Chapter 27 : Cytomegalovirus, Varicella-Zoster Virus, and Epstein-Barr Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Cytomegalovirus, Varicella-Zoster Virus, and Epstein-Barr Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap27-2.gif


The major immediate-early (IE) promoter (MIEP) of cytomegalovirus (CMV) controls the transcription of IE genes, IE1 and IE2, to encode proteins p72 and p86, respectively. Laboratory-based diagnosis is usually required to identify congenital and perinatal CMV disease and to diagnose and monitor viral levels in immunosuppressed hosts. The laboratory techniques commonly employed are the conventional tube and shell vial viral culture techniques, immunological techniques for histopathology, immunohistochemical techniques, antigen and antibody detection, and nucleic acid detection. Acyclovir, which is successfully used against other herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), is less potent against CMV. As one's understanding of the CMV genome and protein functions further advances, novel vaccine candidates and strategies will evolve that give equivalent or better humoral and cellular immune responses than natural immunity. The availability and versatility of VZV cosmids, which are large DNA fragments of the viral genome that can be recombined to form replication-competent VZV, have allowed targeting of different ORFs with point deletion mutants. A live attenuated vaccine was most effective in persons 60 to 69 years of age, but it also decreased the severity of incident zoster in people 70 years or older. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the immunocompromised host is accompanied by the risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. Using cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) therapy in combination with other treatment modalities for aggressive PT-LPDs that are unresponsive to reduced immunosuppression has successfully induced remission without significant side effects.

Citation: Sanghavi S, Rowe D, Rinaldo C. 2009. Cytomegalovirus, Varicella-Zoster Virus, and Epstein-Barr Virus, p 454-493. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch27
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Antibody responses to EBV antigens during the course of IM are plotted relative to the period of atypical lymphocytosis and virus shedding. Reciprocal titers are shown for the virus-specific IgG class of antibody detected by immunofluorescence assays for the classical EA, VCA, and EBNA.

Citation: Sanghavi S, Rowe D, Rinaldo C. 2009. Cytomegalovirus, Varicella-Zoster Virus, and Epstein-Barr Virus, p 454-493. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abdul-Hamid, M.,, J. J. Chen,, N. Constantine,, M. Massoud, and, N. Raab-Traub. 1992. EBV strain variation: geographical distribution and relation to disease state. Virology 190:168175.
2. Abendroth, A.,, and A. M. Arvin. 2001. Immune evasion as a pathogenic mechanism of varicella zoster virus. Semin. Immunol. 13:2739.
3. Abendroth, A.,, G. Morrow,, A. L. Cunningham, and, B. Slobedman. 2001a. Varicella-zoster virus infection of human dendritic cells and transmission to T cells: implications for virus dissemination in the host. J. Virol. 75:61836192.
4. Abendroth, A.,, I. Lin,, B. Slobedman,, H. Ploegh, and, A. M. Arvin. 2001b. Varicella-zoster virus retains major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in the Golgi compartment of infected cells. J. Virol. 75:48784888.
5. Abendroth, A.,, B. Slobedman,, E. Lee,, E. Mellins,, M. Wallace, and, A. M. Arvin. 2000. Modulation of major histocompatibility class II protein expression by varicella-zoster virus. J. Virol. 74:19001907.
6. Acosta, E. P.,, and H. H. Balfour, Jr. 2001. Acyclovir for treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:27712774.
7. Akter, P.,, C. Cunningham,, B. P. McSharry,, A. Dolan,, C. Addison,, D. J. Dargan,, A. F. Hassan-Walker,, V. C. Emery,, P. D. Griffiths,, G. W. Wilkinson, and, A. J. Davison. 2003. Two novel spliced genes in human cytomegalovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 84:11171122.
8. Alberola, J.,, A. Tamarit,, R. Igual, and, D. Navarro. 2000. Early neutralizing and glycoprotein B (gB)-specific antibody responses to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in immunocompetent individuals with distinct clinical presentations of primary HCMV infection. J. Clin. Virol. 16:113122.
9. Aldeen, T.,, P. Hay,, F. Davidson, and, R. Lau. 1998. Herpes zoster infection in HIV-seropositive patients associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 12:17191720.
10. Ampofo, K.,, L. Saiman,, P. LaRussa,, S. Steinberg,, P. Annunziato, and, A. Gershon. 2002. Persistence of immunity to live attenuated varicella vaccine in healthy adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:774779.
11. Anagnostopoulos, I.,, M. Hummel,, C. Kreschel, and, H. Stein. 1995. Morphology, immunophenotype, and distribution of latently and/or productively Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells in acute infectious mononucleosis: implications for the interindividual infection route of Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 85:744750.
12. Andrei, G.,, R. Sienaert,, C. McGuigan,, E. De Clercq,, J. Balzarini, and, R. Snoeck. 2005. Susceptibilities of several clinical varicella-zoster virus (VZV) isolates and drug-resistant VZV strains to bicyclic furano pyrimidine nucleosides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:10811086.
13. Andrei, G.,, R. Snoeck,, D. Reymen,, C. Liesnard,, P. Goubau,, J. Desmyter, and, E. De Clercq. 1995. Comparative activity of selected antiviral compounds against clinical isolates of varicella-zoster virus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:318329.
14. Annunziato, P.,, O. Lungu,, A. Gershon,, D. N. Silvers,, P. LaRussa, and, S. J. Silverstein. 1996. In situ hybridization detection of varicella zoster virus in paraffin-embedded skin biopsy samples. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 7:6976.
15. Arav-Boger, R.,, R. E. Willoughby,, R. F. Pass,, J. C. Zong,, W. J. Jang,, D. Alcendor, and, G. S. Hayward. 2002. Polymorphisms of the cytomegalovirus (CMV)-encoded tumor necrosis factor-alpha and beta-chemokine receptors in congenital CMV disease. J. Infect. Dis. 186:10571064.
16. Aris, R. M.,, D. M. Maia,, I. P. Neuringer,, K. Gott,, S. Kiley,, K. Gertis, and, J. Handy. 1996. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in the Epstein-Barr virus-native lung transplant recipient. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 154:17121717.
17. Armitage, J. M.,, R. L. Kormos,, R. S. Stuart,, F. J. Fricker,, B. P. Griffith,, M. Nalesnik,, R. L. Hardesty, and, J. S. Dummer. 1991. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in thoracic organ transplant patients: ten years of cyclosporine-based immunosuppression. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 10:877887.
18. Arvin, A. M. 1996. Varicella-zoster virus. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:361381.
19. Arvin, A. M. 2006. Investigations of the pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus infection in the SCIDhu mouse model. Herpes 13:7580.
20. Arvin, A. M.,, and A. A. Gershon. 1996. Live attenuated varicella vaccine. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 50:59100.
21. Arvin, A. M.,, J. F. Moffat, and, R. Redman. 1996. Varicellazoster virus: aspects of pathogenesis and host response to natural infection and varicella vaccine. Adv. Virus Res. 46:263309.
22. Arvin, A. M.,, M. Sharp,, M. Moir,, P. R. Kinchington,, M. Sadeghi-Zadeh,, W. T. Ruyechan, and, J. Hay. 2002. Memory cytotoxic T cell responses to viral tegument and regulatory proteins encoded by open reading frames 4, 10, 29, and 62 of varicella-zoster virus. Viral Immunol. 15:507516.
23. Asanuma, H.,, M. Sharp,, H. T. Maecker,, V. C. Maino, and, A. M. Arvin. 2000. Frequencies of memory T cells specific for varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus by intracellular detection of cytokine expression. J. Infect. Dis. 181:859866.
24. AuCoin, D. P.,, G. B. Smith,, C. D. Meiering, and, E. S. Mocarski. 2006. Betaherpesvirus-conserved cytomegalovirus tegument protein ppUL32 (pp150) controls cytoplasmic events during virion maturation. J. Virol. 80:81998210.
25. Babcock, G.,, L. Decker,, M. Volk, and, D. Thorley-Lawson. 1998. EBV persistence in memory B cells in vivo. Immunity 9:395404.
26. Baccaglini, L.,, J. C. Atkinson,, L. L. Patton,, M. Glick,, G. Ficarra, and, D. E. Peterson. 2007. Management of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 103:S50.e123.
27. Badley, D. A. Seaberg,, C. E. Porayko,, K. Michael,, R. H. Wiesner,, M. R. Keating,, M. P. Wilhelm,, R. C. Walker,, R. Patel,, W. F. Marshall,, M. DeBernardi,, R. Zetterman,, J. L. Steers, and, C. V. Paya. 1997. Prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplantation: a randomized trial comparing a combination of ganciclovir and acyclovir to acyclovir. Transplantation 64:6673.
28. Baiker, A.,, K. Fabel,, A. Cozzio,, L. Zerboni,, K. Fabel,, M. Sommer,, N. Uchida,, D. He,, I. Weissman, and, A. M. Arvin. 2004. Varicella-zoster virus infection of human neural cells in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1079210797.
29. Bakker, N. A.,, G. W. van Imhoff,, E. A. M. Verschuuren, and, W. J. van Son. 2007. Presentation and early detection of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation. Transpl. Int. 20:207218.
30. Baldanti, F.,, N. Lurain, and, G. Gerna. 2004. Clinical and biologic aspects of human cytomegalovirus resistance to antiviral drugs. Hum. Immunol. 65:403409.
31. Balfour, H. H., Jr.,, C. Benson,, J. Braun,, B. Cassens,, A. Erice,, A. Friedman-Kien,, T. Klein,, B. Polsky, and, S. Safrin. 1994. Management of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 7:254260.
32. Balzarini, J.,, and C. McGuigan. 2002. Bicyclic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (BCNAs) as highly selective and potent inhibitors of varicella-zoster virus replication. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50:59.
33. Barel, M. T.,, G. C. Hassink,, S. van Voorden, and, E. J. Wiertz. 2006. Human cytomegalovirus-encoded US2 and US11 target unassembled MHC class I heavy chains for degradation. Mol. Immunol. 43:12581266.
34. Basta, S.,, and J. R. Bennink. 2003. A survival game of hide and seek: cytomegaloviruses and MHC class I antigen presentation pathways. Viral Immunol. 16:231242.
35. Beards, G.,, C. Graham, and, D. Pillay. 1998. Investigation of vesicular rashes for HSV and VZV by PCR. J. Med. Virol. 54:155157.
36. Beck, K.,, U. Meyer-Konig,, M. Weidmann,, C. Nern, and, F. T. Hufert. 2003. Human cytomegalovirus impairs dendritic cell function: a novel mechanism of human cytomegalovirus immune escape. Eur. J. Immunol. 33:15281538.
37. Bekker, V.,, H. Scherpbier,, D. Pajkrt,, S. Jurriaans,, H. Zaaijer, and, T. W. Kuijpers. 2006a. Persistent humoral immune defect in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated children with HIV-1 infection: loss of specific antibodies against attenuated vaccine strains and natural viral infection. Pediatrics 118:e315e322.
38. Bekker, V.,, G. H. Westerlaken,, H. Scherpbier,, S. Alders,, H. Zaaijer,, D. van Baarle, and, T. Kuijpers. 2006b. Varicella vaccination in HIV-1-infected children after immune reconstitution. AIDS 20:23212329.
39. Berger, R.,, E. Trannoy,, G. Hollander,, F. Bailleux,, C. Rudin, and, H. Creusvaux. 1998. A dose-response study of a live attenuated varicella-zoster virus (Oka strain) vaccine administered to adults 55 years of age and older. J. Infect. Dis. 178(Suppl. 1):S99S103.
40. Biggar, R. J.,, A. K. Chaturvedi,, J. J. Goedert, and, E. A. Engels. 2007. AIDS-related cancer and severity of immunosuppression in persons with AIDS. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 99:962972.
41. Biron, K. K. 2006. Antiviral drugs for cytomegalovirus diseases. Antivir. Res. 71:154163.
42. Biron, K. K.,, R. J. Harvey,, S. C. Chamberlain,, S. S. Good,, A. A. Smith III,, M. G. Davis,, C. L. Talarico,, W. H. Miller,, R. Ferris,, R. E. Dornsife,, S. C. Stanat,, J. C. Drach,, L. B. Townsend, and, G. W. Koszalka. 2002. Potent and selective inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by 1263W94, a benzimidazole l -riboside with a unique mode of action. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:23652372.
43. Boeckh, M. 2006. Prevention of VZV infection in immunosuppressed patients using antiviral agents. Herpes 13:6065.
44. Boeckh, M.,, H. W. Kim,, M. E. Flowers,, J. D. Meyers, and, R. A. Bowden. 2006. Long-term acyclovir for prevention of varicella zoster virus disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation—a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Blood 107:18001805.
45. Boehme, K. W.,, M. Guerrero, and, T. Compton. 2006. Human cytomegalovirus envelope glycoproteins B and H are necessary for TLR2 activation in permissive cells. J. Immunol. 177:70947102.
46. Boivin, G.,, C. K. Edelman,, L. Pedneault,, C. L. Talarico,, K. K. Biron, and, H. H. Balfour, Jr. 1994. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of acyclovir-resistant varicellazoster viruses isolated from persons with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 170:6875.
47. Bonini, C.,, G. Ferrari,, S. Verzeletti,, P. Servida,, E. Zappone,, L. Ruggieri,, M. Ponzoni,, S. Rossini,, F. Mavilio,, C. Traversari, and, C. Bordignon. 1997. HSV-TK gene transfer into donor lymphocytes for control of allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia. Science 276:17191724.
48. Boomker, J. M.,, T. H. The,, L. F. de Leij, and, M. C. Harmsen. 2006. The human cytomegalovirus-encoded receptor US28 increases the activity of the major immediate-early promoter/enhancer. Virus Res. 118:196200.
49. Boomker, J. M.,, M. J. van Luyn,, T. H. The,, L. F. de Leij, and, M. C. Harmsen. 2005. US28 actions in HCMV infection: lessons from a versatile hijacker. Rev. Med. Virol. 15:269282.
50. Borst, E. M.,, and M. Messerle. 2005. Analysis of human cytomegalovirus oriLyt sequence requirements in the context of the viral genome. J. Virol. 79:36153626.
51. Britt, W. J.,, and S. Boppana. 2004. Human cytomegalovirus virion proteins. Hum. Immunol. 65:395402.
52. Bronke, C.,, N. M. Palmer,, C. A. Jansen,, G. H. Westerlaken,, A. M. Polstra,, P. Reiss,, M. Bakker,, F. Miedema,, K. Tesselaar, and, D. van Baarle. 2005. Dynamics of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals progressing to AIDS with CMV end-organ disease. J. Infect. Dis. 191:873880.
53. Brown, M. G.,, A. O. Dokun,, J. W. Heusel,, H. R. Smith,, D. L. Beckman,, E. A. Blattenberger,, C. E. Dubbelde,, L. R. Stone,, A. A. Scalzo, and, W. M. Yokoyama. 2001. Vital involvement of a natural killer cell activation receptor in resistance to viral infection. Science 292:934937.
54. Buchbinder, S. P.,, M. H. Katz,, N. A. Hessol,, J. Y. Liu,, P. M. O’Malley,, R. Underwood, and, S. D. Holmberg. 1992. Herpes zoster and human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 166:11531156.
55. Buerger, I.,, J. Reefschlaeger,, W. Bender,, P. Eckenberg,, A. Popp,, O. Weber,, S. Graeper,, H. D. Klenk,, H. Ruebsamen-Waigmann, and, S. Hallenberger. 2001. A novel nonnucleoside inhibitor specifically targets cytomegalovirus DNA maturation via the UL89 and UL56 gene products. J. Virol. 75:90779086.
56. Bunde, T.,, A. Kirchner,, B. Hoffmeister,, D. Habedank,, R. Hetzer,, G. Cherepnev,, S. Proesch,, P. Reinke,, H. D. Volk,, H. Lehmkuhl, and, F. Kern. 2005. Protection from cytomegalovirus after transplantation is correlated with immediate early 1-specific CD8 T cells. J. Exp. Med. 201:10311036.
57. Burke, D. G.,, R. C. Kalayjian,, V. R. Vann,, S. A. Madreperla,, H. E. Shick, and, D. G. Leonard. 1997. Polymerase chain reaction detection and clinical significance of varicella-zoster virus in cerebrospinal fluid from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J. Infect. Dis. 176:10801084.
58. Burkitt, D. 1958. A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children. Br. J. Surg. 46:218223.
59. Burkitt, D. 1963. Determining the climatic limitations of a children’s cancer common in Africa. Br. Med. J. 2:10191023.
60. Cai, X.,, A. Schäfer,, S. Lu,, J. P. Bilello,, R. C. Desrosiers,, R. Edwards,, N. Raab-Traub, and, B. R. Cullen. 2006. Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved and differentially expressed. PLoS Pathog. 2:e23.
61. Cainelli, F.,, and S. Vento. 2002. Infections and solid organ transplant rejection: a cause-and-effect relationship? Lancet Infect. Dis. 2:539549.
62. Cantrell, S. R.,, and W. A. Bresnahan. 2006. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL82 gene product (pp71) relieves hDaxx-mediated repression of HCMV replication. J. Virol. 80:61886191.
63. Casazza, J. P.,, M. R. Betts,, D. A. Price,, M. L. Precopio,, L. E. Ruff,, J. M. Brenchley,, B. J. Hill,, M. Roederer,, D. C. Douek, and, R. A. Koup. 2006. Acquisition of direct antiviral effector functions by CMV-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes with cellular maturation. J. Exp. Med. 203:28652877.
64. Castagnola, E.,, B. Cappelli,, D. Erba,, A. Rabagliati,, E. Lanino, and, G. Dini. 2004. Cytomegalovirus infection after bone marrow transplantation in children. Hum. Immunol. 65:416422.
65. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Licensure of a combined live attenuated measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 54:12121214.
66. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. A new product (VariZIG) for postexposure prophylaxis of varicella available under an investigational new drug application expanded access protocol. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55:209210.
67. Chan, E. L.,, K. Brandt, and, G. B. Horsman. 2001. Comparison of Chemicon SimulFluor direct fluorescent antibody staining with cell culture and shell vial direct immunoperoxidase staining for detection of herpes simplex virus and with cytospin direct immunofluorescence staining for detection of varicellazoster virus. Clin. Diagn. Lab Immunol. 8:909912.
68. Chang, E. T.,, and H. O. Adami. 2006. The enigmatic epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15:17651777.
69. Chang, R. S.,, J. P. Lewis,, C. F. Abildgaard. 1973. Prevalence of oropharyngeal excretors of leukocyte-transforming agents among a human population. N. Engl. J. Med. 289:13251329.
70. Chaves Tdo, S.,, M. H. Lopes,, V. A. de Souza,, S. Dos Santos Sde,, L. M. Pereira,, A. D. Reis, and, E. David-Neto. 2005. Seroprevalence of antibodies against varicella-zoster virus and response to the varicella vaccine in pediatric renal transplant patients. Pediatr. Transplant. 9:192196.
71. Chemaly, R. F.,, B. Yen-Lieberman,, E. A. Castilla,, A. Reilly,, S. Arrigain,, C. Farver,, R. K. Avery,, S. M. Gordon, and, G. W. Procop. 2004. Correlation between viral loads of cytomegalovirus in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from lung transplant recipients determined by histology and immunohistochemistry. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:21682172.
72. Chen, J. J.,, Z. Zhu,, A. A. Gershon, and, M. D. Gershon. 2004. Mannose 6-phosphate receptor dependence of varicella zoster virus infection in vitro and in the epidermis during varicella and zoster. Cell 119:915926.
73. Chen, J. J.,, A. A. Gershon,, Z. S. Li,, O. Lungu, and, M. D. Gershon. 2003. Latent and lytic infection of isolated guinea pig enteric ganglia by varicella zoster virus. J. Med. Virol. 70(Suppl. 1):S71S78.
74. Chen, J. M. B.,, M. L. Barr,, A. Chadburn,, G. Frizzera,, F. A. Schenkel,, R. R. Sciacca,, D. S. Reison,, L. J. Addonizio,, E. A. Rose,, D. M. Knowles. 1993. Management of lymphoproliferative disorders after cardiac transplantation. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 56:527532.
75. Cheung, R. K.,, and H. M. Dosch. 1991. The tyrosine kinase lck is critically involved in the growth transformation of human B lymphocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 266:86678670.
76. Choquet, S.,, V. Leblond,, R. Herbrecht,, G. Socie,, A.-M. Stoppa,, P. Vandenberghe,, A. Fischer,, F. Morschhauser,, G. Salles,, W. Feremans,, E. Vilmer,, M.-N. Peraldi,, P. Lang,, Y. Lebranchu,, E. Oksenhendler,, J. L. Garnier,, T. Lamy,, A. Jaccard,, A. Ferrant,, F. Offner,, O. Hermine,, A. Moreau,, S. Fafi-Kremer,, P. Morand,, L. Chatenoud,, N. Berriot-Varoqueaux,, L. Bergougnoux, and, N. Milpied. 2006. Efficacy and safety of rituximab in B-cell post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders: results of a prospective multicenter phase 2 study. Blood 107:30533057.
77. Chou, S.,, R. C. Miner, and, W. L. Drew. 2000. A deletion mutation in region V of the cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase sequence confers multidrug resistance. J. Infect. Dis. 182:17651768.
78. Chou, S.,, G. I. Marousek,, A. E. Senters,, M. G. Davis, and, K. K. Biron. 2004. Mutations in the human cytomegalovirus UL27 gene that confer resistance to maribavir. J. Virol. 78:71247130.
79. Cinque, P.,, S. Bossolasco,, L. Vago,, C. Fornara,, S. Lipari,, S. Racca,, A. Lazzarin, and, A. Linde. 1997. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: VZV disease of the central nervous system or subclinical reactivation of VZV infection? Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:634639.
80. Cirelli, R.,, K. Herne,, M. McCrary,, P. Lee, and, S. K. Tyring. 1996. Famciclovir: review of clinical efficacy and safety. Antivir. Res. 29:141151.
81. Cobbold, M.,, N. Khan,, B. Pourgheysari,, S. Tauro,, D. McDonald,, H. Osman,, M. Assenmacher,, L. Billingham,, C. Steward,, C. Crawley,, E. Olavarria,, J. Goldman,, R. Chakraverty,, P. Mahendra,, C. Craddock, and, P. A. Moss. 2005. Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific CTL to stem cell transplant patients after selection by HLA-peptide tetramers. J. Exp. Med. 202:379386.
82. Cockfield, S. M.,, J. K. Preiksaitis,, L. D. Jewell, and, A. A. Parfrey. 1993. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in renal allo-graft recipients: clinical experience and risk factor analysis in a single center. Transplantation 56:8896.
83. Coffin, S. E.,, and R. L. Hodinka. 1995. Utility of direct immunofluorescence and virus culture for detection of varicella-zoster virus in skin lesions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:27922795.
84. Cohen, J. I.,, and K. E. Seidel. 1993. Generation of varicellazoster virus (VZV) and viral mutants from cosmid DNAs: VZV thymidylate synthetase is not essential for replication in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:73767380.
85. Cohen, J. I.,, and H. Nguyen. 1997. Varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein I is essential for growth of virus in Vero cells. J. Virol. 71:69136920.
86. Cohen, J. I.,, T. Krogmann,, S. Bontems,, C. Sadzot-Delvaux, and, L. Pesnicak. 2005. Regions of the varicella-zoster virus open reading frame 63 latency-associated protein important for replication in vitro are also critical for efficient establishment of latency. J. Virol. 79:50695077.
87. Cohen, J. I.,, S. E. Straus, and, A. M. Arvin. 2007. Varicella-zoster virus replication, pathogenesis, and management. p. 2774–2818. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
88. Cohen, J. I.,, F. Wang, and, E. Kieff. 1991. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 mutations define essential domains for transformation and transactivation. J. Virol. 65:25452554.
89. Cohen, P. R.,, and M. E. Grossman. 1989. Clinical features of human immunodeficiency virus-associated disseminated herpes zoster virus infection—a review of the literature. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 14:273276.
90. Cohrs, R. J.,, and D. H. Gilden. 2007. Prevalence and abundance of latently transcribed varicella-zoster virus genes in human ganglia. J. Virol. 81:29502956.
91. Cohrs, R. J.,, D. H. Gilden, and, R. Mahalingam. 2004. Varicella zoster virus latency, neurological disease and experimental models: an update. Front. Biosci. 9:751762.
92. Cohrs, R. J.,, D. H. Gilden,, Y. Gomi,, K. Yamanishi, and, J. I. Cohen. 2006. Comparison of virus transcription during lytic infection of the Oka parental and vaccine strains of varicella-zoster virus. J. Virol. 80:20762082.
93. Colletti, K. S.,, Y. Xu,, S. A. Cei,, M. Tarrant, and, G. S. Pari. 2004. Human cytomegalovirus UL84 oligomerization and heterodimerization domains act as transdominant inhibitors of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication: evidence that IE2-UL84 and UL84-UL84 interactions are required for lytic DNA replication. J. Virol. 78:92039214.
94. Comoli, P.,, R. Maccario,, F. Locatelli,, U. Valente,, S. Basso,, A. Garaventa,, P. Toma,, G. Botti,, G. Melioli,, F. Baldanti,, A. Nocera,, F. Perfumo, and, F. Ginevri. 2005. Treatment of EBV-related post-renal transplant lymphoproliferative disease with a tailored regimen including EBV-specific T cells. Am. J. Transplant. 5:14151422.
95. Compton, T.,, E. A. Kurt-Jones,, K. W. Boehme,, J. Belko,, E. Latz,, D. T. Golenbock, and, R. W. Finberg. 2003. Human cytomegalovirus activates inflammatory cytokine responses via CD14 and Toll-like receptor 2. J. Virol. 77:45884596.
96. Craig, J. M.,, J. C. Macauley,, T. H. Weller, and, P. Wirth. 1957. Isolation of intranuclear inclusion producing agents from infants with illnesses resembling cytomegalic inclusion disease. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 94:412.
97. Croen, K. D.,, and S. E. Straus. 1991. Varicella-zoster virus latency. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 45:265282.
98. Czock, D.,, C. Scholle,, F. M. Rasche,, D. Schaarschmidt, and, F. Keller. 2002. Pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir and ganciclovir in renal impairment. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 72:142150.
99. Dahl, H.,, J. Marcoccia, and, A. Linde. 1997. Antigen detection: the method of choice in comparison with virus isolation and serology for laboratory diagnosis of herpes zoster in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:347349.
100. Danise, A.,, P. Cinque,, S. Vergani,, M. Candino,, S. Racca,, A. De Bona,, R. Novati,, A. Castagna, and, A. Lazzarin. 1997. Use of polymerase chain reaction assays of aqueous humor in the differential diagnosis of retinitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:11001106.
101. Darenkov, I.,, M. A. Marcarelli,, G. P. Basadonna,, M. L. Friedman,, K. M. Lorber,, J. G. Howe,, J. Crouch,, M. J. Bia,, A. S. Kliger,, M. I. Lorber. 1997. Reduced incidence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder using preemptive antiviral therapy. Transplantation 64:848852.
102. Davis, C. L.,, K. L. Harrison,, J. P. McVicar,, P. J. Forg,, M. P. Bronner, and, C. L. Marsh. 1995. Antiviral prophylaxis and the Epstein Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Clin. Transplant. 9:5361.
103. Davison, A. J.,, and J. E. Scott. 1986. The complete DNA sequence of varicella-zoster virus. J. Gen. Virol. 67 (Pt 9):17591816.
104. Davison, A. J.,, A. Dolan,, P. Akter,, C. Addison,, D. J. Dargan,, D. J. Alcendor,, D. J. McGeoch, and, G. S. Hayward. 2003. The human cytomegalovirus genome revisited: comparison with the chimpanzee cytomegalovirus genome. J. Gen. Virol. 84:1728.
105. Deayton, J. R.,, C. A. Prof Sabin,, M. A. Johnson,, V. C. Emery,, P. Wilson, and, P. D. Griffiths. 2004. Importance of cytomegalovirus viraemia in risk of disease progression and death in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 363:21162121.
106. Deeg, H. J.,, J. Sanders, and, P. Martin. 1984. Secondary malignancies after marrow transplantation. Exp. Hematol. 12:660666.
107. DeMeritt, I. B.,, L. E. Milford, and, A. D. Yurochko. 2004. Activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in human cytomegalovirus-infected cells is necessary for efficient transactivation of the major immediate-early promoter. J. Virol. 78:44984507.
108. Devlin, M. E.,, D. H. Gilden,, R. Mahalingam,, A. N. Dueland, and, R. Cohrs. 1992. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the elderly contain varicella-zoster virus DNA. J. Infect. Dis. 165:619622.
109. Diaz-Pedroche, C.,, C. Lumbreras,, P. Del Valle,, R. San Juan,, S. Hernando,, D. Folgueira,, A. Andres,, J. Delgado,, J. C. Meneu,, J. M. Morales,, E. Moreno, and, J. M. Aguado. 2005. Efficacy and safety of valgancyclovir as preemptive therapy for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Transplant. Proc. 37:37663767.
110. Dimitroulia, E.,, N. Spanakis,, A. E. Konstantinidou,, N. J. Legakis, and, A. Tsakris. 2006. Frequent detection of cytomegalovirus in the intestine of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 12:879884.
111. Dolan, A.,, C. Cunningham,, R. D. Hector,, A. F. Hassan-Walker,, L. Lee,, C. Addison,, D. J. Dargan,, D. J. McGeoch,, D. Gatherer,, V. C. Emery,, P. D. Griffiths,, C. Sinzger,, B. P. McSharry,, G. W. Wilkinson, and, A. J. Davison. 2004. Genetic content of wild-type human cytomegalovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 85:13011312.
112. Domingo, P.,, O. H. Torres,, J. Ris, and, G. Vazquez. 2001. Herpes zoster as an immune reconstitution disease after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Am. J. Med. 110:605609.
113. Drew, W. L. 2003. Cytomegalovirus disease in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 5:257265.
114. Drew, W. L.,, C. V. Paya, and, V. Emery. 2001. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) resistance to antivirals. Am. J. Transplant. 1:307312.
115. Drew, W. L.,, R. C. Miner,, G. I. Marousek, and, S. Chou. 2006. Maribavir sensitivity of cytomegalovirus isolates resistant to ganciclovir, cidofovir or foscarnet. J. Clin. Virol. 37:124127.
116. Dunn, H. S.,, D. J. Haney,, S. A. Ghanekar,, P. Stepick-Biek,, D. B. Lewis, and, H. T. Maecker. 2002. Dynamics of CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to cytomegalovirus in healthy human donors. J. Infect. Dis. 186:1522.
117. Duus, K. M.,, and C. Grose. 1996. Multiple regulatory effects of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gL on trafficking patterns and fusogenic properties of VZV gH. J. Virol. 70:89618971.
118. Dworkin, R. H.,, R. W. Johnson,, J. Breuer,, J. W. Gnann,, M. J. Levin,, M. Backonja,, R. F. Betts,, A. A. Gershon,, M. L. Haanpaa,, M. W. McKendrick,, T. J. Nurmikko,, A. L. Oaklander,, M. N. Oxman,, D. Pavan-Langston,, K. L. Petersen,, M. C. Rowbotham,, K. E. Schmader,, B. R. Stacey,, S. K. Tyring,, A. J. van Wijck,, M. S. Wallace,, S. W. Wassilew, and, R. J. Whitley. 2007. Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44(Suppl. 1):S1S26.
119. Eckle, T.,, G. Jahn, and, K. Hamprecht. 2003. High impact of an expanded restriction fragment length polymorphism assay on detection of ganciclovir-resistant UL97 mutants of human cytomegalovirus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:442443.
120. Einsele, H.,, E. Roosnek,, N. Rufer,, C. Sinzger,, S. Riegler,, J. Loffler,, U. Grigoleit,, A. Moris,, H. G. Rammensee,, L. Kanz,, A. Kleihauer,, F. Frank,, G. Jahn, and, H. Hebart. 2002. Infusion of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells for the treatment of CMV infection not responding to antiviral chemotherapy. Blood 99:39163922.
121. Elkington, R.,, S. Walker,, T. Crough,, M. Menzies,, J. Tellam,, M. Bharadwaj, and, R. Khanna. 2003. Ex vivo profiling of CD8+-T-cell responses to human cytomegalovirus reveals broad and multispecific reactivities in healthy virus carriers. J. Virol. 77:52265240.
122. Emery, V. C. 1999. Viral dynamics during active cytomegalovirus infection and pathology. Intervirology 42:405411.
123. Enright, A. M.,, and C. Prober. 2003. Antiviral therapy in children with varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus infections. Herpes 10:3237.
124. Epeldegui, M.,, D. P. Widney, and, O. Martinez-Maza. 2006. Pathogenesis of AIDS lymphoma: role of oncogenic viruses and B cell activation-associated molecular lesions. Curr. Opin. Oncol. 18:444448.
125. Epstein, M. A.,, B. G. Achong, and, Y. M. Barr. 1964. Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s lymphoma. Lancet i:702703.
126. Espy, M. J.,, R. Teo,, T. K. Ross,, K. A. Svien,, A. D. Wold,, J. R. Uhl, and, T. F. Smith. 2000. Diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infections in the clinical laboratory by LightCycler PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:31873189.
127. Evans, A. S. 1982. The transmission of EB viral infections, p. 211–225. In J. Hooks and, G. Jordan (ed.), Viral Infections in Oral Medicine. Elsevier North Holland, New York, NY.
128. Evers, D. L.,, G. Komazin,, R. G. Ptak,, D. Shin,, B. T. Emmer,, L. B. Townsend, and, J. C. Drach. 2004. Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by benzimidazole nucleosides involves three distinct mechanisms. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:39183927.
129. Faulkner, G. C.,, S. R. Burrows,, R. Khanna,, D. J. Moss,, A. G. Bird, and, D. H. Crawford. 1999. X-linked agammaglobulinemia patients are not infected with Epstein-Barr virus: implications for the biology of the virus. J. Virol. 73:15551564.
130. Feire, A. L.,, H. Koss, and, T. Compton. 2004. Cellular integrins function as entry receptors for human cytomegalovirus via a highly conserved disintegrin-like domain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1547015475.
131. Fillet, A. M.,, B. Dumont,, E. Caumes,, B. Visse,, H. Agut,, F. Bricaire, and, J. M. Huraux. 1998. Acyclovir-resistant varicella-zoster virus: phenotypic and genetic characterization. J. Med. Virol. 55:250254.
132. Fisher, S.,, O. Genbacev,, E. Maidji, and, L. Pereira. 2000. Human cytomegalovirus infection of placental cytotropho-blasts in vitro and in utero: implications for transmission and pathogenesis. J. Virol. 74:68086820.
133. Fishman, J. A.,, V. Emery,, R. Freeman,, M. Pascual,, L. Rostaing,, H. J. Schlitt,, D. Sgarabotto,, J. Torre-Cisneros, and, M. E. Uknis. 2007. Cytomegalovirus in transplantation—challenging the status quo. Clin. Transplant. 21:149158.
134. Foldes-Papp, Z.,, R. Egerer,, E. Birch-Hirschfeld,, H. M. Striebel,, U. Demel,, G. P. Tilz, and, P. Wutzler. 2004. Detection of multiple human herpes viruses by DNA microarray technology. Mol. Diagn. 8:19.
135. Fowler, K. B.,, S. Stagno, and, R. F. Pass. 2003. Maternal immunity and prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 289:10081011.
136. Frey, C. R.,, M. A. Sharp,, A. S. Min,, D. S. Schmid,, V. Loparev, and, A. M. Arvin. 2003. Identification of CD8+ T cell epitopes in the immediate early 62 protein (IE62) of varicella-zoster virus, and evaluation of frequency of CD8+ T cell response to IE62, by use of IE62 peptides after varicella vaccination. J. Infect. Dis. 188:4052.
137. Frezzera, G.,, D. W. Hanto,, K. J. Gajl-Peczalska,, J. Rosai,, R. W. McKenna,, R. K. Sibley,, K. P. Holahan, and, L. L. Lindquist. 1981. Polymorphic difffuse B cell hyperplasias and lymphomas in transplant recipients. Cancer Res. 41:42624270.
138. Furebring, C.,, A. Speckner,, M. Mach,, I. Sandlie,, L. Norderhaug,, C. A. Borrebaeck,, H. Turesson, and, M. Ohlin. 2002. Antibody-mediated neutralization of cytomegalovirus: modulation of efficacy induced through the IgG constant region. Mol. Immunol. 38:833840.
139. Furuta, Y.,, S. Fukuda,, S. Suzuki,, T. Takasu,, Y. Inuyama, and, K. Nagashima. 1997. Detection of varicella-zoster virus DNA in patients with acute peripheral facial palsy by the polymerase chain reaction, and its use for early diagnosis of zoster sine herpete. J. Med. Virol. 52:316319.
140. Galiano, M. C.,, C. M. Videla,, S. Sanchez Puch, and, G. Carballal. 2001. Cytomegalovirus isolation by conventional cell culture and shell vial assay. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 61:825829. (In Spanish.)
141. Gamadia, L. E.,, E. B. Remmerswaal,, J. F. Weel,, F. Bemelman,, R. A. van Lier, and, I. J. Ten Berge. 2003. Primary immune responses to human CMV: a critical role for IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells in protection against CMV disease. Blood 101:26862692.
142. Gandhi, M. K.,, and R. Khanna. 2004. Human cytomegalovirus: clinical aspects, immune regulation, and emerging treatments. Lancet Infect. Dis. 4:725738.
143. Gandhi, M. K.,, G. M. Wilkie,, U. Dua,, P. N. Mollee,, K. Grimmett,, T. Williams,, N. Whitaker,, D. Gill, and, D. H. Crawford. 2007. Immunity, homing and efficacy of allogeneic adoptive immunotherapy for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Am. J. Transplant. 7:12931299.
144. Gane, E.,, F. Saliba,, G. J. C. Valdecasas,, J. O’Grady,, M. D. Pescovitz,, S. Lyman, and, C. A. Robinson. 1997. Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of oral ganciclovir in the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in liver-transplant recipients. Lancet 350:17291733.
145. Gardella, C.,, and Z. A. Brown. 2007. Managing varicella zoster infection in pregnancy. Cleve. Clin. J. Med. 74:290296.
146. Garweg, J.,, and M. Bohnke. 1997. Varicella-zoster virus is strongly associated with atypical necrotizing herpetic retinopathies. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:603608.
147. Gaytant, M. A.,, G. I. Rours,, E. A. Steegers,, J. M. Galama, and, B. A. Semmekrot. 2003. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection after recurrent infection: case reports and review of the literature. Eur. J. Pediatr. 162:248253.
148. Geary, R. S.,, S. P. Henry, and, L. R. Grillone. 2002. Fomivirsen: clinical pharmacology and potential drug interactions. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 41:255260.
149. Gerber, P.,, M. Nonoyama,, S. Lucas,, E. Perlin, and, L. I. Goldstein. 1972. Oral excretion of Epstein-Barr virus by healthy subjects and patients with infectious mononucleosis. Lancet ii:988989.
150. Gerna, G.,, F. Baldanti, and, M. G. Revello. 2004. Pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus infection and cellular targets. Hum. Immunol. 65:381386.
151. Gerna, G.,, E. Percivalle,, F. Baldanti,, S. Sozzani,, P. Lanzarini,, E. Genini,, D. Lilleri, and, M. G. Revello. 2000. Human cytomegalovirus replicates abortively in polymorphonuclear leukocytes after transfer from infected endothelial cells via transient microfusion events. J. Virol. 74:56295638.
152. Gershon, A. A.,, and S. P. Steinberg. 1989. Persistence of immunity to varicella in children with leukemia immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:892897.
153. Gershon, A. A.,, J. Chen,, P. LaRussa, and, S. P. Steinberg. 2007. Varicella-zoster virus, p. 1537–1548. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Barron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. L. Landry,, M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 9th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
154. Gershon, A. A.,, P. LaRussa,, S. Steinberg,, N. Mervish,, S. H. Lo, and, P. Meier. 1996. The protective effect of immunologic boosting against zoster: an analysis in leukemic children who were vaccinated against chickenpox. J. Infect. Dis. 173:450453.
155. Gershon, A. A.,, N. Mervish,, P. LaRussa,, S. Steinberg,, S. H. Lo,, D. Hodes,, S. Fikrig,, V. Bonagura, and, S. Bakshi. 1997. Varicella-zoster virus infection in children with underlying human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 176:14961500.
156. Gilbert, C.,, and G. Boivin. 2003. Discordant phenotypes and genotypes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with AIDS and relapsing CMV retinitis. AIDS 17:337341.
157. Gilden, D. H.,, R. R. Wright,, S. A. Schneck,, J. M. Gwaltney, Jr., and, R. Mahalingam. 1994. Zoster sine herpete, a clinical variant. Ann. Neurol. 35:530533.
158. Gilloteaux, J.,, and M. R. Nassiri. 2000. Human bone marrow fibroblasts infected by cytomegalovirus: ultrastructural observations. J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol. 32:1745.
159. Gingues, S.,, and M. J. Gill. 2006. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the incidence and outcomes of AIDS-defining cancers in Southern Alberta. HIV Med. 7:369377.
160. Gleaves, C. A.,, C. F. Lee,, C. I. Bustamante, and, J. D. Meyers. 1988. Use of murine monoclonal antibodies for laboratory diagnosis of varicella-zoster virus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:16231625.
161. Glesby, M. J.,, R. D. Moore, and, R. E. Chaisson. 1995. Clinical spectrum of herpes zoster in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:370375.
162. Gnann, J. W., Jr. 2002. Varicella-zoster virus: atypical presentations and unusual complications. J. Infect. Dis. 186(Suppl. 1):S91S98.
163. Gohring, K.,, E. Mikeler,, G. Jahn, and, K. Hamprecht. 2006. Rapid simultaneous detection by real-time PCR of cytomegalovirus UL97 mutations in codons 460 and 520 conferring ganciclovir resistance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:45414544.
164. Goldberg, D. E.,, L. M. Smithen,, A. Angelilli, and, W. R. Freeman. 2005. HIV-associated retinopathy in the HAART era. Retina 25:633649, 682–683.
165. Gona, P.,, R. B. Van Dyke,, P. L. Williams,, W. M. Dankner,, M. C. Chernoff,, S. A. Nachman, and, G. R. Seage III. 2006. Incidence of opportunistic and other infections in HIV-infected children in the HAART era. JAMA 296:292300.
166. Goodrum, F.,, C. T. Jordan,, S. S. Terhune,, K. High, and, T. Shenk. 2004. Differential outcomes of human cytomegalovirus infection in primitive hematopoietic cell subpopulations. Blood 104:687695.
167. Gordon, J.,, S. Ley,, M. Melamed,, P. Aman, and, N. Hughes-Jones. 1984. Soluble factor requirements for the autostimulatory growth of B lymphoblasts immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus. J. Exp. Med. 159:15541559.
168. Gordon, J.,, L. Walker,, G. Guy,, G. Brown,, M. Rowe, and, A. Rickinson. 1986. Control of human B-lymphocyte replication. II. Transforming Epstein-Barr virus exploits three distinct viral signals to undermine three separate control points in B-cell growth. Immunology 58:591595.
169. Gowrishankar, K.,, B. Slobedman,, A. L. Cunningham,, M. Miranda-Saksena,, R. A. Boadle,, A. Abendroth. 2007. Productive varicella zoster virus infection of cultured intact human ganglia. J. Virol. 81:67526756.
170. Gratama, J. W.,, M. A. P. Oosterveer,, F. E. Zwaan,, J. Lepoutre,, G. Klein, and, I. Ernberg. 1988. Eradication of Epstein-Barr virus by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: implications for sites of viral latency. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:86938696.
171. Gratama, J. W.,, J. W. van Esser,, C. H. Lamers,, C. Tournay,, B. Lowenberg,, R. L. Bolhuis, and, J. J. Cornelissen. 2001. Tetramer-based quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in T-cell-depleted stem cell grafts and after transplantation may identify patients at risk for progressive CMV infection. Blood 98:13581364.
172. Gray, W. L. 2004. Simian varicella: a model for human varicella-zoster virus infections. Rev. Med. Virol. 14:363381.
173. Green, M.,, T. V. Cacciarelli,, G. Mazariegos,, L. Sigurdsson,, L. Qu,, D. T. Rowe, and, G. Reyes. 1998. Serial measurement of EBV viral load in peripheral blood in pediatric liver transplant recipients during treatment for post transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Transplantation 66:16411644.
174. Greenspan, D.,, Y. G. DeSouza,, M. A. Conant,, H. Hollander,, S. K. Chapman,, E. T. Lennette,, V. Petersen, and, J. S. Greenspan. 1990. Efficacy of desiclovir in the treatment of Epstein-Barr virus infection in oral hairy leukoplakia. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 3:571578.
175. Greenspan, D.,, S. J. Gange,, J. A. Phelan,, M. Navazesh,, M. E. A. F. Alves,, L. A. MacPhail,, R. Mulligan, and, J. S. Greenspan. 2004. Incidence of oral lesions in HIV-1-infected women: reduction with HAART. J. Dent. Res. 83:145150.
176. Greenspan, J. S.,, D. Greenspan,, E. T. Lennett,, D. I. Abrams,, M. A. Conant,, V. Petersen, and, U. K. Freese. 1985. Replication of Epstein-Barr virus within the epithelial cells of oral “hairy” leukoplakia, an AIDS-associated lesion. N. Engl. J. Med. 313:15641571.
177. Grey, F.,, A. Antoniewicz,, E. Allen,, J. Saugstad,, A. McShea,, J. C. Carrington, and, J. Nelson. 2005. Identification and characterization of human cytomegalovirus-encoded microRNAs. J. Virol. 79:1209512099.
178. Griffiths, P. D. 2006. CMV as a cofactor enhancing progression of AIDS. J. Clin. Virol. 35:489492.
179. Grose, C. 2005. Varicella vaccination of children in the United States: assessment after the first decade 1995-2005. J. Clin. Virol. 33:8998.
180. Grose, C.,, S. Tyler,, G. Peters,, J. Hiebert,, G. M. Stephens,, W. T. Ruyechan,, W. Jackson,, J. Storlie, and, G. A. Tipples. 2004. Complete DNA sequence analyses of the first two varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E (D150N) mutant viruses found in North America: evolution of genotypes with an accelerated cell spread phenotype. J. Virol. 78:67996807.
181. Grotto, I.,, D. Mimouni,, M. Huerta,, M. Mimouni,, D. Cohen,, G. Robin,, S. Pitlik, and, M. Green. 2003. Clinical and laboratory presentation of EBV positive infectious mononucleosis in young adults. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:683689.
182. Grundhoff, A.,, C. S. Sullivan, and, D. Ganem. 2006. A combined computational and microarray-based approach identifies novel microRNAs encoded by human gamma-herpesviruses. RNA 12:733750.
183. Grundy, J. E.,, K. M. Lawson,, L. P. MacCormac,, J. M. Fletcher, and, K. L. Yong. 199