1887

Chapter 20 : Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 (B Virus)

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 (B Virus), Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815981/9781555814250_Chap20-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815981/9781555814250_Chap20-2.gif

Abstract:

B Virus infection in macaques rarely causes disease, and if so, it is in the form of mild ulcerative lesions. B virus polypeptides and glycoproteins can be grouped into classes that differ in their relative rates of synthesis at different times throughout the virus replication cycle, as is characteristic of alphaherpesviruses. During the course of B virus infection, several observations are common to the natural host, the experimentally infected host, and infected humans. B virus is an infection that humans rarely contract, but when they do, 80% of untreated cases result in death. Observations of the clinical pattern of disease are important for rapid diagnosis of B virus infection in both macaques and humans. The neutralization antibody test was the predominant diagnostic tool in macaques and humans for many decades. Currently, the most effective assay for diagnosis of B virus in a nonmacaque is a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to facilitate discrimination between specific and cross-reactive antibodies, similar to the challenge faced when diagnosing infection in humans. Multiple levels of prevention are used to prevent B virus infection in both humans and nonhuman primates, ranging from attempts to eliminate virus from colonies to designing methods to work safely in environments where there is an increased risk for contracting the agent.

Citation: Whitley R. 2009. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 (B Virus), p 437-449. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
0.46237954
Humoral Immune Response
0.43348625
0.46237954
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Vero cell monolayer infected with B virus.

Citation: Whitley R. 2009. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 (B Virus), p 437-449. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch20
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Physical map of B virus as proposed by Harrington and colleagues ( ). (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Whitley R. 2009. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 (B Virus), p 437-449. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch20
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815981.ch20
1. Anderson, D. C.,, R. B. Swenson,, J. L. Orkin,, S. S. Kalter, and, H. M. McClure. 1994. Primary herpesvirus simiae (B-virus) infection in infant macaques. Lab. Anim. Sci. 44:526530.
2. Artenstein, A. W.,, C. B. Hicks,, B. S. Goodwin, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1991. Human infection with B virus following a needlestick injury. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:288291.
3. Benda, R. 1965. Active immunization against an infection caused by the B virus (herpesvirus simiae). I. Experience with the preparation and evaluation of Hull’s formaldehyde vaccine. Cesk. Epidemiol. Mikrobiol. Imunol. 14:330338.
4. Benda, R. 1965. Active immunization against infection caused by B virus (herpesvirus simiae). II. Dynamics of neutralizing antibodies in rabbits immunized with inactivated vaccine and challenged with live virus. Attempts to obtain highly active antiserum against B virus. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 9:487499.
5. Benda, R. 1966. Active immunization against infection caused by B virus (herpesvirus simiae). III. Immunoprophylaxis of inhalation infection in rabbits. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 10:105108.
6. Benda, R.,, M. Fuchsova, and, V. Hronovský. 1969. Course of air-borne infection caused by B virus (herpesvirus simiae). II. Distribution of B virus in the organism of rabbits and histopathological changes in the organs. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 13:214226.
7. Benda, R.,, and V. Hronovský. 1969. Course of air-borne infection caused by B virus (herpesvirus simiae). IV. Role of alveolar macrophages of the lungs in inhalation B-virus infection of rabbits. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 13:493502.
8. Benda, R.,, and F. Polomik. 1969. Course of air-borne infection caused by B virus (herpesvirus simiae). I. Lethal inhalation dose of B virus for rabbits. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 13:2430.
9. Bennett, A. M.,, L. Harrington, and, D. C. Kelly. 1992. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genes encoding glycoproteins D and J in simian herpes B virus. J. Gen. Virol. 73:29632967.
10. Bennett, A. M.,, M. J. Slomka,, D. W. Brown,, G. Lloyd, and, M. Mackett. 1999. Protection against herpes B virus infection in rabbits with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing glycoprotein D. J. Med. Virol. 57:4756.
11. Benson, P. M.,, S. L. Malane,, R. Banks,, C. B. Hicks, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1989. B virus (herpesvirus simiae) and human infection. Arch. Dermatol. 125:12471248.
12. Blewett, E. L.,, D. Black, and, R. Eberle. 1996. Characterization of virus-specific and cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies to herpesvirus simiae (B virus). J. Gen. Virol. 77(11): 27872793.
13. Blewett, E. L.,, J. T. Salifi, and, R. Eberle. 1999. Development of a competitive ELISA for detection of primates infected with monkey B virus (herpesvirus simiae). J. Virol. Methods 77:5967.
14. Boulter, E. A. 1975. The isolation of monkey B virus (herpesvirus simiae) from the trigeminal ganglia of a healthy seropositive rhesus monkey. J. Biol. Stand. 3:279280.
15. Boulter, E. A.,, and D. P. Grant. 1977. Latent infection of monkeys with B virus and prophylactic studies in a rabbit model of this disease. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 3(Suppl. A):107113.
16. Boulter, E. A.,, S. S. Kalter,, R. L. Heberling,, J. E. Guajardo, and, T. L. Lester. 1982. A comparison of neutralization tests for the detection of antibodies to herpesvirus simiae (monkey B virus). Lab. Anim. Sci. 32:150152.
17. Boulter, E. A.,, B. Thornton,, E. J. Bauer, and, A. Bye. 1980. Successful treatment of experimental B virus (herpesvirus simiae) infection with acyclovir. Br. Med. J. 280:681683.
18. Breen, G. E.,, S. G. Lamb, and, A. T. Otaki. 1958. Monkey bite encephalomyelitis: report of a case with recovery. Br. Med. J. 2:2223.
19. Bryan, B. L.,, C. D. Espana,, R. W. Emmons,, N. Vijayan, and, P. D. Hoeprich. 1975. Recovery from encephalomyelitis caused by herpesvirus simiae: report of a case. Arch. Intern. Med. 135:868870.
20. Burnet, F. M.,, D. Lush, and, A. V. Jackson. 1939. The propagation of herpes B and pseudorabies viruses on the chorioallantois. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 17:3552.
21. Burnet, F. M.,, D. Lush, and, A. V. Jackson. 1939. The relationship of herpes and B viruses: immunological and epidemiological considerations. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 17:4151.
22. Carlson, C. S.,, M. G. O’Sullivan,, M. J. Jayo,, D. K. Anderson,, E. S. Harver,, W. G. Jerome,, B. C. Bullock, and, R. L. Heberling. 1997. Fatal disseminated Cercopithecine herpes virus 1 (herpes B) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Vet. Pathol. 34:405414.
23. Centers for Disease Control. 1987. Guidelines for prevention of herpesvirus simiae (B virus) infection in monkey handlers. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 36:680687.
24. Centers for Disease Control. 1987. Leads from the MMWR. Guidelines for prevention of herpesvirus simiae (B virus) infection in monkey handlers. JAMA 258:34933495.
25. Centers for Disease Control. 1995. Publication of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B virus infections in exposed persons. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:9697.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Fatal Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection following a mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for worker protection. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47:10731076.
27. Chapman, L. E.,, and C. J. Peter. 1987. Human infections caused by simian herpesviruses, p. 1508–1509. In D. J. Weatherall,, J. G. G. Ledingham, and, D. A. Warrell (ed.), Oxford Textbook of Medicine, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Headington, United Kingdom.
28. Chappell, W. A. 1960. Animal infectivity of aerosols of monkey B virus. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 851:931934.
29. Chellman, G. J.,, V. S. Lukas,, E. M. Eugui,, K. P. Altera,, S. J. Almquist, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1992. Activation of B virus (herpesvirus simiae) in chronically immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys. Lab. Anim. Sci. 42:146151.
30. Cole, W. C.,, R. E. Bostrom, and, R. A. J. Whitney. 1968. Diagnosis and handling of B virus in a rhesus monkey. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 153:894898.
31. Collins, P. 1983. The spectrum of antiviral activities of acyclovir in vitro and in vivo. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 12(Suppl. B):1927.
32. Cropper, L. M.,, D. N. Lees,, R. Patt,, I. R. Sharp, and, D. Brown. 1992. Monoclonal antibodies for the identification of herpesvirus simiae (B virus). Arch. Virol. 123:266277.
33. Daniel, M. D.,, F. G. Garcia,, L. V. Melendez,, R. D. Hunt,, J. O’Connor, and, D. Silva. 1975. Multiple herpesvirus simiae isolation from a rhesus monkey which died of cerebral infarction. Lab. Anim. Sci. 25:303308.
34. Davenport, D. S.,, D. R. Johnson,, G. P. Holmes,, D. Jewitt,, S. C. Ross, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1994. Diagnosis and management of human B virus (herpesvirus simiae) infections in Michigan. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:3341.
35. Davidson, W. L.,, and K. Hummeler. 1960. B virus infection in man. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 85:970979.
36. Eberle, R.,, D. Black, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1989. Relatedness of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of simian herpesvirus virions and infected cells to specific HSV glycoproteins. Arch. Virol. 109:233252.
37. Eberle, R.,, D. H. Black,, S. Lipper, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1995. Herpesvirus papio 2, an SA8-like alphaherpesvirus of baboons. Arch. Virol. 140:529545.
38. Eberle, R.,, and J. Hilliard. 1989. Serological evidence for variation in the incidence of herpesvirus infections in different species of apes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:13571366.
39. Eberle, R.,, and J. Hilliard. 1995. The simian herpesviruses. Infect. Agents Dis. 45:5570.
40. Eberle, R.,, B. Tanamachi,, D. Black,, E. L. Blewett,, M. Ali,, H. Openshaw, and, E. M. Cantin. 1997. Genetic and functional complementation of the HSV1 UL27 gene and gB glycoprotein by simian alpha-herpesvirus homologs. Arch. Virol. 142:721736.
41. Endo, M.,, T. Kamimura,, Y. Aoyama,, T. Hayashida,, T. Kinyo,, Y. Ono,, S. Kotera,, K. Suzuki,, Y. Tajima, and, K. Ando. 1960. Etude du virus B au Japon. 1. Recherche des anticorps neutralisant le irus B chez les singes d’origine Japonaise et les singes etrangers au Japon. Jpn. J. Exp. Med. 30:227233.
42. Endo, M.,, T. Kamimura,, N. Kusano,, K. Kawai,, Y. Aoyama,, K. Suzuki, and, S. Kotera. 1960. Etude du virus B au Japon. II. Le premier insolement du virus B au Japon. Jpn. Exp. Med. 30:385392.
43. Espana, C. 1973. Herpesvirus simiae infection in Macaca radiata. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 38:447454.
44. Espana, C. 1974. Viral epizootics in captive nonhuman primates. Lab. Anim. Sci. 24:167176.
45. Fierer, J.,, P. Bazeley, and, A. E. Braude. 1973. Herpes B virus encephalomyelitis presenting as ophthalmic zoster. Ann. Intern. Med. 79:225228.
46. Freifeld, A. G.,, J. Hilliard,, J. Southers,, M. Murray,, B. Savarese,, J. M. Schmitt, and, S. E. Straus. 1995. A controlled seroprevalence survey of primate handlers for evidence of asymptomatic herpes B virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 171:10311034.
47. Gay, F. P.,, and M. Holden. 1933. The herpes encephalitis problem. J. Infect. Dis. 53:287303.
48. Gay, F. P.,, and M. Holden. 1933. Isolation of herpes virus from several cases of epidemic encephalitis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 30:10511053.
49. Gosztonyi, G.,, D. Falke, and, H. Ludwig. 1992. Axonal and transsynaptic (transneuronal) spread of herpesvirus simiae (B virus) in experimentally infected mice. Histol. Histopathol. 7:6374.
50. Gosztonyi, G.,, D. Falke, and, H. Ludwig. 1992. Axonaltranssynaptic spread as the basic pathogenetic mechanism in B virus infection of the nervous system. J. Med. Primatol. 21:4243.
51. Gralla, E. J.,, S. J. Ciecura, and, C. S. Delahunt. 1966. Extended B-virus antibody determinations in a closed monkey colony. Lab. Anim. Sci. 16:510516.
52. Harrington, L.,, L. V. Wall, and, D. C. Kelly. 1992. Molecular cloning and physical mapping of the genome of simian herpes B virus and comparison of genome organization with that of herpes simplex virus type 1. J. Gen. Virol. 73:12171226.
53. Heberling, R. L. 1986. Dot immunobinding assay of viral antigens and antibodies. Dev. Biol. Stand. 64:199203.
54. Heberling, R. L.,, and S. S. Kalter. 1987. A dotimmunoblotting assay on nitrocellulose with psoralen inactivated herpesvirus simiae (B virus). Lab. Anim. Sci. 37:304308.
55. Hilliard, J. K.,, D. Black, and, R. Eberle. 1989. Simian alphaherpesviruses and their relation to the human herpes simplex viruses. Arch. Virol. 109:83102.
56. Hilliard, J. K.,, R. Eberle,, S. L. Lipper,, R. M. Monoz, and, S. A. Weiss. 1987. Herpesvirus simiae (B virus): replication of the virus and identification of viral polypeptides in infected cells. Arch. Virol. 93:185198.
57. Hilliard, J. K.,, R. M. Munoz,, S. L. Lipper, and, R. Eberle. 1986. Rapid identification of herpesvirus simiae (B virus) DNA from clinical isolates in nonhuman primate colonies. J. Virol. Methods 13:5562.
58. Hilliard, J. K.,, and J. A. Ward. 1999. B virus specific-pathogen-free breeding colonies of macaques (Macaca mulatta): retrospective study of seven years of testing. Lab. Anim. Sci. 49:144148.
59. Hilliard, J. K.,, and B. J. Weigler. 1999. The existence of differing monkey B virus genotypes with possible implications for degree of virulence in humans. Lab. Anim. Sci. 49:1011.
60. Holmes, G. P.,, L. E. Chapman,, J. E. Stewart,, S. E. Straus,, J. K. Hilliard,, D. S. Davenport, and the B Virus Working Group. 1995. Guidelines for preventing and treating B virus infections in exposed persons. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:421439.
61. Holmes, G. P.,, J. K. Hilliard, and, K. C. Klontz. 1990. B virus (herpes virus simiae) infection in humans: epidemiologic investigation of a cluster. Ann. Intern. Med. 112:833839.
62. Hopps, H. E.,, B. C. Bernheim,, A. Nisalak,, J. H. Tijo, and, J. E. Smadel. 1963. Biologic characteristics of a continuous kidney cell line derived from the African green monkey. J. Immunol. 91:416424.
63. Hull, R. N. 1971. B virus vaccines. Lab. Anim. Sci. 21:10681071.
64. Hull, R. N. 1973. The simian herpesviruses, p. 389–425. In A. S. Kaplan (ed.), The Herpesviruses. Academic Press, New York, NY.
65. Hull, R. N.,, J. R. Minner, and, C. C. Mascoli. 1958. New viral agents recovered from tissue cultures of monkey kidney cells. III. Recovery of additional agents both from cultures of monkey tissues and directly from tissues and excreta. Am. J. Hyg. 68:3144.
66. Hull, R. N.,, and J. C. Nash. 1960. Immunization against B virus infection. I. Preparation of an experimental vaccine. Am. J. Hyg. 71:1528.
67. Hull, R. N.,, F. B. Peck, Jr.,, T. G. Ward, and, J. C. Nash. 1962. Immunization against B virus infection. II. Further laboratory and clinical studies with an experimental vaccine. Am. J. Hyg. 76:239251.
68. Hummeler, K.,, W. L. Davidson,, W. Henle,, A. C. LaBoccetta, and, H. G. Rush. 1959. Encephalomyelitis due to infection with herpesvirus simiae (herpes B virus): a report of two fatal, laboratory acquired cases. N. Engl. J. Med. 261:6468.
69. Jainkittivong, A.,, and R. P. Langlais. 1998. Herpes B virus infection. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 85:399403.
70. Kalter, S. S.,, and R. L. Heberling. 1971. Comparative virology of primates. Bacteriol. Rev. 35:310364.
71. Katz, D.,, J. K. Hilliard,, R. Eberle, and, S. L. Lipper. 1986. ELISA for detection of group-common and virus-specific antibodies in human and simian sera induced by herpes simplex and related simian viruses. J. Virol. Methods 14:99109.
72. Katz, D.,, J. K. Hilliard,, R. R. Mirkovic, and, R. A. Word. 1986. ELISA for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human sera. J. Virol. Methods 14:4355.
73. Keeble, S. A. 1960. B virus infection in monkeys. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 85:960969.
74. Keeble, S. A.,, G. J. Christofinis, and, W. Wood. 1958. Natural virus B infection in rhesus monkeys. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 76:189199.
75. Kessler, M. J.,, and J. K. Hilliard. 1990. Seroprevalence of B virus (herpesvirus simiae) antibodies in a naturally formed group of rhesus macaques. J. Med. Primatol. 19:155160.
76. Killeen, A. M.,, L. Harrington,, L. V. Wall, and, D. C. Kelly. 1992. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a homologue of herpes simplex virus type 1 gene US9 found in the genome of simian herpes B virus. J. Gen. Virol. 73:195199.
77. Kohn, A. 1975. Latency of simian herpes in rabbits. Harefuah 89:430.
78. Krech, U.,, and L. J. Lewis. 1954. Propagation of B virus in tissue culture. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 87:174178.
79. Lees, D. N. 1991. Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) antibody response and virus shedding in experimental primary infection of cynomolgus monkeys. Lab. Anim. Sci. 41:360364.
80. Loomis, M. R.,, T. O’Neill,, M. Bush, and, R. J. Montali. 1981. Fatal herpesvirus infection in patas monkeys and a black and white colobus monkey. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179:12361239.
81. Ludwig, H.,, G. Pauli,, B. Norrild,, B. F. Vestergaard, and, M. D. Daniel. 1978. Immunological characterization of a common antigen present in herpes simplex virus, bovine mammillitis virus and herpesvirus simiae (B virus). IARC Sci. Publ. 24:235241.
82. McCarthy, K.,, and F. A. Tosolini. 1975. A review of primate herpes viruses. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 68:145150.
83. McClure, H. M.,, B. Olberding, and, L. M. Strozier. 1973. Disseminated herpesvirus infection in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). J. Med. Primatol. 2:190194.
84. Melnick, J. L.,, and D. D. Banker. 1954. Isolation of B virus (herpes group) from the central nervous system of a rhesus monkey. J. Exp. Med. 100:181194.
85. Nagler, F. P.,, and M. Klotz. 1958. A fatal B virus infection in a person subject to recurrent herpes labialis. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 79:743745.
86. Nanda, M.,, V. T. Curtin,, J. K. Hilliard,, N. D. Bernstein, and, R. D. Dix. 1990. Ocular histopathologic findings in a case of human herpes B virus. Arch. Ophthalmol. 108:713716.
87. Norcott, J. P.,, and D. W. Brown. 1993. Competitive radioimmunoassay to detect antibodies to herpes B virus and SA8 virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:931935.
88. Norrild, B.,, H. Ludwig, and, R. Rott. 1978. Identification of a common antigen of herpes simplex virus, bovine herpes mammillitis virus, and B virus. J. Virol. 26:712717.
89. Ohsawa, K.,, T. W. Lehenbauer, and, R. Eberle. 1999. Herpesvirus papio 2: alternative antigen for use in monkey B virus diagnostic assays. Lab. Anim. Sci. 49:605616.
90. Palmer, A. E. 1987. B virus, herpesvirus simiae: historical perspective. J. Med. Primatol. 16:99130.
91. Pierce, E. C.,, J. D. Pierce, and, R. N. Hull. 1958. B virus: its current significance, description and diagnosis of a fatal human infection. Am. J. Hyg. 68:242250.
92. Reagan, R. L.,, W. C. Day,, M. P. Harmon, and, A. L. Bruecker. 1952. Adaptation of ‘B’ virus to the Swiss albino mouse. J. Gen. Microbiol. 7:827828.
93. Reagan, R. L.,, W. C. Day,, M. P. Harmon, and, A. L. Bruecker. 1952. Effect of “gb” virus (strain no. 1) in the Syrian hamster. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1:987989.
94. Reissig, M.,, and J. L. Melnick. 1955. The cellular changes produced in tissue cultures by herpes B virus correlated with concurrent multiplication of the virus. J. Exp. Med. 101:341351.
95. Roth, A. M.,, and T. W. Purcell. 1977. Ocular findings associated with encephalomyelitis caused by herpesvirus simiae. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 84:345348.
96. Ruebner, B. H.,, D. Kevereux,, M. Rorvik,, C. Espana, and, J. F. Brown. 1975. Ultrastructure of herpesvirus simiae (herpes B virus). Exp. Mol. Pathol. 22:317325.
97. Sabin, A. B. 1934. Studies on the B virus. I. The immunological identity of a virus isolated from a human case of ascending myelitis associated with visceral necrosis. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 15:248268.
98. Sabin, A. B. 1934. Studies on the B virus. II. Properties of the virus and pathogenesis of the experimental disease in rabbits. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 15:269279.
99. Sabin, A. B. 1934. Studies on the B virus. III. The experimental disease in macacus rhesus monkeys. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 15:321334.
100. Sabin, A. B. 1949. Fatal B virus encephalomyelitis in a physician working with monkeys. J. Clin. Investig. 28:808.
101. Sabin, A. B.,, and M. W. Wright. 1934. Acute ascending myelitis following a monkey bite, with the isolation of a virus capable of reproducing the disease. J. Exp. Med. 59:115136.
102. Sabin, A. B.,, and W. E. Hurst. 1935. Studies on the B virus. IV. Histopathology of the experimental disease in rhesus monkeys and rabbits. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 16:133148.
103. Sasagawa, A. 1986. Herpes simplex virus complement fixing antibody and herpes B virus serum neutralizing antibody in sera of wild and laboratory-bred cynomolgus monkeys. Jikken Dobutsu 35:5963.
104. Scinicariello, F.,, R. Eberle, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1993. Rapid detection of B virus (herpesvirus simiae) DNA by polymerase chain reaction. J. Infect. Dis. 168:747750.
105. Scinicariello, F.,, W. J. English, and, J. Hilliard. 1993. Identification by PCR of meningitis caused by herpes B virus. Lancet 341:16601661. (Letter.)
106. Shah, K. V.,, and C. H. Southwick. 1965. Prevalence of antibodies to certain viruses in sera of free-living rhesus and of captive monkeys. Indian J. Med. Res. 35:488500.
107. Simon, M. A.,, M. D. Daniel,, D. Lee-Parritz,, N. W. King, and, D. J. Ringler. 1993. Disseminated B virus infection in a cynomolgus monkey. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:545550.
108. Slomka, M. J.,, L. Harrington,, C. Arnold,, J. P. Norcott, and, D. W. Brown. 1995. Complete nucleotide sequence of the herpesvirus simiae glycoprotein G gene and its expression as an immunogenic fusion protein in bacteria. J. Gen. Virol. 76:21612168.
109. Smith, A. L.,, D. H. Black, and, R. Eberle. 1998. Molecular evidence for distinct genotypes of monkey B virus (herpesvirus simiae) which are related to the macaque host species. J. Virol. 72:92249232.
110. Thompson, S. A.,, J. K. Hilliard,, D. Kittel,, J. Foster,, S. Lipper,, W. E. Giddens, Jr.,, D. H. Black, and, R. Eberle. 2000. Retrospective analysis of an outbreak of B virus in a colony of DeBrazza’s monkeys. Comp. Med. 50:649657.
111. Tribe, G. W. 1982. The pathogenesis and epidemiology of B-virus. J. Inst. Anim. Tech. 33:14.
112. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
113. van Hoosier, G. L.,, and J. L. Melnick. 1961. Neutralizing antibodies in human sera to herpesvirus simiae. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 19:376380.
114. Vizoso, A. D. 1974. Heterogeneity in herpes simiae (B virus) and some antigenic relationship in the herpes group. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 55:471477.
115. Vizoso, A. D. 1975. Latency of herpes simiae (B virus) in rabbits. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 56:489494.
116. Vizoso, A. D. 1975. Recovery of herpesvirus simiae (B virus) from both primary and latent infections in rhesus monkeys. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 56:485488.
117. Weigler, B. J. 1992. Biology of B virus in macaques and human hosts: a review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:555567.
118. Weigler, B. J.,, D. W. Hird,, J. K. Hilliard,, N. W. Lerche,, J. A. Roberts, and, L. M. Scott. 1993. Epidemiology of Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection and shedding in a large breeding cohort of rhesus macaques. J. Infect. Dis. 167:257263.
119. Weigler, B. J.,, J. A. Roberts,, D. W. Hird,, N. W. Lerche, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1990. A cross sectional survey for B virus antibody in a colony of group housed rhesus macaques. Lab. Anim. Sci. 40:257261.
120. Weigler, B. J.,, F. Scinicariello, and, J. K. Hilliard. 1995. Risk of venereal B virus (cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) transmission in rhesus monkeys using molecular epidemiology. J. Infect. Dis. 171:11391143.
121. Weir, E. C.,, P. N. Bhatt,, R. O. Jacoby,, J. K. Hilliard, and, S. Morgenstern. 1993. Infrequent shedding and transmission of herpesvirus simiae from seropositive macaques. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:541544.
122. Weller, T. H.,, and R. Pearson. 1972. Herpes-like simian viruses: retrospective and prospective considerations. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49:209211.
123. Wilson, R. B.,, M. A. Holscher,, T. Chang, and, J. R. Hodges. 1990. Fatal herpesvirae simiae (B virus) infection in a patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas). J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 2:242244.
124. Wood, W.,, and F. T. Shimada. 1954. Isolation of strains of virus B from tissue cultures of cynomolgus and rhesus kidney. Can. J. Public Health 45:509518.
125. Zwartouw, H. T.,, and E. A. Boulter. 1984. Excretion of B virus in monkeys and evidence of genital infection. Lab. Anim. 18:6570.
126. Zwartouw, H. T.,, C. R. Humphreys, and, P. Collins. 1989. Oral chemotherapy of fatal B virus (herpesvirus simiae) infection. Antivir. Res. 11:275283.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Hybridization of plasmids containing HSV-1 DNA fragments to simian herpes B virus DNA blot membranes

Citation: Whitley R. 2009. Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1 (B Virus), p 437-449. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch20

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error