Chapter 29 : Poxviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Poxviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap29-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815974/9781555814625_Chap29-2.gif


Smallpox vaccine, Orthopoxvirus vaccinia, was used extensively for routine vaccination against variola virus. Historically poxvirus infections were laboratory confirmed by a combination of approaches including pock morphology on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs), serologic reactivity, and electron microscopy (EM). Although EM can distinguish parapoxviruses from other poxviruses, the diagnostic method is constrained by the inability to differentiate between species within genera of poxviruses. Real-time PCR assays currently allow rapid and definitive diagnosis of the species of poxvirus causing an infection but still rely upon time-consuming processing of samples. The poxvirus family is divided into two subfamilies: Entomopoxvirinae (poxviruses of insects) and Chordopoxvirinae (poxviruses of vertebrates). The vertebrate poxviruses were further subclassified into genera by comparing cross-protection in animal studies, cross-neutralization of virion infectivity in cell culture, and through the analysis of genetic polymorphisms in genomic viral DNA. Molluscum contagiosum virus has one of the most limited host cell tropisms of any virus, replicating only in the human keratinocyte of the epidermis. The parapoxviruses, including orf, bovine papular stomatitis, pseudocowpox (milker’s nodule), and sealpox viruses cause occupational infections of humans, with orf infections being the most common. The genus Yatapoxvirus has two members, tanapoxvirus and Yaba monkey tumor virus, which are serologically related. Tanapox virus infection may occur via scratches or possibly via arthropod vectors. Current strategies for preventing human poxvirus infections are ones that stress awareness of the potential for infection and possible behavioral modifications to reduce risk of infection.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Cytopathic effect of orthopoxvirus infection within tissue cell culture. African green monkey kidney cells (BSC-40) were infected at a low multiplicity (multiplicity of infection = 0.01) to mimic what might be found within a clinical specimen. Cells were either mock infected or infected with one of the following orthopoxviruses: vaccinia, monkeypox, or variola. Cells were observed daily, and photographs were taken. The number of hours postinfection (hpi) and characteristics of cytopathic effect are denoted. Magnification, ×10.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Histologic section of a molluscum contagiosum lesion. A hematoxylin- and eosin-stained wax section of a skin biopsy specimen showing hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Note the hyperplasia associated with the lesion causes severe invagination of the epidermis without loss of integrity of the basal layer. Arrows indicate molluscum bodies. Magnification, ×100.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Morphology and structure of a poxvirus virion. (A) Electron micrograph of a negative-stained M form of a molluscum contagiosum virus virion. Magnification, ×120,000. Note the textured surface. (B) Electron micrograph of a thin section of a cowpox virus virion. N, nucleosome; L, lateral body; M, membrane. Note the immature forms of the virus in various stages of morphogenesis in the upper portion of the photograph. Magnification, ×120,000.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Replication cycle of vaccinia virus. A virion, containing a double-stranded DNA genome, enzymes, and transcription factors, attaches to a cell (1) and fuses with the cell membrane, releasing a core into the cytoplasm (2). The core synthesizes early mRNA that is translated into a variety of proteins, including growth factors, immune defense molecules, enzymes, and factors for DNA replication and intermediate transcription (3). Uncoating occurs (4), and the DNA is replicated to form concatemeric molecules (5). Intermediate genes in the progeny DNA are transcribed, and the mRNA is translated to form late transcription factors (6). The late genes are transcribed, and the mRNA is translated to form virion structural proteins, enzymes, and early transcription factors (7). Assembly begins with the formation of discrete membrane structures (8). The concatemeric DNA intermediates are resolved into unit genomes and packaged in immature virions (IV) (9). Maturation proceeds to the formation of infectious intracellular MV (10). The MVs are wrapped by modified trans-Golgi and endosomal cisternae (11), and the wrapped virions (WV) are transported to the periphery of the cell along microtubules (12). Fusion of the WVs with the plasma membrane results in release of extracellular EV (13). The actin tail polymerizes in the cytoplasm beneath the EV (13). Although replication occurs entirely in the cytoplasm, nuclear and cytoplasmic cell factors may be involved in transcription and assembly. Reprinted from Fields Virology, 5th ed. (D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley [ed.], Lippincott Williams & Wilkins [Moss, 2007]).

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Electron micrograph of a thin section of a molluscum contagiosum virus-infected cell or molluscum body. All of the cellular organelles are beyond recognition, having been pushed to the periphery of the cell by the masses of virions. Magnification, ×3,000.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6

Monkeypox rash. A 7-year-old Zairian girl is shown 2 days after the onset of the rash. Courtesy of M. Szczeniowski.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7

Primary and secondary lesions of cowpox. The primary lesion is at the early eschar stage (probably 2 to 3 weeks after infection), whereas the secondary lesion (below) is at the early vesicular stage. Provided by M. White; reprinted with permission from Baxby et al., 1994.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8

Vaccinia-like lesions. Lesions found on the hands of a milker within Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Courtesy of Bovine Vaccinia Investigation Group, Federal University of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9

Molluscum contagiosum lesions. A giant molluscum lesion next to a more typical lesion. Note the umbilicated center. Courtesy of J. Burnett.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10

A typical orf lesion at the target stage of development. Courtesy of Andrew Mercer.

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agromayor, M.,, P. Ortiz,, J. L. Lopez-Estebaranz,, J. Gonzalez-Nicolas,, M. Esteban, and, A. Martin-Gallardo. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum virus and analysis of the host-serum antibody response in Spanish HIV-negative patients. J. Med. Virol. 66:151158.
2. Aitichou, M.,, S. Javorschi, and, M. S. Ibrahim. 2005. Two-color multiplex assay for the identification of orthopox viruses with real-time LUX-PCR. Mol. Cell Probes 19:323328.
3. al-Hazzaa, S. A.,, and A. A. Hidayat. 1993. Molluscum contagiosum of the eyelid and infraorbital margin–a clinicopathologic study with light and electron microscopic observations. J. Pediatr. Ophthalmol. Strabismus 30:5859.
4. Arican, O. 2006. Topical treatment of molluscum contagiosum with imiquimod 5% cream in Turkish children. Pediatr. Int. 48:403405.
5. Bailey, T. R.,, S. R. Rippin,, E. Opsitnick,, C. J. Burns,, D. C. Pevear,, M. S. Collett,, G. Rhodes,, S. Tohan,, J.W. Huggins,, R. O. Baker,, E. R. Kern,, K. A. Keith,, D. Dai,, G. Yang,, D. Hruby, and, R. Jordan. 2007. N-(3,3a,4,4a,5,5a,6,6a-octahydro-1,3-dioxo-4,6-ethenocycloprop[f]isoindol-2-(1H)-yl)carboxamides: identification of novel orthopoxvirus egress inhibitors. J. Med. Chem. 50:14421444.
6. Baxby, D.,, M. Bennett, and, B. Getty. 1994. Human cowpox 1969-93: a review based on 54 cases. Br. J. Dermatol. 131:598607.
7. Becher, P.,, M. Konig,, G. Muller,, U. Siebert, and, H. J. Thiel. 2002. Characterization of sealpox virus, a separate member of the parapoxviruses. Arch. Virol. 147:11331140.
8. Becker, F. T. 1940. Milker’s nodules. JAMA 115:2140.
9. Bergoin, M.,, and S. Dales. 1971. Comparative observations on poxviruses of invertebrates and vertebrates, p. 171–203. In K. Maramorosch,, M. Bergoin, and, E. Kurstak, Comparative Virology. Academic Press, New York, NY.
10. Berman, B. 2002. Imiquimod: a new immune response modifier for the treatment of external genital warts and other diseases in dermatology. Int. J. Dermatol. 41(Suppl. 1):711.
11. Bikowski, J. B., Jr. 2004. Molluscum contagiosum: the need for physician intervention and new treatment options. Cutis 73:202206.
12. Binkley, G. W.,, G. A. Deoreo, and, H. H. Johnson, Jr. 1956. An eczematous reaction associated with molluscum contagiosum. AMA. Arch. Derm. 74:344348.
13. Blackford, S.,, D. L. Roberts, and, P. D. Thomas. 1993. Cowpox infection causing a generalized eruption in a patient with atopic dermatitis. Br. J. Dermatol. 129:628629.
14. Boulter, E. A.,, J. C. Westwood, and, H. B. Maber. 1961. Value of serotherapy in a virus disease (rabbit pox). Lancet ii:10121015.
15. Bray, M. 2003. Pathogenesis and potential antiviral therapy of complications of smallpox vaccination. Antivir. Res. 58:101114.
16. Buller, R. M.,, J. Burnett,, W. Chen, and, J. Kreider. 1995. Replication of molluscum contagiosum virus. Virology 213:655659.
17. Buller, R. M.,, and G. J. Palumbo. 1991. Poxvirus pathogenesis. Microbiol. Rev. 55:80122.
18. Carletti, F.,, C. A. Di,, S. Calcaterra,, A. Grolla,, M. Czub,, G. Ippolito,, M. R. Capobianchi, and, D. Horejsh. 2005. Rapid, differential diagnosis of orthopox- and herpesviruses based upon real-time PCR product melting temperature and restriction enzyme analysis of amplicons. J. Virol. Methods 129:97100.
19. Carson, C. A.,, and K. M. Kerr. 1967. Bovine papular stomatitis with apparent transmission to man. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 151:183187.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Update: multistate outbreak of monkeypox—Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin, 2003. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:642646.
21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997a. Human monkeypox—Kasai Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo, February 1996–October 1997. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:11681171.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997b. Human monkeypox—Kasai Oriental, Zaire, 1996–1997. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:304307.
23. Clark, C.,, P. G. McIntyre,, A. Evans,, C. J. McInnes, and, S. Lewis-Jones. 2005. Human sealpox resulting from a seal bite: confirmation that sealpox virus is zoonotic. Br. J. Dermatol. 152:791793.
24. Coulibaly, S.,, P. Bruhl,, J. Mayrhofer,, K. Schmid,, M. Gerencer, and, F. G. Falkner. 2005. The nonreplicating smallpox candidate vaccines defective vaccinia Lister (dVV-L) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) elicit robust long-term protection. Virology 341:91101.
25. Czerny, C. P.,, A. M. Eis-Hubinger,, A. Mayr,, K. E. Schneweis, and, B. Pfeiff. 1991. Animal poxviruses transmitted from cat to man: current event with lethal end. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. B 38:421431.
26. da Fonseca, F. G.,, G. S. Trindade,, R. L. Silva,, C. A. Bonjardim,, P. C. Ferreira, and, E. G. Kroon. 2002. Characterization of a vaccinia-like virus isolated in a Brazilian forest. J. Gen. Virol. 83:223228.
27. Damaso, C. R.,, J. J. Esposito,, R. C. Condit, and, N. Moussatche. 2000. An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine. Virology 277:439449.
28. Damon, I. K. 2007. Poxviruses, p. 2947–2975. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
29. Damon, I. K.,, C. E. Roth, and, V. Chowdhary. 2006. Discovery of monkeypox in Sudan. N. Engl. J. Med. 355:962963.
30. Dawson, I. M.,, and A. S. McFarlane. 1948. Structure of an animal virus. Nature 161:464466.
31. De Clercq, E. 2002. Cidofovir in the treatment of poxvirus infections. Antivir. Res. 55:113.
32. de Souza, T. G.,, F. G. da Fonseca,, T. J. Marques,, M. L. Nogueira,, L. C. Mendes,, A. S. Borges,, J. R. Peiro,, E. M. Pituco,, C. A. Bonjardim,, P. C. Ferreira, and, E. G. Kroon. 2003. Aracatuba virus: a vaccinialike virus associated with infection in humans and cattle. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:155160.
33. Dhar, A. D.,, A. E. Werchniak,, Y. Li,, J. B. Brennick,, C. S. Goldsmith,, R. Kline,, I. Damon, and, S. N. Klaus. 2004. Tanapox infection in a college student. N. Engl. J. Med. 350:361366.
34. Downie, A. W. 1939. A study of the lesions produced experimentally by cowpox virus. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 48:361379.
35. Downie, A. W. 1972. The epidemiology of tanapox and yaba virus infections. J. Med. Microbiol. 5:xiv.
36. Downie, A. W.,, and C. Espana. 1972. Comparison of tanapox virus and yaba-like viruses causing epidemic disease in monkeys. J. Hyg. (London) 70:2332.
37. Downie, A. W.,, and C. Espana. 1973. A comparative study of tanapox and yaba viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 19:3749.
38. Earl, P. L.,, J. L. Americo,, L. S. Wyatt,, L. A. Eller,, D. C. Montefiori,, R. Byrum,, M. Piatak,, J. D. Lifson,, R. R. Amara,, H. L. Robinson,, J. W. Huggins, and, B. Moss. 2007. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara provides durable protection against disease caused by an immunodeficiency virus as well as long-term immunity to an orthopoxvirus in a non-human primate. Virology 366:8497.
39. Earl, P. L.,, J. L. Americo,, L. S. Wyatt,, L. A. Eller,, J. C. Whitbeck,, G. H. Cohen,, R. J. Eisenberg,, C. J. Hartmann,, D. L. Jackson,,, D. A. Kulesh,, M. J. Martinez,, D. M. Miller,, E. M. Mucker,, J. D. Shamblin,, S. H. Zwiers,, J. W. Huggins,, P. B. Jahrling, and, B. Moss. 2004. Immunogenicity of a highly attenuated MVA smallpox vaccine and protection against monkeypox. Nature 428:182185.
40. Edghill-Smith, Y.,, D. Venzon,, T. Karpova,, J. McNally,, J. Nacsa,, W. P. Tsai,, E. Tryniszewska,, M. Moniuszko,, J. Manischewitz,, L. R. King,, S. J. Snodgrass,, J. Parrish,, P. Markham,, M. Sowers,, D. Martin,, M. G. Lewis,, J. A. Berzofsky,, I. M. Belyakov,, B. Moss,, J. Tartaglia,, M. Bray,, V. Hirsch,, H. Golding, and, G. Franchini. 2003. Modeling a safer smallpox vaccination regimen, for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients, in immunocompromised macaques. J. Infect. Dis. 188:11811191.
41. Empig, C.,, J. R. Kenner,, M. Perret-Gentil,, B. E. Youree,, E. Bell,, A. Chen,, M. Gurwith,, K. Higgins,, M. Lock,, A. D. Rice,, J. Schriewer,, F. Sinangil,, E. White,, R. M. Buller,, T. S. Dermody,, S. N. Isaacs, and, R. W. Moyer. 2006. Highly attenuated smallpox vaccine protects rabbits and mice against pathogenic orthopoxvirus challenge. Vaccine 24:36863694.
42. Enserink, M.,, and R. Stone. 2002. Public health. Dead virus walking. Science 295:20012005.
43. Esposito, J. J.,, S. A. Sammons,, A. M. Frace,, J. D. Osborne,, M. Olsen-Rasmussen,, M. Zhang,, D. Govil,, I. K. Damon,, R. Kline,, M. Laker,, Y. Li,, G. I. Smith,, H. Meyer,, J. W. Leduc, and, R. M. Wohlhueter. 2006. Genome sequence diversity and clues to the evolution of variola (smallpox) virus. Science 313:807812.
44. Espy, M. J.,, F. R. Cockerill III,, R. F. Meyer,, M. D. Bowen,, G. A. Poland,, T. L. Hadfield, and, T. F. Smith. 2002. Detection of smallpox virus DNA by LightCycler PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:19851988.
45. Fedele, C. G.,, A. Negredo,, F. Molero,, M. P. Sanchez-Seco, and, A. Tenorio. 2006. Use of internally controlled real-time genome amplification for detection of variola virus and other orthopoxviruses infecting humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:44644470.
46. Fedorko, D. P.,, J. C. Preuss,, G. A. Fahle,, L. Li,, S. H. Fischer,, P. Hohman, and, J. L. Cohen. 2005. Comparison of methods for detection of vaccinia virus in patient specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:46024606.
47. Fenner, F. 1948. The pathogenesis of the acute exanthems; an interpretation based on experimental investigations with mousepox; infectious ectromelia of mice. Lancet ii:915920.
48. Fenner, F.,, and F. M. Burnet. 1957. A short description of the poxvirus group (vaccinia and related viruses). Virology 4:305314.
49. Fenner, F.,, D. A. Henderson,, I. Arita,, Z. Jezek, and, I. D. Ladnyi. 1988. Smallpox and Its Eradication. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
50. Fine, P. E.,, Z. Jezek,, B. Grab, and, H. Dixon. 1988. The transmission potential of monkeypox virus in human populations. Int. J. Epidemiol. 17:643650.
51. Gallina, L.,, P. F. Dal,, C. J. Mc Innes,, G. Cardeti,, A. Guercio,, M. Battilani,, S. Ciulli, and, A. Scagliarini. 2006. A real time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of orf virus. J. Virol. Methods 134:140145.
52. Gani, R.,, and S. Leach. 2001. Transmission potential of smallpox in contemporary populations. Nature 414:748751.
53. Garland, S. M. 2003. Imiquimod. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 16:8589.
54. Geerinck, K.,, G. Lukito,, R. Snoeck,, R. De Vos,, E. De Clercq,, Y. Vanrenterghem,, H. Degreef, and, B. Maes. 2001. A case of human orf in an immunocompromised patient treated successfully with cidofovir cream. J. Med. Virol. 64:543549.
55. Goldstein, J. A.,, J. M. Neff,, J. M. Lane, and, J. P. Koplan. 1975. Smallpox vaccination reactions, prophylaxis, and therapy of complications. Pediatrics 55:342347.
56. Groves, R. W.,, E. Wilson-Jones, and, D. M. MacDonald. 1991. Human orf and milkers’ nodule: a clinicopathologic study. J. Am. Acad Dermatol. 25:706711.
57. Guarnieri, G. 1892. Richerche sulla patogenesi ed etiologia dell’infezione vaccinia e variolosa. Arch. Sci. Med. 16:243247.
58. Hammarlund, E.,, M. W. Lewis,, S. V. Carter,, I. Amanna,, S. G. Hansen,, L. I. Strelow,, S. W. Wong,, P. Yoshihara,, J. M. Hanifin, and, M. K. Slifka. 2005. Multiple diagnostic techniques identify previously vaccinated individuals with protective immunity against monkeypox. Nat. Med. 11:10051011.
59. Hammarlund, E.,, M. W. Lewis,, S. G. Hansen,, L. I. Strelow,, J. A. Nelson,, G. J. Sexton,, J. M. Hanifin, and, M. K. Slifka. 2003. Duration of antiviral immunity after smallpox vaccination. Nat. Med. 9:11311137.
60. Hartmer, R.,, N. Storm,, S. Boecker,, C. P. Rodi,, F. Hillenkamp,, C. Jurinke, and, D. van den Boom. 2003. RNase T1 mediated base-specific cleavage and MALDI-TOF MS for high-throughput comparative sequence analysis. Nucleic Acids Res. 31:e47.
61. Hazel, S. M.,, M. Bennett,, J. Chantrey,, K. Bown,, R. Cavanagh,, T. R. Jones,, D. Baxby, and, M. Begon. 2000. A longitudinal study of an endemic disease in its wildlife reservoir: cowpox and wild rodents. Epidemiol. Infect. 124:551562.
62. Hicks, B. D.,, and G. A. Worthy. 1987. Sealpox in captive grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and their handlers. J. Wildl. Dis. 23:16.
63. Hopkins, R. J.,, and J. M. Lane. 2004. Clinical efficacy of intramuscular vaccinia immune globulin: a literature review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:819826.
64. Hutson, C. L.,, K. N. Lee,, J. Abel,, D. S. Carroll,, J. M. Montgomery,, V. A. Olson,, Y. Li,, W. Davidson,, C. Hughes,, M. Dillon,, P. Spurlock,, J. J. Kazmierczak,, C. Austin,, L. Miser,, F. E. Sorhage,, J. Howell,, J. P. Davis,, M. G. Reynolds,, Z. Braden,, K. L. Karem,, I. K. Damon, and, R. L. Regnery. 2007. Monkeypox zoonotic associations:insights from laboratory evaluation of animals associated with the multi-state us outbreak. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76:757768.
65. Inoshima, Y.,, A. Morooka, and, H. Sentsui. 2000. Detection and diagnosis of parapoxvirus by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Virol. Methods 84:201208.
66. Itin, P. H.,, and L. Gilli. 1994. Molluscum contagiosum mimicking sebaceous nevus of Jadassohn, ecthyma and giant condylomata acuminata in HIV-infected patients. Dermatology 189:396398.
67. Izu, R.,, D. Manzano,, J. Gardeazabal, and, J. L. az-Perez. 1994. Giant molluscum contagiosum presenting as a tumor in an HIV-infected patient. Int. J. Dermatol. 33:266267.
68. Janniger, C. K.,, and R. A. Schwartz. 1993. Molluscum contagiosum in children. Cutis 52:194196.
69. Jezek, Z.,, and F. Fenner. 1988. Human monkeypox, p. 1–140. In J. Melnick (ed.), Monographs in Virology. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.
70. Jezek, Z.,, I. Arita,, M. Szczeniowski,, K. M. Paluku,, K. Ruti, and, J. H. Nakano. 1985. Human tanapox in Zaire: clinical and epidemiological observations on cases confirmed by laboratory studies. Bull. W. H. O. 63:10271035.
71. Jobbagy, Z.,, R. van Atta,, K. M. Murphy,, J. R. Eshleman, and, C. D. Gocke. 2007. Evaluation of the Cepheid GeneXpert BCR-ABL assay. J. Mol. Diagn. 9:220227.
72. Karem, K. L.,, M. Reynolds,, Z. Braden,, G. Lou,, N. Bernard,, J. Patton, and, I. K. Damon. 2005. Characterization of acute-phase humoral immunity to monkeypox: use of immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of monkeypox infection during the 2003 North American outbreak. Clin. Diagn. Lab Immunol. 12:867872.
73. Karupiah, G.,, T. N. Fredrickson,, K. L. Holmes,, L. H. Khairallah, and, R. M. Buller. 1993. Importance of interferons in recovery from mousepox. J. Virol. 67:42144226.
74. Kenner, J.,, F. Cameron,, C. Empig,, D. V. Jobes, and, M. Gurwith. 2006. LC16m8: an attenuated smallpox vaccine. Vaccine 24:70097022.
75. Khodakevich, L.,, Z. Jezek, and, K. Kinzanzka. 1986. Isolation of monkeypox virus from wild squirrel infected in nature. Lancet i:9899.
76. Klein, D. 2002. Quantification using real-time PCR technology: applications and limitations. Trends Mol. Med. 8:257260.
77. Knight, J. C.,, C. S. Goldsmith,, A. Tamin,, R. L. Regnery,, D. C. Regnery, and, J. J. Esposito. 1992. Further analyses of the orthopoxviruses volepox virus and raccoon poxvirus. Virology 190:423433.
78. Kolhapure, R. M.,, R. P. Deolankar,, C. D. Tupe,, C. G. Raut,, A. Basu,, B. M. Dama,, S. D. Pawar,, M. V. Joshi,, V. S. Padbidri,, M. K. Goverdhan, and, K. Banerjee. 1997. Investigation of buffalopox outbreaks in Maharashtra State during 1992–1996. Indian J. Med. Res. 106:441446.
79. Kost, C. B.,, B. Rogers,, M. S. Oberste,, C. Robinson,, B. L. Eaves,, K. Leos,, S. Danielson,, M. Satya,, F. Weir, and, F. S. Nolte. 2007. Multicenter beta trial of the GeneXpert enterovirus assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:10811086.
80. Kulesh, D. A.,, R. O. Baker,, B. M. Loveless,, D. Norwood,, S. H. Zwiers,, E. Mucker,, C. Hartmann,, R. Herrera,, D. Miller,, D. Christensen,, L. P. Wasieloski, Jr.,, J. Huggins, and, P. B. Jahrling. 2004a. Smallpox and pan-orthopox virus detection by real-time 3’-minor groove binder TaqMan assays on the roche LightCycler and the Cepheid smart Cycler platforms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:601609.
81. Kulesh, D. A.,, B. M. Loveless,, D. Norwood,, J. J. Garrison,, C. A. Whitehouse,, C. Hartmann,, E. Mucker,, D. Miller,, L. P. Wasieloski, Jr.,, J. Huggins,, G. Huhn,, L. L. Miser,, C. Imig,, M. Martinez,, T. Larsen,, C. A. Rossi, and, G. V. Ludwig. 2004b. Monkeypox virus detection in rodents using real-time 3’-minor groove binder TaqMan assays on the Roche LightCycler. Lab. Investig. 84:12001208.
82. Kurth, A.,, J. Achenbach,, L. Miller,, I. M. Mackay,, G. Pauli, and, A. Nitsche. 2008. Orthopoxvirus detection in environmental specimens during suspected bioterror attacks: inhibitory influences of common household products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:3237.
83. Lane, J. M.,, F. L. Ruben,, J. M. Neff, and, J. D. Millar. 1969. Complications of smallpox vaccination, 1968. N. Engl. J. Med. 281:12011208.
84. Learned, L. A.,, M. G. Reynolds,, D. W. Wassa,, Y. Li,, V. A. Olson,, K. Karem,, L. I. Stempora,, Z. H. Braden,, R. Kline,, A. Likos,, F. Libama,, H. Moudzeo,, J. D. Bolanda,, P. Tarangonia,, P. Boumandoki,, P. Formenty,, J. M. Harvey, and, I. K. Damon. 2005. Extended interhuman transmission of monkeypox in a hospital community in the Republic of the Congo, 2003. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73:428434.
85. Lederman, E. R.,, C. Austin,, I. Trevino,, M. G. Reynolds,, H. Swanson,, B. Cherry,, J. Ragsdale,, J. Dunn,, S. Meidl,, H. Zhao,, Y. Li,, H. Pue, and, I. K. Damon. 2007a. ORF virus infection in children: clinical characteristics, transmission, diagnostic methods, and future therapeutics. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:740744.
86. Lederman, E. R.,, G. M. Green,, H. E. DeGroot,, P. Dahl,, E. Goldman,, P. W. Greer,, Y. Li,, H. Zhao,, C. D. Paddock, and, I. K. Damon. 2007b. Progressive ORF virus infection in a patient with lymphoma: successful treatment using imiquimod. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:e100e103.
87. Ledingham, J. C. G. 1931. The aetiological importance of the elementary bodies in vaccinia and fowl-pox. Lancet 218:525526.
88. Lee, H. J.,, K. Essani, and, G. L. Smith. 2001. The genome sequence of Yaba-like disease virus, a yatapoxvirus. Virology 281:170192.
89. Lefkowitz, E. J.,, C. Wang, and, C. Upton. 2006. Poxviruses: past, present and future. Virus Res. 117:105118.
90. Li, Y.,, D. S. Carroll,, S. N. Gardner,, M. C. Walsh,, E. A. Vitalis, and, I. K. Damon. 2007. On the origin of smallpox: correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:1578715792.
91. Li, Y.,, V. A. Olson,, T. Laue,, M. T. Laker, and, I. K. Damon. 2006. Detection of monkeypox virus with real-time PCR assays. J. Clin. Virol. 36:194203.
92. Likos, A. M.,, S. A. Sammons,, V. A. Olson,, A. M. Frace,, Y. Li,, M. Olsen-Rasmussen,, W. Davidson,, R. Galloway,, M. I. Khristova,, M. G. Reynolds,, H. Zhao,, D. S. Carroll,, A. Curns,, P. Formenty,, J. J. Esposito,, R. L. Regnery, and, I. K. Damon. 2005. A tale of two clades: monkeypox viruses. J. Gen. Virol. 86:26612672.
93. Lyttle, D. J.,, K. M. Fraser,, S. B. Fleming,, A. A. Mercer, and, A. J. Robinson. 1994. Homologs of vascular endothelial growth factor are encoded by the poxvirus orf virus. J. Virol. 68:8492.
94. Mahalingam, S.,, P. S. Foster,, M. Lobigs,, J. M. Farber, and, G. Karupiah. 2000. Interferon-inducible chemokines and immunity to poxvirus infections. Immunol. Rev. 177:127133.
95. Marchal, J. 1930. Infectious ectromelia. A hitherto undescribed virus disease of mice. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 33:713728.
96. Marennikova, S. S.,, and S. N. Shchelkunov. 2005. Laboratory diagnostics of human orthopoxvirus infections, p. 303–324. In Orthopoxviruses Pathogenic for Humans. Springer, New York, NY.
97. Margulies, M.,, M. Egholm,, W. E. Altman,, S. Attiya,, J. S. Bader,, L. A. Bemben,, J. Berka,, M. S. Braverman,, Y. J. Chen,, Z. Chen,, S. B. Dewell,, L. Du,, J. M. Fierro,, X. V. Gomes,, B. C. Godwin,, W. He,, S. Helgesen,, C. H. Ho,, G. P. Irzyk,, S. C. Jando,, M. L. Alenquer,, T. P. Jarvie,, K. B. Jirage,, J. B. Kim,, J. R. Knight,, J. R. Lanza,, J. H. Leamon,, S. M. Lefkowitz,, M. Lei,, J. Li,, K. I. Lohman,, H. Lu,, V. B. Makhijani,, K. E. McDade,, M. P. McKenna,, E. W. Myers,, E. Nickerson,, J. R. Nobile,, R. Plant,, B. P. Puc,, M. T. Ronan,, G. T. Roth,, G. J. Sarkis,, J. F. Simons,, J. W. Simpson,, M. Srinivasan,, K. R. Tartaro,, A. Tomasz,, K. A. Vogt,, G. A. Volkmer,, S. H. Wang,, Y. Wang,, M. P. Weiner,, P. Yu,, R. F. Begley, and, J. M. Rothberg. 2005. Genome sequencing in microfabricated high-density picolitre reactors. Nature 437:376380.
98. Mayr, A.,, H. Stickl,, H. K. Muller,, K. Danner, and, H. Singer. 1978. The smallpox vaccination strain MVA: marker, genetic structure, experience gained with the parenteral vaccination and behavior in organisms with a debilitated defence mechanism. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. B 167:375390. (In German.)
99. Mayr, A.,, V. Hochstein-Mintzel, and, H. Stick. 1975. Abstammung, Eigenschaften und Verwendung des attenuierten Vaccinia-Stammes MVA. Infection 3:614.
100. McFadden, G. 1988. Poxvirus of rabbits, p. 37–62. In G. Darai (ed.), Virus Diseases in Laboratory and Captive Animals. Nijhoff, Boston, MA.
101. Mediratta, S.,, and K. Essani. 1999. The replication cycle of tanapox virus in owl monkey kidney cells. Can. J. Microbiol. 45:9296.
102. Mercer, A.,, S. Fleming,, A. Robinson,, P. Nettleton, and, H. Reid. 1997. Molecular genetic analyses of parapoxviruses pathogenic for humans. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 13:2534.
103. Meyer, H.,, I. K. Damon, and, J. J. Esposito. 2004. Orthopox-virus diagnostics. Methods Mol. Biol. 269:119134.
104. Meyer, H.,, M. Pfeffer, and, H. J. Rziha. 1994. Sequence alterations within and downstream of the A-type inclusion protein genes allow differentiation of orthopoxvirus species by polymerase chain reaction. J. Gen. Virol. 75(Pt 8):19751981.
105. Moore, M. J.,, A. Dhingra,, P. S. Soltis,, R. Shaw,, W. G. Farmerie,, K. M. Folta, and, D. E. Soltis. 2006. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes. BMC Plant Biol. 6:17.
106. Morikawa, S.,, T. Sakiyama,, H. Hasegawa,, M. Saijo,, A. Maeda,, I. Kurane,, G. Maeno,, J. Kimura,, C. Hirama,, T. Yoshida,, Y. Sahi-Ozaki,, T. Sata,, T. Kurata, and, A. Kojima. 2005. An attenuated LC16m8 smallpox vaccine: analysis of full-genome sequence and induction of immune protection. J. Virol. 79:1187311891.
107. Moss, B. 2007. Poxviridae: the viruses and their replication, p. 2905–2945. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
108. Mukinda, V. B.,, G. Mwema,, M. Kilundu,, D. L. Heymann,, A. S. Khan,, J. J. Esposito, et al. 1997. Re-emergence of human monkeypox in Zaire in 1996. Lancet 349:14491450.
109. Murphy, J. K.,, and I. G. Ralfs. 1996. Bullous pemphigoid complicating human orf. Br. J. Dermatol. 134:929930.
110. Nagasse-Sugahara, T. K.,, J. J. Kisielius,, M. Ueda-Ito,, S. P. Curti,, C. A. Figueiredo,, A. S. Cruz,, M. M. Silva,, C. H. Ramos,, M. C. Silva,, T. Sakurai, and, L. F. Salles-Gomes. 2004. Human vaccinia-like virus outbreaks in Sao Paulo and Goias States, Brazil: virus detection, isolation and identification. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 46:315322.
111. Nagington, J.,, G. H. Tee, and, J. S. Smith. 1965. Milker’s nodule virus infections in Dorset and their similarity to orf. Nature 208:505507.
112. Nakamura, J.,, Y. Muraki,, M. Yamada,, Y. Hatano, and, S. Nii. 1995. Analysis of molluscum contagiosum virus genomes isolated in Japan. J. Med. Virol. 46:339348.
113. Nakano, J. H. 1979. Poxviruses, p. 257–308. In E. H. Lennette and, N. J. Schmidt (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections. American Public Health Association, Washington. DC.
114. Nazarian, S. H.,, J. W. Barrett,, A. M. Frace,, M. Olsen-Rasmussen,, M. Khristova,, M. Shaban,, S. Neering,, Y. Li,, I. K. Damon,, J. J. Esposito,, K. Essani, and, G. McFadden. 2007. Comparative genetic analysis of genomic DNA sequences of two human isolates of tanapox virus. Virus Res. 129:1125.
115. Nitsche, A.,, A. Kurth, and, G. Pauli. 2007. Viremia in human cowpox virus infection. J. Clin. Virol. 40:160162.
116. Nitsche, A.,, M. Buttner,, S. Wilhelm,, G. Pauli, and, H. Meyer. 2006a. Real-time PCR detection of parapoxvirus DNA. Clin. Chem. 52:316319.
117. Nitsche, A.,, D. Stern,, H. Ellerbrok, and, G. Pauli. 2006b. Detection of infectious poxvirus particles. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:11391141.
118. Nitsche, A.,, B. Steger,, H. Ellerbrok, and, G. Pauli. 2005. Detection of vaccinia virus DNA on the LightCycler by fluorescence melting curve analysis. J. Virol. Methods 126:187195.
119. Nitsche, A.,, H. Ellerbrok, and, G. Pauli. 2004. Detection of orthopoxvirus DNA by real-time PCR and identification of variola virus DNA by melting analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:12071213.
120. Niven, J. S.,, J. A. Armstrong,, C. H. Andrewes,, H. G. Pereira, and, R. C. Valentine. 1961. Subcutaneous “growths” in monkeys produced by a poxvirus. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 81:114.
121. Nunez, A.,, J. M. Funes,, M. Agromayor,, M. Moratilla,, A. J. Varas,, J. L. Lopez-Estebaranz,, M. Esteban, and, A. Martin-Gallardo. 1996. Detection and typing of molluscum contagiosum virus in skin lesions by using a simple lysis method and polymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Virol. 50:342349.
122. Olson, V. A.,, T. Laue,, M. T. Laker,, I. V. Babkin,, C. Drosten,, S. N. Shchelkunov,, M. Niedrig,, I. K. Damon, and, H. Meyer. 2004. Real-time PCR system for detection of orthopoxviruses and simultaneous identification of smallpox virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:19401946.
123. O’Neil, C. A.,, and R. C. Hansen. 1995. Pearly penile papules on the shaft. Arch. Dermatol. 131:491492.
124. Panchanathan, V.,, G. Chaudhri, and, G. Karupiah. 2008. Correlates of protective immunity in poxvirus infection: where does antibody stand? Immunol. Cell Biol. 86:8086.
125. Panning, M.,, M. Asper,, S. Kramme,, H. Schmitz, and, C. Drosten. 2004. Rapid detection and differentiation of human pathogenic orthopox viruses by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer real-time PCR assay. Clin. Chem. 50:702708.
126. Paoletti, E.,, J. Taylor,, B. Meignier,, C. Meric, and, J. Tartaglia. 1995. Highly attenuated poxvirus vectors: NYVAC, ALVAC and TROVAC. Dev. Biol. Stand. 84:159163.
127. Pepose, J. S.,, T. P. Margolis,, P. LaRussa, and, D. Pavan-Langston. 2003. Ocular complications of smallpox vaccination. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136:343352.
128. Peters, D. 1956. Morphology of resting vaccinia virus. Nature 178:14531455.
129. Porter, C. D.,, and L. C. Archard. 1992. Characterisation by restriction mapping of three subtypes of molluscum contagiosum virus. J. Med. Virol. 38:16.
130. Porter, C. D.,, N. W. Blake,, J. J. Cream, and, L. C. Archard. 1992. Molluscum contagiosum virus. Mol. Cell Biol. Hum. Dis. Ser. 1:233257.
131. Postlethwaite, R. 1970. Molluscum contagiosum. Arch. Environ. Health 21:432452.
132. Postlethwaite, R.,, J. A. Watt,, T. G. Hawley,, I. Simpson, and, H. Adam. 1967. Features of molluscum contagiosum in the north-east of Scotland and in Fijian village settlements. J. Hyg. (London) 65:281291.
133. Raja, S.,, J. Ching,, L. Xi,, S. J. Hughes,, R. Chang,, W. Wong,, W. McMillan,, W. F. Gooding,, K. S. McCarty, Jr.,, M. Chestney,, J. D. Luketich, and, T. E. Godfrey. 2005. Technology for automated, rapid, and quantitative PCR or reverse transcription-PCR clinical testing. Clin. Chem. 51:882890.
134. Reed, K. D.,, J. W. Melski,, M. B. Graham,, R. L. Regnery,, M. J. Sotir,, M. V. Wegner,, J. J. Kazmierczak,, E. J. Stratman,, Y. Li,, J. A. Fairley,, G. R. Swain,, V. A. Olson,, E. K. Sargent,, S. C. Kehl,, M. A. Frace,, R. Kline,, S. L. Foldy,, J. P. Davis, and, I. K. Damon. 2004. The detection of monkeypox in humans in the Western Hemisphere. N. Engl. J. Med. 350:342350.
135. Rimoin, A. W.,, N. Kisalu,, B. Kebela-Ilunga,, T. Mukaba,, L. L. Wright,, P. Formenty,, N. D. Wolfe,, R. L. Shongo,, F. Tshioko,, E. Okitolonda,, J. J. Muyembe,, R. W. Ryder, and, H. Meyer. 2007. Endemic human monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001-2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:934937.
136. Robinson, A. J.,, and D. J. Lyttle. 1992. Parapoxviruses: their biology and potential as recombinant vaccines, p. 285–327. In M. M. Binns and, G. L. Smith (ed.), Recombinant Poxviruses. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
137. Robinson, A. J.,, and G. V. Petersen. 1983. Orf virus infection of workers in the meat industry. N. Z. Med. J. 96:8185.
138. Ropp, S. L.,, J. J. Esposito,, V. N. Loparev, and, G. J. Palumbo. 1999. Poxvirus infections in humans, p. 1131–1138. In P. R. Murray (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
139. Ropp, S. L.,, Q. Jin,, J. C. Knight,, R. F. Massung, and, J. J. Esposito. 1995. PCR strategy for identification and differentiation of small pox and other orthopoxviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:20692076.
140. Rotz, L. D.,, D. A. Dotson,, I. K. Damon, and, J. A. Becher. 2001. Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2001. MMWR Recommend. Rep. 50:125.
141. Saijo, M.,, Y. Ami,, Y. Suzaki,, N. Nagata,, N. Iwata,, H. Hasegawa,, M. Ogata,, S. Fukushi,, T. Mizutani,, T. Sata,, T. Kurata,, I. Kurane, and, S. Morikawa. 2006. LC16m8, a highly attenuated vaccinia virus vaccine lacking expression of the membrane protein B5R, protects monkeys from monkeypox. J. Virol. 80:51795188.
142. Saral, Y.,, A. Kalkan,, A. Ozdarendeli,, Y. Bulut, and, M. Z. Doymaz. 2006. Detection of molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) subtype I as a single dominant virus subtype in molluscum lesions from a Turkish population. Arch. Med. Res. 37:388391.
143. Scaramozzino, N.,, A. Ferrier-Rembert,, A. L. Favier,, C. Rothlisberger,, S. Richard,, J. M. Crance,, H. Meyer, and, D. Garin. 2007. Realtime PCR to identify variola virus or other human pathogenic orthopox viruses. Clin. Chem. 53:606613.
144. Schwartz, J. J.,, and P. L. Myskowski. 1992a. Molluscum contagiosum and human immunodeficiency virus. Arch. Dermatol. 128:14071408.
145. Schwartz, J. J.,, and P. L. Myskowski. 1992b. Molluscum contagiosum in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A review of twenty-seven patients. J. Am. Acad Dermatol. 27:583588.
146. Sias, C.,, F. Carletti,, M. R. Capobianchi,, D. Travaglini,, R. Chiappini,, D. Horejsh, and, C. A. Di. 2007. Rapid differential diagnosis of orthopoxviruses and herpesviruses based upon multiplex real-time PCR. Infez. Med. 15:4755. (In Italian.)
147. Snell, E.,, and J. G. Fox. 1961. Molluscum contagiosum venereum. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 85:11521154.
148. Sofi, I. M.,, D. A. Kulesh,, S. S. Saleh,, I. K. Damon,, J. J. Esposito,, A. L. Schmaljohn, and, P. B. Jahrling. 2003. Real-time PCR assay to detect smallpox virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:38353839.
149. Stickl, H.,, V. Hochstein-Mintzel,, A. Mayr,, H. C. Huber,, H. Schafer, and, A. Holzner. 1974. MVA vaccination against smallpox: clinical tests with an attenuated live vaccinia virus strain (MVA). Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 99:23862392. (In German.)
150. Stittelaar, K. J.,, T. Kuiken,, R. L. de Swart,, G. van Amerongen,, H. W. Vos,, H. G. Niesters,, P. van Schalkwijk. T. van der Kwast,, L. S. Wyatt,, B. Moss, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2001. Safety of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in immune-suppressed macaques. Vaccine 19:37003709.
151. Stittelaar, K. J.,, G. van Amerongen., I. Kondova,, T. Kuiken,, R. F. van Lavieren,, F. H. Pistoor,, H. G. Niesters,, G. van Doornum,, B. A. van der Zeijst,, L. Mateo,, P. J. Chaplin, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2005. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus. J. Virol. 79:78457851.
152. Tan, S. T.,, G. B. Blake, and, S. Chambers. 1991. Recurrent orf in an immunocompromised host. Br. J. Plast. Surg. 44:465467.
153. Tartaglia, J.,, W. I. Cox,, J. Taylor,, M. Perkus,, M. Riviere,, B. Meignier, and, E. Paoletti. 1992. Highly attenuated poxvirus vectors. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 8:14451447.
154. Thompson, C. H. 1997. Identification and typing of molluscum contagiosum virus in clinical specimens by polymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Virol. 53:205211.
155. Thompson, C. H.,, R. T. De Zwart-Steffe, and, I. M. Biggs. 1990. Molecular epidemiology of Australian isolates of molluscum contagiosum. J. Med. Virol. 32:19.
156. Torfason, E. G.,, and S. Gunadottir. 2002. Polymerase chain reaction for laboratory diagnosis of orf virus infections. J. Clin. Virol. 24:7984.
157. Tost, J.,, and I. G. Gut. 2005. Genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms by MALDI mass spectrometry in clinical applications. Clin. Biochem. 38:335350.
158. Toutous-Trellu, L.,, B. Hirschel,, V. Piguet,, V. Schiffer,, J. H. Saurat, and, M. Pechere. 2004. Treatment of cutaneous human papilloma virus, poxvirus and herpes simplex virus infections with topical cidofovir in HIV positive patients. Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 131:445449. (In French.)
159. Trama, J. P.,, M. E. Adelson, and, E. Mordechai. 2007. Identification and genotyping of molluscum contagiosum virus from genital swab samples by real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. J. Clin. Virol. 40:325329.
160. Trindade, G. S.,, G. L. Emerson,, D. S. Carroll,, E. G. Kroon, and, I. K. Damon. 2007. Brazilian vaccinia viruses and their origins. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:965972.
161. Trindade, G. S.,, Z. I. Lobato,, B. P. Drumond,, J. A. Leite,, R. C. Trigueiro,, M. I. Guedes,, F. G. da Fonseca,, S. Dos, Jr.,, C. A. Bonjardim,, P. C. Ferreira, and, E. G. Kroon. 2006. Short report: isolation of two vaccinia virus strains from a single bovine vaccinia outbreak in rural area from Brazil: implications on the emergence of zoonotic orthopoxviruses. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:486490.
162. Trizna, Z. 2002. Viral diseases of the skin: diagnosis and antiviral treatment. Paediatr. Drugs 4:919.
163. Ulrich, M. P.,, D. R. Christensen,, S. R. Coyne,, P. D. Craw,, E. A. Henchal,, S. H. Sakai,, D. Swenson,, J. Tholath,, J. Tsai,, A. F. Weir, and, D. A. Norwood. 2006. Evaluation of the Cepheid GeneXpert system for detecting Bacillus anthracis. J. Appl. Microbiol. 100:10111016.
164. Vora, S.,, I. K. Damon,, V. Fulginiti,, S. G. Weber,, M. Kahana,, S. L. Stein,, S. I. Gerber,, S. Garcia-Houchin,, E. R. Lederman,, D. Hruby,, L. Collins,, D. Scott,, K. Thompson,, J. V. Barson,, R. L. Regnery,, C. Hughes,, R. S. Daum,, Y. Li,, H. Zhao,, S. Smith,, Z. Braden,, K. Karem,, V. A. Olson,, W. B. Davidson,, G. Trindade,, T. Bolken,, R. Jordan,, D. Tien, and, J. Marcinak. 2008. Severe eczema vaccinatum in a household contact of a smallpox vaccinee. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:15551561.
165. Watanabe, T.,, S. Morikawa,, K. Suzuki,, T. Miyamura,, K. Tamaki, and, Y. Ueda. 1998. Two major antigenic polypeptides of molluscum contagiosum virus. J. Infect. Dis. 177:284292.
166. Wharton, M.,, R. A. Strikas,, R. Harpaz,, L. D. Rotz,, B. Schwartz,, C. G. Casey,, M. L. Pearson, and, L. J. Anderson. 2003. Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recommend. Rep. 52:116.
167. Wilson, T. M.,, A. D. Boothe, and, N. F. Cheville. 1972a. Seal-pox field survey. J. Wildl. Dis. 8:158160.
168. Wilson, T. M.,, N. F. Cheville, and, A. D. Boothe. 1972b. Seal-pox questionnaire survey. J. Wildl. Dis. 8:15157.
169. Wilson, T. M.,, N. F. Cheville, and, L. Karstad. 1969. Seal pox. Case history. Wildl. Dis. 5:412418.
170. Wittek, R. 2006. Vaccinia immune globulin: current policies, preparedness, and product safety and efficacy. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 10:193201.
171. World Health Organization. 1997a. Human monkeypox in Kasai Oriental, Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire). Preliminary report of October 1997 investigation. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 72:369372.
172. World Health Organization. 1997b. Human monkeypox in Kasai Oriental, Zaire (1996–1997). Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 72:101104.
173. Zimmermann, P.,, I. Thordsen,, D. Frangoulidis, and, H. Meyer. 2005. Real-time PCR assay for the detection of tanapox virus and yaba-like disease virus. J. Virol. Methods 130:149153.


Generic image for table

Historic standards for diagnosis of poxviruses a

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Generic image for table

Poxviruses of the vertebrates a

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29
Generic image for table

Genera of vertebrate poxviruses which infect humans a

Citation: Olson V, Regnery R, Damon I. 2009. Poxviruses, p 523-545. In Specter S, Hodinka R, Young S, Wiedbrauk D (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815974.ch29

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error