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Chapter 2 : Respiratory Infections

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Abstract:

This chapter describes the clinical syndromes of respiratory virus infection, the spectrum of viruses associated with these syndromes, and the pathophysiology of these illnesses. Many of the viruses associated with acute respiratory disease display a significant seasonal variation in incidence, especially in temperate climates. The majority of common colds are associated with infection with rhinoviruses or other picornaviruses, particularly when very sensitive techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are used for diagnosis. Viral pathogens associated with acute pharyngitis are summarized in this chapter. Pharyngitis is a typical component of acute influenza in which individuals experience the sudden onset of systemic symptoms of fever, myalgias, and malaise accompanied by upper respiratory signs and symptoms, including pharyngitis. The majority of cases of inspiratory stridor in children are caused by viral croup. In addition to causing croup and bronchiolitis, viral infection of the trachea and bronchi may cause tracheitis or tracheobronchitis. Antiviral therapy is available for some of the viruses responsible for bronchiolitis, but the use of such therapy for the most common etiology, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), remains controversial. Viral pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with compromised immune systems, with a broader spectrum of viral agents than seen in immunologically intact individuals. The general features of primary viral pneumonia are discussed using influenza as a model. Pathogenesis of other forms of viral pneumonia is also discussed.

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.8368289
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.82321715
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
0.57306945
Viral Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.53689873
Immune Systems
0.4561953
Respiratory Diseases
0.43294838
0.8368289
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Many of the viruses which affect the respiratory tract exhibit a seasonal variation in prevalence. In this figure, numbers of virus isolates from children seen in private pediatric practices in Rochester, NY, are plotted by month of isolation. Data represent the 6-year average from 1990 to 1995 and are expressed as the percentage of all isolates of each virus which occurred in the given month.

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Posteroanterior roentgenogram of the neck of a child with viral croup that shows the characteristic narrowing of the air shadow of the trachea in the subglottic area. (Courtesy of Carolyn B. Hall, University of Rochester.)

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Lateral neck radiograph of the neck of a child with epiglottitis demonstrates the characteristic thickening of the epiglottis in this disease and may be helpful in distinguishing this illness from croup or retropharyngeal abscess. (Courtesy of Carolyn B. Hall, University of Rochester.)

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Pathophysiology of croup. Both mechanical obstruction of airflow and ventilation-perfusion mismatching due to parenchymal infection of the lung are responsible for the hypoxia and respiratory distress of croup. (Modified from reference with permission.)

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

The chest radiograph in bronchiolitis characteristically shows hyperinflation due to obstruction of airflow. A variety of other findings may be present, including interstitial infiltrates or lobar consolidation. (Courtesy of Carolyn B. Hall, University of Rochester.)

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Pathophysiology of bronchiolitis. Viral infection of the lower respiratory tract results in inflammation and increased mucus production. Both airway obstruction and ventilation-perfusion mismatching are responsible for the clinical findings of hypoxia, hyperinflation, and hypoventilation. If uncorrected, these defects can lead to apnea or sudden death. FRC, functional residual capacity; RV, residual volume; A-P, anterior-posterior. (Modified from reference with permission.)

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Estimated frequency with which individual viral respiratory syndromes are caused by specific viral pathogens

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Therapies of potential benefit in viral pneumonia

Citation: Treanor J. 2009. Respiratory Infections, p 7-27. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch2

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