Chapter 23 : Arboviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Arboviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap23-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap23-2.gif


This chapter focuses on the medically important arboviruses. As these viruses are transmitted by arthropods, arboviral disease usually manifests itself during the warmer months in the temperate climates of the world. Laboratory diagnosis of arboviral infections has traditionally been based upon serological identification of antiviral antibodies and/or isolation of virus. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test successfully differentiated togaviruses (group A arboviruses, primarily alphaviruses) from flaviviruses (group B arboviruses) long before modern biochemical techniques confirmed this observation. The MAC-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is capable of distinguishing among infections caused by the medically important alphaviruses (Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Western equine encephalitis (WEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE)). There are murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) capable of identifying virus complexes and even larger virus groups (e.g., all alphaviruses or all flaviviruses). In general, the alphaviruses demonstrate replication kinetics similar to those of the flaviviruses and are not commonly detected in acute-phase serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens, although detection is generally greater than with the flaviviruses. Consensus reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays have been described for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and the California and Bunyamwera serogroup bunyaviruses. The bunyaviruses are larger than either alphaviruses or flaviviruses, about 80 to 120 nm in diameter. Dengue (DEN) is currently the most important arboviral disease, with hundreds of thousands of cases occurring each year and millions of people at risk.

Citation: Roehrig J, Lanciotti R. 2009. Arboviruses, p 387-407. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch23
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Antigen panels for arboviral testing based upon geographic distribution and prevalence. Abbreviations: EVE, Everglades VEE; SF, Semliki Forest; SIN, Sindbis; TAH, Tahyna; INK, Inkoo; RVF, Rift Valley fever; ORO, Oropouche; KUN, Kunjin.

Citation: Roehrig J, Lanciotti R. 2009. Arboviruses, p 387-407. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Ackermann, R.,, K. Kruger,, M. Roggendorf,, B. Rehse-Kupper,, M. Mortter,, M. Schneider, and, I. Vukadinovic. 1986. Spread of early-summer meningoencephalitis in the Federal Republic of Germany. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 111:927933. (In German.)
2. Alvarado, J. F.,, G. Dolz,, M. V. Herrero,, B. J. McCluskey, and, M. D. Salman. 2002. Comparison of the serum neutralization test and a comparative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 14:204242.
3. Artsob, H.,, L. Spence,, G. Surgeoner,, B. Helson,, J. Thorsen,, L. Grant, and, C. Th’ng. 1982. Snowshoe hare virus activity in Southern Ontario. Can. J. Public Health 73:345349.
4. Artsob, H.,, L. Spence,, C. Th’ng,, V. Lampotang,, D. Johnston,, C. MacInnes,, F. Matejka,, D. Voigt, and, I. Watt. 1986. Arbovirus infections in several Ontario mammals, 1975-1980. Can. J. Vet. Res. 50:4246.
5. Artsob, H.,, L. Spence,, C. Th’ng, and, R. West. 1980. Serological survey for human arbovirus infections in the province of Quebec. Can. J. Public Health 71:341346.
6. Attoui, H.,, R. N. Charrel,, F. Billoir,, J. F. Cantaloube,, P. de Micco, and, X. de Lamballerie. 1998. Comparative sequence analysis of American, European and Asian isolates of viruses in the genus Coltivirus. J. Gen. Virol. 79:24812489.
7. Attoui, H.,, P. De Micco, and, X. de Lamballerie. 1997. Complete nucleotide sequence of Colorado tick fever virus segments M6, S1 and S2. J. Gen. Virol. 78:28952899.
8. Avalos-Bock, S. A. 2005. West Nile virus and the U.S. blood supply: new tests substantially reduce the risk of transmission via donated blood products. Am. J. Nurs. 105:3637.
9. Baldridge, G. D.,, B. J. Beaty, and, M. J. Hewlett. 1989. Genomic stability of La Crosse virus during vertical and horizontal transmission. Arch. Virol. 108:8999.
10. Barrett, A. D.,, J. H. Mathews,, B. R. Miller,, A. R. Medlen,, T. N. Ledger, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1990. Identification of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between 17D-204 and other strains of yellow fever virus. J. Gen. Virol. 71:1318.
11. Beasley, D. W.,, C. T. Davis,, M. Whiteman,, B. Granwehr,, R. M. Kinney, and, A. D. T. Barrett. 2004. Molecular determinants of virulence of West Nile virus in North America. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 18:3541.
12. Beaty, B. J.,, T. L. Jamnback,, S. W. Hildreth, and, K. L. Brown. 1983. Rapid diagnosis of La Crosse virus infections: evaluation of serologic and antigen detection techniques for the clinically relevant diagnosis of La Crosse encephalitis. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 123:293302.
13. Besselaar, T. G.,, N. K. Blackburn, and, N. Aldridge. 1989. Comparison of an antibody-capture IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with IgM-indirect immunofluorescence for the diagnosis of acute Sindbis and West Nile infections. J. Virol. Methods 25:337345.
14. Bishop, D. H. 1979. Genetic potential of bunyaviruses. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 86:133.
15. Bishop, D. H.,, and B. J. Beaty. 1988. Molecular and biochemical studies of the evolution, infection and transmission of insect bunyaviruses. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 321:463483.
16. Bishop, D. H.,, C. H. Calisher,, J. Casals,, M. P. Chumakov,, S. Y. Gaidamovich,, C. Hannoun,, D. K. Lvov,, I. D. Marshall,, N. Oker-Blom,, R. F. Pettersson,, J. S. Porterfield,, P. K. Russell,, R. E. Shope, and, E. G. Westaway. 1980. Bunyaviridae. Inter-virology 14:125143.
17. Bishop, D. H.,, J. R. Gentsch, and, L. H. el-Said. 1978. Genetic capabilities of bunyaviruses. J. Egypt Public Health Assoc. 53:217234.
18. Bishop, D. H.,, K. G. Gould,, H. Akashi, and, C. M. Clerx-van Haaster. 1982. The complete sequence and coding content of snowshoe hare bunyavirus small (S) viral RNA species. Nucleic Acids Res. 10:37033713.
19. Blitvich, B. J.,, R. A. Bowen,, N. L. Marlenee,, R. A. Hall,, M. L. Bunning, and, B. J. Beaty. 2003a. Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of West Nile virus antibodies in domestic mammals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:26762679.
20. Blitvich, B. J.,, N. L. Marlenee,, R. A. Hall,, C. H. Calisher,, R. A. Bowen,, J. T. Roehrig,, N. Komar,, S. A. Langevin, and, B. J. Beaty. 2003b. Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to West Nile virus in multiple avian species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:10411047.
21. Boere, W. A.,, B. J. Benaissa-Trouw,, M. Harmsen,, C. A. Kraaijeveld, and, H. Snippe. 1983. Neutralizing and non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to the E2 glycoprotein of Semliki Forest virus can protect mice from lethal encephalitis. J. Gen. Virol. 64:14051408.
22. Boggs, W. M.,, C. S. Hahn,, E. G. Strauss,, J. H. Strauss, and, D. E. Griffin. 1989. Low pH-dependent Sindbis virus-induced fusion of BHK cells: differences between strains correlate with amino acid changes in the E1 glycoprotein. Virology 169:485488.
23. Bowen, G. S.,, R. G. McLean,, R. B. Shriner,, D. B. Francy,, K. S. Pokorny,, J. M. Trimble,, R. A. Bolin,, A. M. Barnes,, C. H. Calisher, and, D. J. Muth. 1981. The ecology of Colorado tick fever in Rocky Mountain National Park in 1974. II. Infection in small mammals. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30:490496.
24. Bray, M.,, and C. J. Lai. 1991. Construction of intertypic chimeric dengue viruses by substitution of structural protein genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:1034210346.
25. Brown, J. M.,, D. M. Coates, and, R. J. Phillpotts. 1996. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies for generic detection of flaviviruses by ELISA. J. Virol. Methods 62:143151.
26. Bundo, K.,, and A. Igarashi. 1985. Antibody-capture ELISA for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies in sera from Japanese encephalitis and dengue hemorrhagic fever patients. J. Virol. Methods 11:1522.
27. Burgdorfer, W. 1977. Tick-borne diseases in the United States: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Colorado tick fever. A review. Acta Trop. 34:103126.
28. Burke, D. S.,, and A. Nisalak. 1982. Detection of Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in serum by antibody capture radioimmunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:353361.
29. Burke, D. S.,, A. Nisalak,, M. A. Ussery,, T. Laorakpongse, and, S. Chantavibul. 1985a. Kinetics of IgM and IgG responses to Japanese encephalitis virus in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J. Infect. Dis. 151:10931099.
30. Burke, D. S.,, M. Tingpalapong,, M. R. Elwell,, P. S. Paul, and, R. A. Van Deusen. 1985b. Japanese encephalitis virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in porcine sera. Am. J. Vet. Res. 46:20542057.
31. Busch, M. P.,, S. Caglioti,, E. F. Robertson,, J. D. McAuley,, L. H. Tobler,, H. Kamel,, J. M. Linnen,, V. Shyamala,, P. Tomasulo, and, S. H. Kleinman. 2005. Screening the blood supply for West Nile virus RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:460467.
32. Calisher, C. H.,, V. P. Berardi,, D. J. Muth, and, E. E. Buff. 1986a. Specificity of immunoglobulin M and G antibody responses in humans infected with eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses: application to rapid serodiagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:369372.
33. Calisher, C. H.,, A. O. el-Kafrawi,, M. I. Al-Deen Mahmud,, A. P. Travassos da Rosa,, C. R. Bartz,, M. Brummer-Korvenkontio,, S. Haksohusodo, and, W. Suharyono. 1986b. Complex-specific immunoglobulin M antibody patterns in humans infected with alphaviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:155159.
34. Calisher, C. H.,, O. Meurman,, M. Brummer-Korvenkontio,, P. E. Halonen, and, D. J. Muth. 1985a. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for detecting immunoglobulin M antibodies to Sindbis virus and further evidence that Pogosta disease is caused by a western equine encephalitis complex virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:566571.
35. Calisher, C. H.,, T. P. Monath,, C. J. Mitchell,, M. S. Sabattini,, C. B. Cropp,, J. Kerschner,, A. R. Hunt, and, J. S. Lazuick. 1985b. Arbovirus investigations in Argentina, 1977–1980. III. Identification and characterization of viruses isolated, including new subtypes of western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses and four new bunyaviruses (Las Maloyas, Resistencia, Barranqueras, and Antequera). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34:956965.
36. Calisher, C. H.,, J. D. Poland,, S. B. Calisher, and, L. A. Warmoth. 1985c. Diagnosis of Colorado tick fever virus infection by enzyme immunoassays for immunoglobulin M and G antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:8488.
37. Calisher, C. H.,, C. I. Pretzman,, D. J. Muth,, M. A. Parsons, and, E. D. Peterson. 1986c. Serodiagnosis of La Crosse virus infections in humans by detection of immunoglobulin M class antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:667671.
38. Calisher, C. H.,, R. E. Shope,, W. Brandt,, J. Casals,, N. Karabatsos,, F. A. Murphy,, R. B. Tesh, and, M. E. Wiebe. 1980. Proposed antigenic classification of registered arboviruses I. Togaviridae, Alphavirus. Intervirology 14:229232.
39. Calisher, C. H.,, and W. H. Thompson. 1983. California Serogroup Viruses, vol. 123. Alan R. Liss, New York, NY.
40. Cardosa, M. J.,, P. H. Tio,, S. Nimmannitya,, A. Nisalak, and, B. Innis. 1992. IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 23:726729.
41. Carter, I. W.,, L. D. Smythe,, J. R. Fraser,, N. D. Stallman, and, M. J. Cloonan. 1985. Detection of Ross River virus immunoglobulin M antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antibody class capture and comparison with other methods. Pathology 17:503508.
42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Section VIII-F: Arboviruses and related zoonotic viruses, p. 232. In J. Y. Richmond and, R. W. McKinney (ed.), Biosafety in Microbiological and Biological Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC and NIH, Washington, DC.
43. Chambers, T. J.,, X. Jiang,, D. A. Droll,, Y. Liang,, W. S. Wold, and, J. Nickells. 2006. Chimeric Japanese encephalitis virus/dengue 2 virus infectious clone: biological properties, immunogenicity and protection against dengue encephalitis in mice. J. Gen. Virol. 87:31313140.
44. Chambers, T. J.,, A. Nestorowicz,, P. W. Mason, and, C. M. Rice. 1999. Yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis chimeric viruses: construction and biological properties. J. Virol. 73:30953101.
45. Chandler, L. J.,, B. J. Beaty,, G. D. Baldridge,, D. H. Bishop, and, M. J. Hewlett. 1990. Heterologous reassortment of bunyaviruses in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes and transovarial and oral transmission of newly evolved genotypes. J. Gen. Virol. 71:10451050.
46. Chandler, L. J.,, G. Hogge,, M. Endres,, D. R. Jacoby,, N. Nathanson, and, B. J. Beaty. 1991. Reassortment of La Crosse and Tahyna bunyaviruses in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. Virus Res. 20:181191.
47. Chang, G. J.,, B. S. Davis,, A. R. Hunt,, D. A. Holmes, and, G. Kuno. 2001. Flavivirus DNA vaccines: current status and potential. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 951:272285.
48. Clarke, D. H.,, and J. Casals. 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 7:561572.
49. Cumming, H. S. 1935. Report on the St. Louis Outbreak of Encephalitis. U.S. Treasury Department, Public Health Service, Washington, DC.
50. Davis, B. S.,, G. J. Chang,, B. Cropp,, J. T. Roehrig,, D. A. Martin,, C. J. Mitchell,, R. Bowen, and, M. L. Bunning. 2001. West Nile virus recombinant DNA vaccine protects mouse and horse from virus challenge and expresses in vitro a noninfectious recombinant antigen that can be used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. J. Virol. 75:40404047.
51. Davis, C. T.,, G. D. Ebel,, R. S. Lanciotti,, A. C. Brault,, H. Guzman,, M. Siirin,, A. Lambert,, R. E. Parsons,, D. W. Beasley,, R. J. Novak,, D. Elizondo-Quiroga,, E. N. Green,, D. S. Young,, L. M. Stark,, M. A. Drebot,, H. Artsob,, R. B. Tesh,, L. D. Kramer, and, A. D. Barrett. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of North American West Nile virus isolates, 2001-2004: evidence for the emergence of a dominant genotype. Virology 342:252265.
52. Despres, P.,, J. W. Griffin, and, D. E. Griffin. 1995. Effects of anti-E2 monoclonal antibody on Sindbis virus replication in AT3 cells expressing bcl-2. J. Virol. 69:70067014.
53. Durbin, A. P.,, J. H. McArthur,, J. A. Marron,, J. E. Blaney,, B. Thumar,, K. Wanionek,, B. R. Murphy, and, S. S. Whitehead. 2006. rDEN2/4Delta30(ME), a live attenuated chimeric dengue serotype 2 vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic in healthy dengue-naive adults. Hum. Vaccine 2:255260.
54. Dykers, T. I.,, K. L. Brown,, C. B. Gundersen, and, B. J. Beaty. 1985. Rapid diagnosis of LaCrosse encephalitis: detection of specific immunoglobulin M in cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22:740744.
55. Eads, R. B.,, and G. C. Smith. 1983. Seasonal activity and Colorado tick fever virus infection rates in Rocky Mountain wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni (acari: Ixodidae), in north-central Colorado, USA. J. Med. Entomol. 20:4955.
56. Emmons, R. W. 1985. An overview of Colorado tick fever. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 178:4752.
57. Emmons, R. W. 1988. Ecology of Colorado tick fever. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 42:4964.
58. Florio, L.,, M. O. Stewart, and, E. R. Mugrage. 1944. The experimental transmission of Colorado tick fever. J. Exp. Med. 80:165188.
59. Frazier, C. L.,, and R. E. Shope. 1979. Detection of antibodies to alphaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:583585.
60. Gajanana, A.,, R. Rajendran,, V. Thenmozhi,, P. P. Samuel,, T. F. Tsai, and, R. Reuben. 1995. Comparative evaluation of bioassay and ELISA for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in field collected mosquitos. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 26:9197.
61. Gentry, M. K.,, E. A. Henchal,, J. M. McCown,, W. E. Brandt, and, J. M. Dalrymple. 1982. Identification of distinct antigenic determinants on dengue-2 virus using monoclonal antibodies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31:548555.
62. Gentsch, J.,, L. R. Wynne,, J. P. Clewley,, R. E. Shope, and, D. H. Bishop. 1977. Formation of recombinants between snowshoe hare and La Crosse bunyaviruses. J. Virol. 24:893902.
63. Gentsch, J. R.,, G. Robeson, and, D. H. Bishop. 1979. Recombination between snowshoe hare and La Crosse bunyaviruses. J. Virol. 31:707717.
64. Gonzalez-Scarano, F.,, R. E. Shope,, C. E. Calisher, and, N. Nathanson. 1982. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the G1 and N proteins of LaCrosse and Tahyna, two California serogroup bunyaviruses. Virology 120:4253.
65. Gould, E. A.,, A. Buckley,, N. Cammack,, A. D. Barrett,, J. C. Clegg,, R. Ishak, and, M. G. Varma. 1985. Examination of the immunological relationships between flaviviruses using yellow fever virus monoclonal antibodies. J. Gen. Virol. 66:13691382.
66. Gould, E. A.,, A. Buckley,, P. A. Cane,, S. Higgs, and, N. Cammack. 1989. Use of a monoclonal antibody specific for wild-type yellow fever virus to identify a wild-type antigenic variant in 17D vaccine pools. J. Gen. Virol. 70:18891894.
67. Griffin, D. E.,, and J. M. Hardwick. 1997. Regulators of apoptosis on the road to persistent alphavirus infection. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 51:565592.
68. Grimstad, P. R.,, C. L. Shabino,, C. H. Calisher, and, R. J. Waldman. 1982. A case of encephalitis in a human associated with a serologic rise to Jamestown Canyon virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31:12381244.
69. Guirakhoo, F.,, R. A. Bolin, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1992. The Murray Valley encephalitis virus prM protein confers acid resistance to virus particles and alters the expression of epitopes within the R2 domain of E glycoprotein. Virology 191:921931.
70. Guirakhoo, F.,, F. X. Heinz, and, C. Kunz. 1989. Epitope model of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope glycoprotein E: analysis of structural properties, role of carbohydrate side chain, and conformational changes occurring at acidic pH. Virology 169:9099.
71. Guirakhoo, F.,, F. X. Heinz,, C. W. Mandl,, H. Holzmann, and, C. Kunz. 1991. Fusion activity of flaviviruses: comparison of mature and immature (prM-containing) tick-borne encephalitis virions. J. Gen. Virol. 72:13231329.
72. Guirakhoo, F.,, A. R. Hunt,, J. G. Lewis, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1993. Selection and partial characterization of dengue 2 virus mutants that induce fusion at elevated pH. Virology 194:219223.
73. Guirakhoo, F.,, S. Kitchener,, D. Morrison,, R. Forrat,, K. McCarthy,, R. Nichols,, S. Yoksan,, X. Duan,, T. H. Ermak,, N. Kanesa-Thasan,, P. Bedford,, J. Lang,, M. J. Quentin-Millet, and, T. P. Monath. 2006. Live attenuated chimeric yellow fever dengue type 2 (ChimeriVax-DEN2) vaccine: phase I clinical trial for safety and immunogenicity: effect of yellow fever pre-immunity in induction of cross neutralizing antibody responses to all 4 dengue serotypes. Hum. Vaccine 2:6067.
74. Guirakhoo, F.,, R. Weltzin,, T. J. Chambers,, Z. X. Zhang,, K. Soike,, M. Ratterree,, J. Arroyo,, K. Georgakopoulos,, J. Catalan, and, T. P. Monath. 2000. Recombinant chimeric yellow fever-dengue type 2 virus is immunogenic and protective in nonhuman primates. J. Virol. 74:54775485.
75. Guzman, M. G.,, G. Kouri,, J. Bravo,, M. Soler,, L. Morier,, S. Vazquez,, A. Diaz,, R. Fernandez,, A. Ruiz,, A. Ramos et al. 1988. Dengue in Cuba: history of an epidemic. Rev. Cubana Med. Trop. 40:2949. (In Spanish.)
76. Guzman, M. G.,, G. Kouri,, L. Morier,, M. Soler, and, A. Fernandez. 1984. A study of fatal hemorrhagic dengue cases in Cuba, 1981. Bull. Pan. Am. Health Organ. 18:213220.
77. Guzman, M. G.,, G. P. Kouri,, J. Bravo,, M. Soler,, S. Vazquez, and, L. Morier. 1990. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in Cuba, 1981: a retrospective seroepidemiologic study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42:179184.
78. Halstead, S. B. 1988. Pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology. Science 239:476481.
79. Han, L. L.,, F. Popovici,, J. P. Alexander, Jr.,, V. Laurentia,, L. A. Tengelsen,, C. Cernescu,, H. E. Gary, Jr.,, N. Ion-Nedelcu,, G. L. Campbell, and, T. F. Tsai. 1999. Risk factors for West Nile virus infection and meningoencephalitis, Romania, 1996. J. Infect. Dis. 179:230233.
80. Hawkes, R. A.,, J. T. Roehrig,, C. R. Boughton,, N. H. Naim,, R. Orwell, and, P. Anderson-Stuart. 1990. Defined epitope blocking with Murray Valley encephalitis virus and monoclonal antibodies: laboratory and field studies. J. Med. Virol. 32:3138.
81. Hawkes, R. A.,, J. T. Roehrig,, A. R. Hunt, and, G. A. Moore. 1988. Antigenic structure of the Murray Valley encephalitis virus E glycoprotein. J. Gen. Virol. 69:11051109.
82. Hayes, E. B.,, and D. R. O’Leary. 2004. West Nile virus infection: a pediatric perspective. Pediatrics 113:13751381.
83. Heinz, F. X. 1986. Epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins. Adv. Virus Res. 31:103168.
84. Heinz, F. X.,, and C. W. Mandl. 1993. The molecular biology of tick-borne encephalitis virus. Review article. APMIS 101:735745.
85. Heinz, F. X.,, and J. T. Roehrig. 1990. Immunochemistry of flaviviruses, p. 289–305. In M. H. V. van Regenmortel and, H. Neurath (ed.), Immunochemistry of Viruses. The Basis for Serodiagnosis and Vaccines. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
86. Heinz, F. X.,, M. Roggendorf,, H. Hofmann,, C. Kunz, and, F. Deinhardt. 1981. Comparison of two different enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies against tick-borne encephalitis virus in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:141146.
87. Henchal, E. A.,, M. K. Gentry,, J. M. McCown, and, W. E. Brandt. 1982. Dengue virus-specific and flavivirus group determinants identified with monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31:830836.
88. Henchal, E. A.,, J. M. McCown,, D. S. Burke,, M. C. Seguin, and, W. E. Brandt. 1985. Epitopic analysis of antigenic determinants on the surface of dengue-2 virions using monoclonal antibodies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34:162169.
89. Hennessy, S.,, Z. Liu,, T. F. Tsai,, B. L. Strom,, C. M. Wan,, H. L. Liu,, T. X. Wu,, H. J. Yu,, Q. M. Liu,, N. Karabatsos,, W. B. Bilker, and, S.B. Halstead. 1996. Effectiveness of live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (SA14-14-2): a case-control study. Lancet 347:15831586.
90. Hildreth, S. W.,, and B. J. Beaty. 1983. Application of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for the detection of La Crosse viral antigens in mosquitoes. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 123:303312.
91. Hildreth, S. W.,, B. J. Beaty,, H. K. Maxfield,, R. F. Gilfillan, and, B. J. Rosenau. 1984. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus and Highlands J virus antigens within mosquito pools by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). II. Retrospective field test of the EIA. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:973980.
92. Hildreth, S. W.,, B. J. Beaty,, J. M. Meegan,, C. L. Frazier, and, R. E. Shope. 1982. Detection of La Crosse arbovirus antigen in mosquito pools: application of chromogenic and fluorogenic enzyme immunoassay systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:879884.
93. Hinckley, A. F.,, D. R. O’Leary, and, E. B. Hayes. 2007. Transmission of West Nile virus through human breast milk seems to be rare. Pediatrics 119:666671.
94. Hoekstra, C. 2005. West Nile virus: a challenge for transplant programs. Prog. Transplant. 15:397400.
95. Huang, C. Y.,, S. Butrapet,, D. J. Pierro,, G. J. Chang,, A. R. Hunt,, N. Bhamarapravati,, D. J. Gubler, and, R. M. Kinney. 2000. Chimeric dengue type 2 (vaccine strain PDK-53)/dengue type 1 virus as a potential candidate dengue type 1 virus vaccine. J. Virol. 74:30203028.
96. Huang, C. Y.,, S. Butrapet,, K. R. Tsuchiya,, N. Bhamarapravati,, D. J. Gubler, and, R. M. Kinney. 2003. Dengue 2 PDK-53 virus as a chimeric carrier for tetravalent dengue vaccine development. J. Virol. 77:1143611447.
97. Hunt, A. R.,, R. A. Hall,, A. J. Kerst,, R. S. Nasci,, H. M. Savage,, N. A. Panella,, K. L. Gottfried,, K. L. Burkhalter, and, J. T. Roehrig. 2002. Detection of West Nile virus antigen in mosquitoes and avian tissues by a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:20232030.
98. Hunt, A. R.,, and J. T. Roehrig. 1985. Biochemical and biological characteristics of epitopes on the E1 glycoprotein of western equine encephalitis virus. Virology 142:334346.
99. Iwamoto, M.,, D. B. Jernigan,, A. Guasch,, M. J. Trepka,, C. G. Blackmore,, W. C. Hellinger,, S. Pham,, S. Zaki,, R. S. Lanciotti,, S. E. Lance-Parker,, C. A. DiazGranados,, A. G. Winquist,, C. A. Perlino,, S. Wiersma,, K. L. Hillyer,, J. L. Goodman,, A. A. Marfin,, M. E. Chamberland, and, L. R. Petersen. 2003. Transmission of West Nile virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:21962203.
100. Jamnback, T. L.,, B. J. Beaty,, K. L. Hildreth,, K. L. Brown, and, C. B. Gundersen. 1982. Capture immunoglobulin M system for rapid diagnosis of La Crosse (California Encephalitis) virus infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:557580.
101. Johnson, A. J.,, D. A. Martin,, N. Karabatsos, and, J. T. Roehrig. 2000. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18271831.
102. Johnson, A. J.,, A. J Noga,, O. Kosoy,, R. S. Lanciotti,, A. A. Johnson, and, B. J. Biggerstaff. 2005. Duplex microsphere-based immunoassay for detection of anti-West Nile virus and anti-St. Louis encephalitis virus immunoglobulin m antibodies. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:566574.
103. Johnson, H. N. 1987. Isolation of Powassan virus from a spotted skunk in California. J. Wildl. Dis. 23:152153.
104. Jozan, M.,, R. Evans,, R. McLean,, R. Hall,, B. Tangredi,, L. Reed, and, J. Scott. 2003. Detection of West Nile virus infection in birds in the United States by blocking ELISA and immunohistochemistry. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 3:99110.
105. Kanai, R.,, K. Kar,, K. Anthony,, L. H. Gould,, M. Ledizet,, E. Fikrig,, R. A. Koski, and, Y. Modis. 2006. Crystal structure of West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein reveals viral surface epitopes. J. Virol. 80:1100011008.
106. Karabatsos, N. 1985. International Catalogue of Arboviruses. American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, San Antonio, TX.
107. Karabatsos, N.,, A. L. Lewis,, C. H. Calisher,, A. R. Hunt, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1988. Identification of Highlands J virus from a Florida horse. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 39:603606.
108. Karabatsos, N.,, J. D. Poland,, R. W. Emmons,, J. H. Mathews,, C. H. Calisher, and, K. L. Wolff. 1987. Antigenic variants of Colorado tick fever virus. J. Gen. Virol. 68:14631469.
109. Katz, J. B.,, K. A. Eernisse,, J. G. Landgraf, and, B. J. Schmidt. 1997. Comparative performance of four serodiagnistic procedures for detecting bovine and equine vesicular stomatitis virus antibodies. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 9:329331.
110. Kaufman, B. M.,, P. L. Summers,, D. R. Dubois, and, K. H. Eckels. 1987. Monoclonal antibodies against dengue 2 virus E-glycoprotein protect mice against lethal dengue infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 36:427434.
111. Kimura-Kuroda, J.,, and K. Yasui. 1983. Topographical analysis of antigenic determinants on envelope glycoprotein V3 (E) of Japanese encephalitis virus, using monoclonal antibodies. J. Virol. 45:124132.
112. Kinney, R. M.,, B. J. Johnson,, J. B. Welch,, K. R. Tsuchiya, and, D. W. Trent. 1989. The full-length nucleotide sequences of the virulent Trinidad donkey strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and its attenuated vaccine derivative, strain TC-83. Virology 170:1930.
113. Kinney, R. M.,, M. Pfeffer,, K. R. Tsuchiya,, G. J. Chang, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1998. Nucleotide sequences of the 26S mRNAs of the viruses defining the Venezuelan equine encephalitis antigenic complex. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:952964.
114. Kinney, R. M.,, D. W. Trent, and, J. K. France. 1983. Comparative immunological and biochemical analyses of viruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex. J. Gen. Virol. 64:135147.
115. Kittigul, L.,, S. Suthachana,, C. Kittigul, and, V. Pengruangrojanachai. 1998. Immunoglobulin M-capture biotin-streptavidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to dengue viruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:352356.
116. Knudson, D. L. 1981. Genome of Colorado tick fever virus. Virology 112:361364.
117. Kochel, T. J.,, K. Raviprakash,, C. G. Hayes,, D. M. Watts,, K. L. Russell,, A. S. Gozalo,, I. A. Phillips,, D. F. Ewing,, G. S. Murphy, and, K. R. Porter. 2000. A dengue virus serotype-1 DNA vaccine induces virus neutralizing antibodies and provides protection from viral challenge in Aotus monkeys. Vaccine 18:31663173.
118. Konishi, E.,, M. Yamaoka,, I. Kurane, and, P. W. Mason. 2000. A DNA vaccine expressing dengue type 2 virus premembrane and envelope genes induces neutralizing antibody and memory B cells in mice. Vaccine 18:11331139.
119. Kouri, G.,, P. Mas,, M. G. Guzman,, M. Soler,, A. Goyenechea, and, L. Morier. 1983. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in Cuba, 1981: rapid diagnosis of the etiologic agent. Bull. Pan. Am. Health Org. 17:126132.
120. Kuehn, B. M. 2006. Studies propose targeted screening of blood for West Nile virus. JAMA 295:12351236.
121. Kuno, G. 1998. Universal diagnostic RT-PCR protocol for arboviruses. J. Virol. Methods 72:2741.
122. Kuno, G.,, D. J. Gubler, and, N. S. Santiago de Weil. 1985. Antigen capture ELISA for the identification of dengue viruses. J. Virol. Methods 12:93103.
123. Kuno, G.,, C. J. Mitchell,, G. J. Chang, and, G. C. Smith. 1996. Detecting bunyaviruses of the Bunyamwera and California serogroups by a PCR technique. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:11841188.
124. Kusne, S.,, and J. Smilack. 2005. Transmission of West Nile virus by organ transplantation. Liver Transpl. 11:239241.
125. Lanciotti, R. S.,, C. H. Calisher,, D. J. Gubler,, G. J. Chang, and, A. V. Vorndam. 1992. Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:545551.
126. Lanciotti, R. S.,, G. D. Ebel,, V. Deubel,, A. J. Kerst,, S. Murri,, R. Meyer,, M. Bowen,, N. McKinney,, W. E. Morrill,, M. B. Crabtree,, L. D. Kramer, and, J. T. Roehrig. 2002. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology 298:96105.
127. Lanciotti, R. S.,, and A. J. Kerst. 2001. Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assays for rapid detection of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:45064513.
128. Lanciotti, R. S.,, A. J. Kerst,, R. S. Nasci,, M. S. Godsey,, C. J. Mitchell,, H. M. Savage,, N. Komar,, N. A. Panella,, B. C. Allen,, K. E. Volpe,, B. S. Davis, and, J.T. Roehrig. 2000. Rapid detection of West Nile virus from human clinical specimens, field-collected mosquitoes, and avian samples by a TaqMan reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:40664071.
129. Lanciotti, R. S.,, J. T. Roehrig,, V. Deubel,, J. Smith,, M. Parker,, K. Steele,, B. Crise,, K. E. Volpe,, M. B. Crabtree,, J. H. Scherret,, R. A. Hall,, J. S. MacKenzie,, C. B. Cropp,, B. Panigrahy,, E. Ostlund,, B. Schmitt,, M. Malkinson,, C. Banet,, J. Weissman,, N. Komar,, H. M. Savage,, W. Stone,, T. McNamara, and, D. J. Gubler. 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286:23332337.
130. Lane, R. S.,, R. W. Emmons,, V. Devlin,, D. V. Dondero, and, B. C. Nelson. 1982. Survey for evidence of Colorado tick fever virus outside of the known endemic area in California. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31:837843.
131. Lee, B. Y.,, and B. J. Biggerstaff. 2006. Screening the United States blood supply for West Nile virus: a question of blood, dollars, and sense. PLoS Med. 3:99.
132. Letchworth, G.,, L. Rodriguez, and, J. Del Barerra. 1999. Vesicular stomatitis. Vet. Rec. 157:239260.
133. Levine, B.,, J. E. Goldman,, H. H. Jiang,, D. E. Griffin, and, J. M. Hardwick. 1996. Bc1-2 protects mice against fatal alphavirus encephalitis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:48104815.
134. Levine, B.,, J. M. Hardwick, and, D. E. Griffin. 1994. Persistence of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts. Trends Microbiol. 2:2528.
135. Lewis, J.,, S. L. Wesselingh,, D. E. Griffin, and, J. M. Hardwick. 1996. Alphavirus-induced apoptosis in mouse brains correlates with neurovirulence. J. Virol. 70:18281835.
136. Liu, Z. L.,, S. Hennessy,, B. L. Strom,, T. F. Tsai,, C. M. Wan,, S. C. Tang,, C. F. Xiang,, W. B. Bilker,, X. P. Pan,, Y. J. Yao,, Z. W. Xu, and, S. B. Halstead. 1997. Short-term safety of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (SA14-14-2): results of a randomized trial with 26,239 subjects. J. Infect. Dis. 176:13661369.
137. Ludwig, G. V.,, B. A. Israel,, B. M. Christensen,, T. M. Yuill, and, K. T. Schultz. 1991. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the envelope glycoproteins of La Crosse virus. Microb. Pathog. 11:411421.
138. Ludwig, G. V.,, J. P. Kondig, and, J. F. Smith. 1996. A putative receptor for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus from mosquito cells. J. Virol. 70:55925599.
139. Mandl, C. W.,, F. Guirakhoo,, H. Holzmann,, F. X. Heinz, and, C. Kunz. 1989. Antigenic structure of the flavivirus envelope protein E at the molecular level, using tick-borne encephalitis virus as a model. J. Virol. 63:564571.
140. Marfin, A. A.,, D. M. Bleed,, J. P. Lofgren,, A. C. Olin,, H. M. Savage,, G. C. Smith,, P. S. Moore,, N. Karabatsos, and, T. F. Tsai. 1993. Epidemiologic aspects of a St. Louis encephalitis epidemic in Jefferson County Arkansas, 1991. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49:3037.
141. Martin, D. A.,, B. J. Biggerstaff,, B. Allen,, A. J. Johnson,, R. S. Lanciotti, and, J. T. Roehrig. 2002. Use of immunoglobulin M cross-reactions in differential diagnosis of human flaviviral encephalitis infections in the United States. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:544549.
142. Martin, D. A.,, A. Noga,, O. Kosoy,, A. J. Johnson,, L. R. Petersen, and, R. S. Lanciotti. 2004. Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm using immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate human West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis virus infections during the 2002 West Nile Virus epidemic in the United States. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:11301133.
143. Mathews, J. H.,, and J. T. Roehrig. 1982. Determination of the protective epitopes on the glycoproteins of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies. J. Immunol. 129:27632767.
144. Mathews, J. H.,, and J. T. Roehrig. 1984. Elucidation of the topography and determination of the protective epitopes on the E glycoprotein of Saint Louis encephalitis virus by passive transfer with monoclonal antibodies. J. Immunol. 132:15331537.
145. McCaig, L. F.,, H. T. Janowski,, R. A. Gunn, and, T. F. Tsai. 1994. Epidemiologic aspects of a St. Louis encephalitis outbreak in Fort Walton Beach, Florida in 1980. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50:387391.
146. McJunkin, J. E.,, R. Khan,, E. C. de los Reyes,, D. L. Parsons,, L. L. Minnich,, R. G. Ashley, and, T. F. Tsai. 1997. Treatment of severe La Crosse encephalitis with intravenous ribavirin following diagnosis by brain biopsy. Pediatrics 99:261267.
147. McJunkin, J. E.,, R. R. Khan, and, T. F. Tsai. 1998. California-La Crosse encephalitis. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 12:8393.
148. McLean, R. G.,, R. B. Shriner,, K. S. Pokorny, and, G. S. Bowen. 1989. The ecology of Colorado tick fever in Rocky Mountain National Park in 1974. III. Habitats supporting the virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40:8693.
149. Meyer, K. F.,, C. M. Haring, and, B. Howitt. 1931. The etiology of epizootic encephalomyelitis in horses in the San Joaquin Valley. Science 74:227228.
150. Modis, Y.,, S. Ogata,, D. Clements, and, S. C. Harrison. 2003. A ligand-binding pocket in the dengue virus envelope glycoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:69866991.
151. Modis, Y.,, S. Ogata,, D. Clements, and, S. C. Harrison. 2005. Variable surface epitopes in the crystal structure of dengue virus type 3 envelope glycoprotein. J. Virol. 79:12231231.
152. Monath, T. P. 1988. Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, vol. 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
153. Monath, T. P. 1991. Yellow fever: Victor, Victoria? Conqueror, conquest? Epidemics and research in the last forty years and prospects for the future. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 45:143.
154. Monath, T. P. 1996. Flaviviruses, p. 1133–1185. In D. Richman,, R. Whitley, and, F. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology. Churchill-Livingstone, New York, NY.
155. Monath, T. P.,, R. B. Craven,, D. J. Muth,, C. J. Trautt,, C. H. Calisher, and, S. A. Fitzgerald. 1980. Limitations of the complement-fixation test for distinguishing naturally acquired from vaccine-induced yellow fever infection in flavivirushyperendemic areas. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29:624634.
156. Monath, T. P.,, C. B. Cropp, and, A. K. Harrison. 1983. Mode of entry of a neurotropic arbovirus into the central nervous system. Reinvestigation of an old controversy. Lab. Investig. 48:399410.
157. Monath, T. P.,, F. Guirakhoo,, R. Nichols,, S. Yoksan,, R. Schrader,, C. Murphy,, P. Blum,, S. Woodward,, K. McCarthy,, D. Mathis,, C. Johnson, and, P. Bedford. 2003. Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE): phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen. J. Infect. Dis. 188:12131230.
158. Monath, T. P.,, I. Levenbook,, K. Soike,, Z. X. Zhang,, M. Ratterree,, K. Draper,, A. D. Barrett,, R. Nichols,, R. Weltzin,, J. Arroyo, and, F. Guirakhoo. 2000. Chimeric yellow fever virus 17D-Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine: dose-response effectiveness and extended safety testing in rhesus monkeys. J. Virol. 74:17421751.
159. Monath, T. P.,, R. R. Nystrom,, R. E. Bailey,, C. H. Calisher, and, D. J. Muth. 1984. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:784790.
160. Monath, T. P.,, and T. F. Tsai. 1987. St. Louis encephalitis: lessons from the last decade. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37:40S59S.
161. Monath, T. P.,, J. R. Wands,, L. J. Hill,, M. K. Gentry, and, D. J. Gubler. 1986. Multisite monoclonal immunoassay for dengue viruses: detection of viraemic human sera and interference by heterologous antibody. J. Gen. Virol. 67:639650.
162. Montgomery, S. P.,, J. A. Brown,, M. Kuehnert,, T. L. Smith,, N. Crall,, R. S. Lanciotti,, A. Macedo de Oliveira,, T. Boo, and, A. A. Marfin. 2006. Transfusion-associated transmission of West Nile virus, United States 2003 through 2005. Transfusion 46:20382046.
163. Morrey, J. D.,, V. Siddharthan,, A. L. Olsen,, G. Y. Roper,, H. Wang,, T. J. Baldwin,, S. Koenig,, S. Johnson,, J. L. Nordstrom, and, M. S. Diamond. 2006. Humanized monoclonal antibody against West Nile virus envelope protein administered after neuronal infection protects against lethal encephalitis in hamsters. J. Infect. Dis. 194:13001308.
164. Morrey, J. D.,, V. Siddharthan,, A. L. Olsen,, H. Wang,, J. G. Julander,, J. O. Hall,, H. Li,, J.L. Nordstrom,, S. Koenig,, S. Johnson, and, M. S. Diamond. 2007. Defining limits of humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody treatment for West Nile virus neurological infection in a hamster model. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:23962402
165. Niedrig, M.,, K. Sonnenberg,, K. Steinhagen, and, J. T. Paweska. 2007. Comparison of ELISA and immunoassays for measurement of IgG and IgM antibody to West Nile virus in human sera against virus neutralisation. J. Virol. Methods 139:103105.
166. Nogueira, R. M.,, H. G. Schatzmayr,, M. P. Miagostovich,, M. F. Farias, and, J. D. Farias Filho. 1989. Virological study of a dengue type 1 epidemic at Rio de Janeiro. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 83:219225.
167. Oberste, M. S.,, M. Fraire,, R. Navarro,, C. Zepeda,, M. L. Zarate,, G. V. Ludwig,, J. F. Kondig,, S. C. Weaver,, J. F. Smith, and, R. Rico-Hesse. 1998a. Association of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IE with two equine epizootics in Mexico. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:100107.
168. Oberste, M. S.,, M. D. Parker, and, J. F. Smith. 1996. Complete sequence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IE reveals conserved and hypervariable domains within the C terminus of nsP3. Virology 219:314320.
169. Oberste, M. S.,, S. C. Weaver,, D. M. Watts, and, J. F. Smith. 1998b. Identification and genetic analysis of Panama-genotype Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID in Peru. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:4146.
170. Obijeski, J. F.,, D. H. Bishop,, F. A. Murphy, and, E. L. Palmer. 1976a. Structural proteins of La Crosse virus. J. Virol. 19:985997.
171. Obijeski, J. F.,, D. H. Bishop,, E. L. Palmer, and, F. A. Murphy. 1976b. Segmented genome and nucleocapsid of La Crosse virus. J. Virol. 20:664675.
172. O’Leary, D. R.,, S. Kuhn,, K. L. Kniss,, A. F. Hinckley,, S. A. Rasmussen,, W. J. Pape,, L. K. Kightlinger,, B. D. Beecham,, T. K. Miller,, D. F. Neitzel,, S. R. Michaels,, G. L. Campbell,, R. S. Lanciotti, and, E. B. Hayes. 2006. Birth outcomes following West Nile Virus infection of pregnant women in the United States: 2003–2004. Pediatrics 117:537545.
173. Oliphant, T.,, M. Engle,, G. E. Nybakken,, C. Doane,, S. Johnson,, L. Huang,, S. Gorlatov,, E. Mehlhop,, A. Marri,, K. M. Chung,, G. D. Ebel,, L. D. Kramer,, D. H. Fremont, and, M. S. Diamond. 2005. Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus. Nat. Med. 11:522530.
174. Paisley, J. E.,, A. F. Hinckley,, D. R. O’Leary,, W. C. Kramer,, R. S. Lanciotti,, G. L. Campbell, and, E. B. Hayes. 2006. West Nile virus infection among pregnant women in a northern Colorado community, 2003 to 2004. Pediatrics 117:814820.
175. Peiris, J. S.,, J. S. Porterfield, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1982. Monoclonal antibodies against the flavivirus West Nile. J. Gen. Virol. 58:283289.
176. Pfeffer, M.,, B. Proebster,, R. M. Kinney, and, O.R. Kaaden. 1997. Genus-specific detection of alphaviruses by a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:709718.
177. Pletnev, A. G.,, D. E. Swayne,, J. Speicher,, A. A. Rumyantsev, and, B. R. Murphy. 2006. Chimeric West Nile/dengue virus vaccine candidate: preclinical evaluation in mice, geese and monkeys for safety and immunogenicity. Vaccine 24:63926404.
178. Powers, A. M.,, M. S. Oberste,, A. C. Brault,, R. Rico-Hesse,, S. M. Schmura,, J. F. Smith,, W. Kang,, W. P. Sweeney, and, S. C. Weaver. 1997. Repeated emergence of epidemic/epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis from a single genotype of enzootic subtype ID virus. J. Virol. 71:66976705.
179. Prince, H. E.,, L. H. Tobler,, M. Lape-Nixon,, G. A. Foster,, S. L. Stramer, and, M. P. Busch. 2005. Development and persistence of West Nile virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG in viremic blood donors. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:43164320.
180. Putnak, R.,, K. Porter, and, C. Schmaljohn. 2003. DNA vaccines for flaviviruses. Adv. Virus Res. 61:445468.
181. Raviprakash, K.,, D. Apt,, A. Brinkman,, C. Skinner,, S. Yang,, G. Dawes,, D. Ewing,, S. J. Wu,, S. Bass,, J. Punnonen, and, K. Porter. 2006. A chimeric tetravalent dengue DNA vaccine elicits neutralizing antibody to all four virus serotypes in rhesus macaques. Virology 353:166173.
182. Rawlins, M. L.,, E. M. Swenson,, H. R. Hill, and, C. M. Litwin. 2007. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgM antibodies to West Nile virus: the importance of background subtraction in detecting nonspecific reactivity. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14:665668.
183. Reeves, W. C. 1987. The discovery decade of arbovirus research in western North America, 1940–1949. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 37:94S100S.
184. Reisen, W. K.,, and R. E. Chiles. 1997. Prevalence of antibodies to western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in residents of California exposed to sporadic and consistent enzootic transmission. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:526529.
185. Reisen, W. K.,, J. L. Hardy,, S. B. Presser,, M. M. Milby,, R. P. Meyer,, S. L. Durso,, M. J. Wargo, and, E. Gordon. 1992a. Mosquito and arbovirus ecology in southeastern California, 1986–1990. J. Med. Entomol. 29:512524.
186. Reisen, W. K.,, J. L. Hardy,, W. C. Reeves,, S. B. Presser,, M. M. Milby, and, R. P. Meyer. 1990. Persistence of mosquito-borne viruses in Kern County, California, 1983–1988. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 43:419437.
187. Reisen, W. K.,, M. M. Milby,, S. B. Presser, and, J. L. Hardy. 1992b. Ecology of mosquitoes and St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Los Angeles Basin of California, 1987–1990. J. Med. Entomol. 29:582598.
188. Rey, F. A.,, F. X. Heinz,, C. Mandl,, C. Kunz, and, S. C. Harrison. 1995. The envelope glycoprotein from tick-borne encephalitis virus at 2 A resolution. Nature 375:291298.
189. Rice, C. M.,, E. M. Lenches,, S. R. Eddy,, S. J. Shin,, R. L. Sheets, and, J. H. Strauss. 1985. Nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus: implications for flavivirus gene expression and evolution. Science 229:726733.
190. Rico-Hesse, R.,, J. T. Roehrig, and, R. W. Dickerman. 1988. Monoclonal antibodies define antigenic variation in the ID variety of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 38:187194.
191. Rico-Hesse, R.,, S. C. Weaver,, J. de Siger,, G. Medina, and, R. A. Salas. 1995. Emergence of a new epidemic/epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in South America. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:52785281.
192. Rivas, F.,, L. A. Diaz,, V. M. Cardenas,, E. Daza,, L. Bruzon,, A. Alcala,, O. De la Hoz,, F. M. Caceres,, G. Aristizabal,, J. W. Martinez,, D. Revelo,, F. De la Hoz,, J. Boshell,, T. Camacho,, L. Calderon,, V. A. Olano,, L. I. Villarreal,, D. Roselli,, G. Alvarez,, G. Ludwig, and, T. Tsai. 1997. Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in La Guajira, Colombia, 1995. J. Infect. Dis. 175:828832.
193. Rodriguez, L. L.,, G. J. Letchwork,, C. F. Spiropoulou, and, S. T. Nichols. 1993. Rapid detection of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype in clinical samples by using polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:20162020.
194. Roehrig, J. T. 1982. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of arthropod-borne toga-virus antibodies. J. Gen. Virol. 63:237240.
195. Roehrig, J. T. 1986. The use of monoclonal antibodies in studies of the structural proteins of alphaviruses and flaviviruses, p. 251–278. In S. Schlesinger and, M. J. Schlesinger (ed.), The Viruses: the Togaviridae and Flaviviridae. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
196. Roehrig, J. T. 1990. Immunochemistry of togaviruses, p. 271–288. In M. H. V. van Regenmortel and, A. R. Neurath (ed.), Immunochemistry of Viruses. The Basis for Serodiagnosis and Vaccines. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
197. Roehrig, J. T.,, and R. A. Bolin. 1997. Monoclonal antibodies capable of distinguishing epizootic from enzootic varieties of subtype 1 Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses in a rapid indirect immunofluorescence assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:18871890.
198. Roehrig, J. T.,, R. A. Bolin,, A. R. Hunt, and, T. M. Woodward. 1991. Use of a new synthetic-peptide-derived monoclonal antibody to differentiate between vaccine and wild-type Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:630631.
199. Roehrig, J. T.,, R. A. Bolin, and, R. G. Kelly. 1998a. Monoclonal antibody mapping of the envelope glycoprotein of the dengue 2 virus, Jamaica. Virology 246:317328.
200. Roehrig, J. T.,, T. M. Brown,, A. J. Johnson,, N. Karabatsos,, D. M. Martin,, C. J. Mitchell, and, R. Nasci. 1998b. Alphaviruses, p. 7–18. In J. R. Stephenson and, A. Warnes (ed.), Methods in Molecular Biology: Diagnostic Virology Protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
201. Roehrig, J. T.,, J. W. Day, and, R. M. Kinney. 1982. Antigenic analysis of the surface glycoproteins of a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (TC-83) using monoclonal antibodies. Virology 118:269278.
202. Roehrig, J. T.,, A. R. Hunt,, G. J. Chang,, B. Sheik,, R. A. Bolin,, T. F. Tsai, and, D. W. Trent. 1990a. Identification of monoclonal antibodies capable of differentiating antigenic varieties of eastern equine encephalitis viruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42:394398.
203. Roehrig, J. T.,, A. R. Hunt,, R. M. Kinney, and, J. H. Mathews. 1988. In vitro mechanisms of monoclonal antibody neutralization of alphaviruses. Virology. 165:6673.
204. Roehrig, J. T.,, A. J. Johnson,, A. R. Hunt,, R. A. Bolin and, M.C. Chu. 1990b. Antibodies to dengue 2 virus E-glycoprotein synthetic peptides identify antigenic conformation. Virology 177:668675.
205. Roehrig, J. T.,, and J. H. Mathews. 1985. The neutralization site on the E2 glycoprotein of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (TC-83) virus is composed of multiple conformationally stable epitopes. Virology. 142:347356.
206. Roehrig, J. T.,, J. H. Mathews and, D. W. Trent. 1983. Identification of epitopes on the E glycoprotein of Saint Louis encephalitis virus using monoclonal antibodies. Virology. 128:118126.
207. Ryan, J.,, K. Dave,, E. Emmerich,, B. Fernandez,, M. Turell,, J. Johnson,, K. Gottfried,, K. Burkhalter,, A. Kerst,, A. Hunt,, R. Wirtz, and, R. Nasci. 2003. Wicking assays for the rapid detection of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 40:9599.
208. Sahu, S. P.,, A. D. Alstad,, D. D. Pedersen and, J. E. Pearson. 1994. Diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in horses by immunoglobulin M and G capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 6:3438.
209. Sambol, A. R.,, S. H. Hinrichs,, W. R. Hogrefe, and, B. K. Schweitzer. 2007. Performance of a commercial immunoglobulin M antibody capture assay using analyte-specific reagents to screen for interfering factors during a West Nile virus epidemic season in Nebraska. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14:8789.
210. Sathish, N.,, D. J. Manayani,, V. Shankar,, M. Abraham,, G. Nithyanandam, and, G. Sridharan. 2002. Comparison of IgM capture ELISA with a commercial rapid immunochromatographic card test & IgM microwell ELISA for the detection of antibodies to dengue viruses. Indian J. Med. Res. 115:3136.
211. Scaramozzino, N.,, J. M. Crance,, A. Jouan,, D. A. DeBriel,, F. Stoll, and, D. Garin. 2001. Comparison of flavivirus universal primer pairs and development of a rapid, highly sensitive heminested reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of flaviviruses targeted to a conserved region of the NS5 gene sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:19221927.
212. Schlesinger, J. J.,, M. W. Brandriss, and, T. P. Monath. 1983. Monoclonal antibodies distinguish between wild and vaccine strains of yellow fever virus by neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, and immune precipitation of the virus envelope protein. Virology 125:817.
213. Schlesinger, J. J.,, M. W. Brandriss and, E. E. Walsh. 1985. Protection against 17D yellow fever encephalitis in mice by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies to the nonstructural glycoprotein gp48 and by active immunization with gp48. J. Immunol. 135:28052809.
214. Schmaljohn, A. L.,, K. M. Kokubun, and, G. A. Cole. 1983. Protective monoclonal antibodies define maturational and pH-dependent antigenic changes in Sindbis virus E1 glycoprotein. Virology 130:144154.
215. Scott, T. W.,, and J. G. Olson. 1986. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral antigen in avian blood by enzyme immunoassay: a laboratory study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 35:611618.
216. Simmons, M.,, K. R. Porter,, C. G. Hayes,, D. W. Vaughn, and, R. Putnak. 2006. Characterization of antibody responses to combinations of a dengue virus type 2 DNA vaccine and two dengue virus type 2 protein vaccines in rhesus macaques. J. Virol. 80:95779585.
217. Sneider, J. M.,, R. M. Kinney,, K. R. Tsuchiya, and, D. W. Trent. 1993. Molecular evidence that epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) I-AB viruses are not evolutionary derivatives of enzootic VEE subtype I-E or II viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 74:519523.
218. Stadler, K.,, S. L. Allison,, J. Schalich, and, F. X. Heinz. 1997. Proteolytic activation of tick-borne encephalitis virus by furin. J. Virol. 71:84758481.
219. Strauss, J. H.,, and E. G. Strauss. 1994. The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 58:491562.
220. Strauss, J. H.,, E. G. Strauss, and, R. J. Kuhn. 1995. Budding of alphaviruses. Trends Microbiol. 3:346350.
221. Strauss, J. H.,, K. S. Wang,, A. L. Schmaljohn,, R. J. Kuhn, and, E. G. Strauss. 1994. Host-cell receptors for Sindbis virus. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 9:473484.
222. TenBroeck, C.,, and M. Merrill. 1933. A serological difference between eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis virus. Proc. Exp. Biol. Med. 31:217220.
223. Trent, D. W.,, and J. A. Grant. 1980. A comparison of New World alphaviruses in the western equine encephalomyelitis complex by immunochemical and oligonucleotide fingerprint techniques. J. Gen. Virol. 47:261282.
224. Trent, D. W.,, J. T. Roehrig, and, T. F. Tsai. 1989. Alphaviruses, p. 1–41. In D. H. Gilden and, H. Lipton (ed.), Clinical and Molecular Aspects of Neurotropic Virus Infections. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.
225. Tsai, T.,, and T. P. Monath. 1996. Alphaviruses, p. 1217–1225. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley and, F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology. Churchill-Livingstone, New York, NY.
226. Tsai, T. F.,, R. A. Bolin,, M. Montoya,, R. E. Bailey,, D. B. Francy,, M. Jozan, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1987a. Detection of St. Louis encephalitis virus antigen in mosquitoes by capture enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:370376.
227. Tsai, T. F.,, W. B. Cobb,, R. A. Bolin,, N. J. Gilman,, G. C. Smith,, R. E. Bailey,, J. D. Poland,, J. J. Doran,, J. K. Emerson, and, K. J. Lampert. 1987b. Epidemiologic aspects of a St. Louis encephalitis outbreak in Mesa County, Colorado. Am. J. Epidemiol. 126:460473.
228. Tsai, T. F.,, C. M. Happ,, R. A. Bolin,, M. Montoya,, E. Campos,, D. B. Francy,, R. A. Hawkes, and, J. T. Roehrig. 1988. Stability of St. Louis encephalitis viral antigen detected by enzyme immunoassay in infected mosquitoes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:26202625.
229. Tsai, T. F.,, F. Popovici,, C. Cernescu,, G. L. Campbell, and, N. I. Nedelcu. 1998. West Nile encephalitis epidemic in southeastern Romania. Lancet 352:767771.
230. Ubol, S.,, P. C. Tucker,, D. E. Griffin, and, J. M. Hardwick. 1994. Neurovirulent strains of Alphavirus induce apoptosis in bcl-2-expressing cells: role of a single amino acid change in the E2 glycoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:52025206.
231. Umenai, T.,, R. Krzysko,, T. A. Bektimirov, and, F. A. Assaad. 1985. Japanese encephalitis: current worldwide status. Bull. W. H. O. 63:625631.
232. Urquidi, V.,, and D. H. Bishop. 1992. Non-random reassortment between the tripartite RNA genomes of La Crosse and snowshoe hare viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 73:22552265.
233. Watts, D. M.,, J. Callahan,, C. Rossi,, M. S. Oberste,, J. T. Roehrig,, M. T. Wooster,, J. F. Smith,, C. B. Cropp,, E. M. Gentrau,, N. Karabatsos,, D. Gubler, and, C. G. Hayes. 1998. Venezuelan equine encephalitis febrile cases among humans in the Peruvian Amazon River region. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:3540.
234. Watts, D. M.,, V. Lavera,, J. Callahan,, C. Rossi,, M. S. Oberste,, J. T. Roehrig,, C. B. Cropp,, N. Karabatsos,, J. F. Smith,, D. J. Gubler,, M. T. Wooster,, W. M. Nelson, and, C. G. Hayes. 1997. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Oropouche virus infections among Peruvian army troops in the Amazon region of Peru. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56:661667.
235. Weaver, S. C.,, M. Pfeffer,, K. Marriott,, W. Kang, and, R. M. Kinney. 1999. Genetic evidence for the origins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype 1AB outbreaks. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60:441448.
236. Weaver, S. C.,, R. Salas,, R. Rico-Hesse,, G. V. Ludwig,, M. S. Oberste,, J. Boshell,, R. B. Tesh, et al. 1996. Re-emergence of epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in South America. Lancet 348:436440.
237. Westaway, E. G.,, A. J. Della-Porta, and, B. M. Reedman. 1974. Specificity of IgM and IgG antibodies after challenge with antigenically related togaviruses. J. Immunol. 112:656663.
238. Wong, S. J.,, V. L. Demarest,, R. H. Boyle,, T. Wang,, M. Ledizet,, K. Kar,, L. D. Kramer,, E. Fikrig, and, R. A. Koski. 2004. Detection of human anti-flavivirus antibodies with a West Nile virus recombinant antigen microsphere immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:6572.