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Chapter 19 : Rotavirus, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, and Other Viruses Causing Acute Gastroenteritis

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Abstract:

Acute gastroenteritis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly among young children living in developing countries. Among the several causes of gastroenteritis (chemical, bacterial, and parasitic), viral pathogens play an important role. The role of four viral agents, rotaviruses, caliciviruses, astroviruses, and enteric adenoviruses, in causing gastroenteritis in humans is well established. Rotaviruses are members of the Rotavirus genus within the Reoviridae family, which also contains 10 other genera. Cell culture is not used for the diagnosis of rotavirus disease, since human rotaviruses are difficult to cultivate from clinical specimens. Caliciviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses with a broad host range and disease manifestation, such as respiratory disease in cats, vesicular disease in swine, and hemorrhagic disease in rabbits. The first astroviruses were identified in diarrhea stool specimens from children in 1975 by electron microscopy (EM). Later astroviruses have been isolated from numerous animal species and recently grouped into two genera, Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus, within the Astroviridae family. Human astrovirus infections occur worldwide and are primarily associated with pediatric disease. Human adenoviruses have been linked with a number of diseases, including respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. They are classified into the Adenoviridae family, Mastadenovirus genus. The recent introduction of rotavirus vaccines to the international markets is a promising start and hopefully will be followed by similar strategies for other viral causes of acute gastroenteritis. This chapter also talks about other enteropathogenic viruses such as coronaviruses and toroviruses, picobirnaviruses, and aichi virus.

Citation: Farkas T, Jiang X. 2009. Rotavirus, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, and Other Viruses Causing Acute Gastroenteritis, p 283-310. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch19
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FIGURE 1

Electron micrographs of gastroenteritis viruses: (A) sapoviruses; (B) noroviruses; (C) astroviruses; (D) small round viruses; (E) rotaviruses; (F) adenoviruses; (G) coronaviruses; (H) torovirus-like particles; (I) picobirnaviruses. Bar = 100 nm.

Citation: Farkas T, Jiang X. 2009. Rotavirus, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, and Other Viruses Causing Acute Gastroenteritis, p 283-310. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch19
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(Left) Schematic representation of rotavirus particle, gene segments, and encoded proteins. (Right) Surface representations of the three-dimensional structures of the outer layer of the complete particle (“Outer layer”) and a particle (“Intermediate layer”) in which the outer layer and a small triangular portions of the intermediate layer have been removed, exposing the inner layer. (Adapted from Kapikian et al., 2001.)

Citation: Farkas T, Jiang X. 2009. Rotavirus, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, and Other Viruses Causing Acute Gastroenteritis, p 283-310. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch19
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Classification of Caliciviridae. Phylogenetic tree based on deduced capsid amino acid sequences. The tree was constructed by the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages clustering method (MEGA v3.1). VESV, vesicular exanthema of swine virus; Pan-1, primate calicivirus; SMSV, San Miguel sea lion virus; FCV, feline calicivirus; CCV, canine calicivirus; PEC, porcine enteric calicivirus; EBHSV, European brown hare syndrome virus; RHDV, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus; MNV-1, murine norovirus. Becovirus (bovine enteric calicivirus) is represented by the Nebraska strain (Smiley et al., 2002; Oliver et al., 2006). The Recovirus (rhesus enteric calici-virus) genus name has been proposed for Tulane virus (Farkas et al., 2008).

Citation: Farkas T, Jiang X. 2009. Rotavirus, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, and Other Viruses Causing Acute Gastroenteritis, p 283-310. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch19
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Antibody prevalence by age to noroviruses in Japan, United Kingdom, China, and Kuwait measured by antibody detection ELISAs utilizing recombinant norovirus virus-like particles (Jing et al., 2000). rNV, Norwalk (GGI/1); rMx, Mexico (GGII/3); rHV, Hawaii (GGII/1); m, months; y, years.

Citation: Farkas T, Jiang X. 2009. Rotavirus, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses, Enteric Adenoviruses, and Other Viruses Causing Acute Gastroenteritis, p 283-310. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch19
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