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Chapter 23 : Arboviruses

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the medically important arboviruses. As these viruses are transmitted by arthropods, arboviral disease usually manifests itself during the warmer months in the temperate climates of the world. Laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections has traditionally been based upon serological identification of antiviral antibodies and/or isolation of virus. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test successfully differentiated togaviruses (group A arboviruses, primarily alphaviruses) from flaviviruses (group B arboviruses) long before modern biochemical techniques confirmed this observation. The MAC-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is capable of distinguishing among infections caused by the medically important alphaviruses (Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Western equine encephalitis (WEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)). There are murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) capable of identifying virus complexes and even larger virus groups (e.g., all alphaviruses or all flaviviruses). In general, the alphaviruses demonstrate replication kinetics similar to those of the flaviviruses and are not commonly detected in acute-phase serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens, although detection is generally greater than with the flaviviruses. Consensus reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays have been described for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and the California and Bunyamwera serogroup bunyaviruses. The bunyaviruses are larger than either alphaviruses or flaviviruses, about 80 to 120 nm in diameter. Dengue (DEN) is currently the most important arboviral disease, with hundreds of thousands of cases occurring each year and millions of people at risk.

Citation: Roehrig J, Lanciotti R. 2009. Arboviruses, p 387-407. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch23
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FIGURE 1

Antigen panels for arboviral testing based upon geographic distribution and prevalence. Abbreviations: EVE, Everglades VEE; SF, Semliki Forest; SIN, Sindbis; TAH, Tahyna; INK, Inkoo; RVF, Rift Valley fever; ORO, Oropouche; KUN, Kunjin.

Citation: Roehrig J, Lanciotti R. 2009. Arboviruses, p 387-407. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch23
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