1): 77.
130. Falsey, A. R. 2007. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 28:171181.
131. Falsey, A. R.,, M. C. Criddle, and, E. E. Walsh. 2006. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in adults with and without respiratory illness. J. Clin. Virol. 35:4650.
132. Falsey, A. R.,, D. Erdman,, L. J. Anderson, and, E. E. Walsh. 2003. Human metapneumovirus infections in young and elderly adults. J. Infect. Dis. 187:785790.
133. Falsey, A. R.,, and E. E. Walsh. 2000. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:371384.
134. Falsey, A. R.,, and E. E. Walsh. 2006. Viral pneumonia in older adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:518524.
135. Falsey, A. R.,, E. E. Walsh, and, F. G. Hayden. 2002. Rhinovirus and coronavirus infection-associated hospitalizations among older adults. J. Infect. Dis. 185:13381341.
136. Farcas, G. A.,, S. M. Poutanen,, T. Mazzulli,, B. M. Willey,, J. Butany,, S. L. Asa,, P. Faure,, P. Akhavan,, D. E. Low, and, K. C. Kain. 2005. Fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome is associated with multiorgan involvement by coronavirus. J. Infect. Dis. 191:193197.
137. Fernandez-Rodriguez, A.,, S. Ballesteros,, F. de Ory,, J. E. Echevarria,, R. Alvarez-Lafuente,, G. Vallejo, and, J. Gomez. 2006. Virological analysis in the diagnosis of sudden children death: a medico-legal approach. Forensic Sci. Int. 161:814.
138. Fong, C. K.,, M. K. Lee, and, B. P. Griffith. 2000. Evaluation of R-Mix FreshCells in shell vials for detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:46604662.
139. Fouchier, R. A.,, N. G. Hartwig,, T. M. Bestebroer,, B. Niemeyer,, J. C. de Jong,, J. H. Simon, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2004. A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:62126216.
140. Fouchier, R. A.,, T. Kuiken,, M. Schutten,, A. G. van Amerongen,, G. J. van Doornum,, B. G. van den Hoogen,, M. Peiris,, W. Lim,, K. Stohr, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2003. Aetiology: Koch’s postulates fulfilled for SARS virus. Nature 423:240.
141. Fouchier, R. A.,, V. Munster,, A. Wallensten,, T. M. Bestebroer,, S. Herfst,, D. Smith,, G. F. Rimmelzwaan,, B. Olsen, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2005. Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls. J. Virol. 79:28142822.
142. Fox, J. D. 2007. Nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of respiratory viruses. J. Clin. Virol. 40(Suppl. 1): S15S23.
143. Fox, J. P.,, C. D. Brandt,, F. E. Wassermann,, C. E. Hall,, I. Spigland,, A. Kogon, and, L. R. Elveback. 1969. The virus watch program: a continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. VI. Observations of adenovirus infections: virus excretion patterns, antibody response, efficiency of surveillance, patterns of infections, and relation to illness. Am. J. Epidemiol. 89:2550.
144. Fox, J. P.,, C. E. Hall, and, M. K. Cooney. 1977. The Seattle Virus Watch. VII. Observations of adenovirus infections. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:362386.
145. Frank, A. L.,, L. H. Taber,, C. R. Wells,, J. M. Wells,, W. P. Glezen, and, A. Paredes. 1981. Patterns of shedding of myxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in children. J. Infect. Dis. 144:433441.
146. Frank, J. A., Jr.,, R. W. Warren,, J. A. Tucker,, J. Zeller, and, C. M. Wilfert. 1983. Disseminated parainfluenza infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency. Am. J. Dis. Child. 137:11721174.
147. Fransen, H.,, Z. Heigl,, S. Wolontis,, M. Forsgren, and, A. Svedmyr. 1969. Infections with viruses in patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness, Stockholm 1963-1967. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 1:127136.
148. Freed, N. E.,, C. A. Myers,, K. L. Russell,, E. A. Walter,, M. Irvine,, R. G. Coon, and, D. Metzgar. 2007. Diagnostic discrimination of live attenuated influenza vaccine strains and community-acquired pathogenic strains in clinical samples. Mol. Cell. Probes 21:103110.
149. Fry, A. M.,, A. T. Curns,, K. Harbour,, L. Hutwagner,, R. C. Holman, and, L. J. Anderson. 2006. Seasonal trends of human parainfluenza viral infections: United States, 1990-2004. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:10161022.
150. Fry, A. M.,, X. Lu,, M. Chittaganpitch,, T. Peret,, J. Fischer,, S. F. Dowell,, L. J. Anderson,, D. Erdman, and, S. J. Olsen. 2007. Human bocavirus: a novel parvovirus epidemiologically associated with pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Thailand. J. Infect. Dis. 195:10381045.
151. Fujimoto, T.,, T. Okafuji,, T. Okafuji,, M. Ito,, S. Nukuzuma,, M. Chikahira, and, O. Nishio. 2004. Evaluation of a bedside immunochromatographic test for detection of adenovirus in respiratory samples, by comparison to virus isolation, PCR, and real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:54895492.
152. Garbino, J.,, S. Crespo,, J. D. Aubert,, T. Rochat,, B. Ninet,, C. Deffernez,, W. Wunderli,, J. C. Pache,, P. M. Soccal, and, L. Kaiser. 2006. A prospective hospital-based study of the clinical impact of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome (non-SARS)-related human coronavirus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:10091015.
153. Garbino, J.,, M. W. Gerbase,, W. Wunderli,, C. Deffernez,, Y. Thomas,, T. Rochat,, B. Ninet,, J. Schrenzel,, S. Yerly,, L. Perrin,, P. M. Soccal,, L. Nicod, and, L. Kaiser. 2004a. Lower respiratory viral illnesses: improved diagnosis by molecular methods and clinical impact. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 170:11971203.
154. Garbino, J.,, M. W. Gerbase,, W. Wunderli,, L. Kolarova,, L. P. Nicod,, T. Rochat, and, L. Kaiser. 2004b. Respiratory viruses and severe lower respiratory tract complications in hospitalized patients. Chest 125:10331039.
155. Garbino, J.,, S. Inoubli,, E. Mossdorf,, R. Weber,, M. Tamm,, P. Soccal,, J. D. Aubert,, P. O. Bridevaux,, C. Tapparel, and, L. Kaiser. 2008. Respiratory viruses in HIV-infected patients with suspected respiratory opportunistic infection. AIDS 22:701705.
156. Garcia-Garcia, M. L.,, C. Calvo,, F. Pozo,, P. Perez-Brena,, S. Quevedo,, T. Bracamonte, and, I. Casas. 2008. Human bocavirus detection in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children without clinical symptoms of respiratory infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27:358360.
157. Gardner, S. D. 1969. The isolation of parainfluenza 4 subtypes A and B in England and serological studies of their prevalence. J. Hyg. (London) 67:545550.
158. Gaynor, A. M.,, M. D. Nissen,, D. M. Whiley,, I. M. Mackay,, S. B. Lambert,, G. Wu,, D. C. Brennan,, G. A. Storch,, T. P. Sloots, and, D. Wang. 2007. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. PLoS Pathog. 3:e64.
159. Gern, J. E. 2004. Viral respiratory infection and the link to asthma. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 23:S78S86.
160. Gerna, G.,, G. Campanini,, F. Rovida,, E. Percivalle,, A. Sarasini,, A. Marchi, and, F. Baldanti. 2006a. Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients. J. Med. Virol. 78:938949.
161. Gerna, G.,, A. Sarasini,, E. Percivalle,, E. Genini,, G. Campanini, and, R. M. Grazia. 2006b. Simultaneous detection and typing of human metapneumovirus strains in nasopharyngeal secretions and cell cultures by monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Virol. 35:113116.
162. Gerna, G.,, P.