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Chapter 28 : Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8

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Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, and HHV-8 (also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus) were discovered between 1986 and 1994. HHV-8 is the etiologic agent of KS and has been closely associated with multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD) and a form of body cavity lymphoma known as primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The major applications of HHV-6 serology are for (i) discriminating primary HHV-6 infections from adverse vaccine reactions in young children and (ii) detecting temporal changes in serostatus as part of diagnosing possible HHV-6 involvement in an acute clinical event. In addition to the extensive antigenic cross-reactivity between the HHV-6 variants, the variants have sufficient cross-reactivity with HHV-7 to lead to occasional false-positive results unless antigen adsorptions are done or an immunoblot assay is used that is based on non-cross-reactive antigens. During the AIDS epidemic, the incidence of KS dramatically increased, and it is now the most common malignancy in all segments of the population. The major application of HHV-8 diagnostic tests is in research studies of epidemiology, transmission, and new disease associations. Reports of HHV-8 associations with sarcoidosis and angiosarcoma were followed by several reports of no involvement of HHV-8 with these diseases. Other disease associations for HHV-8 have been reported for various lymphomas, cutaneous neoplasms, encephalitis, and Bowen’s disease, but investigations have been too few or the diseases too rare to rigorously confirm or refute any involvement of HHV-8.

Citation: Pellett P, Dollard S. 2009. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 494-522. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch28
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FIGURE 1

HHV-6B (A) and HHV-7 (B) virions grown in cord blood lymphocytes. Virus particles are extracellular and mature. Culture material was provided by Jodi Black and Carlos Lopez, and electron microscopy and photography were by Cynthia Goldsmith, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bars = 100 nm.

Citation: Pellett P, Dollard S. 2009. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 494-522. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Immune response to HHV-6 showing the temporal relationship between viral load, the clinical signs and symptoms of infection (roseola), and the production of specific IgM and IgG antibodies.

Citation: Pellett P, Dollard S. 2009. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 494-522. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

HHV-8 virions in BCBL-1 cells incubated with 0.3 mM sodium butyrate for 5 days. Boxed areas in panel B are shown at higher magnification in panels A, C, and D. (B) Induced cells show signs of lytic infection including condensed and marginated chromatin and numerous nuclear inclusions that contain maturing virus particles (A). Virions in membrane-bound vesicles associated with the nuclear (C) and cytoplasmic (D) membranes are shown. Culture material was provided by Margaret Offermann (Emory University) and Jodi Black (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) (Yu et al., 1999). Electron microscopy and photography were by Cynthia Goldsmith, CDC. Bars = 1 µm (B) and 100 nm (A, C, and D).

Citation: Pellett P, Dollard S. 2009. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 494-522. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Relative HHV-8 antibody reactivity measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant ORF 65 protein among various groups: 1, patients with AIDS KS; 2, HIV-infected homosexual men without KS; 3, United Kingdom blood donors; 4, intravenous drug users; 5, hemophiliacs. O.D., optical density. Figure courtesy of Thomas Schulz, Hannover Medical School, and The Lancet Ltd. (Simpson et al., 1996). Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.

Citation: Pellett P, Dollard S. 2009. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 494-522. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch28
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