1887

Chapter 36 : Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815981/9781555814250_Chap36-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555815981/9781555814250_Chap36-2.gif

Abstract:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and the parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) are the most important causes of lower respiratory tract illnesses in infants and children. RSV comprises of two heterotypic strains of viruses that are antigenically distinct, classified as subgroups A and B. The major difference between these subgroups is the antigenic properties of the G surface glycoprotein protein. Immune responses to the two PIV surface glycoproteins, hemagglutininneuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F), also appear to correlate with protection against infection. Importantly, respiratory diseases remain the most significant cause of mortality in young children worldwide, with an estimated 3 million to 4 million children under 5 years of age dying annually. RSV, PIV, and hMPV are the most important causes of lower respiratory tract disease in children. All these viruses spread primarily from cell to cell in the upper respiratory tract and at times progress to the lower respiratory tract. The inoculum size is an important variable for achieving RSV and PIV infections in adults and possibly infants and children. In lung transplant recipients infected with hMPV, both acute and organizing lung injury occur, with diffuse alveolar damage and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The majority of children infected with hMPV can be managed at home with supportive care. For infants and children who require hospitalization, therapy is supportive, including supplementary oxygen and intravenous hydration.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36

Key Concept Ranking

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.5958436
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.57734114
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.44510138
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
0.40080544
0.5958436
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Schematic presentation of the structure of viruses of the family including PIVs and RSV. L, large protein of the polymerase complex; NP or N, nucleoprotein; P, phosphoprotein. HN is an attachment protein for PIV, and G protein is an attachment protein for RSV.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic presentation of the genomes of PIV type 3 and RSV. Abbreviations: NP, nucleoprotein; P+C, small proteins of the polymerase complex; M, matrix; F, fusion; HN, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase; L, large protein of the polymerase complex; NS, nonstructural proteins; N, nucleoprotein; P, phosphoprotein; SH, strongly hydrophobic protein; G, attachment protein; M2, small envelope protein. (Data from references and .)

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Schematic presentation of the replication strategy of viruses of the family (–), negative sense; (+), positive sense. (Data from reference .)

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Characteristic histopathological changes of the airways of an infant with bronchiolitis due to RSV infection. Note the peribronchial mononuclear cell inflammation, relatively normal alveoli, and focal ulceration on top with regenerative epithelial changes. Hematoxylin and eosin stain; magnification, ×45.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Histopathological features of resolving RSV bronchiolitis in an infant. Note the plug of mucus and cellular debris in a terminal respiratory bronchus. Hematoxylin and eosin stain; magnification, ×144.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Histopathology in an infant with congenital immunodeficiency and RSV pneumonia. Note the plugging of a terminal bronchus by cellular debris and parenchymal infiltration with necrosis. Hematoxylin and eosin stain; magnification, ×72.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Chest radiograph of an infant with bronchiolitis due to RSV. Peribronchial thickening with hyperaeration and flattened diaphragms bilaterally are evident. (Reprinted from reference with permission of Elsevier.)

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Posterior-anterior (A) and lateral (B) chest radiographs of an infant with bronchiolitis and pneumonia due to RSV. Bilateral perihilar and peribronchial infiltrations and partial or segmental atelectasis of the right middle and right upper lobes are evident. (Reprinted from reference with permission of Elsevier.)

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Chest radiograph of a child with croup due to PIV type 1. Peribronchial thickening, scattered infiltrates, and marked narrowing of the superior portion of the trachea (arrow) are evident.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Chest radiograph of an infant with pneumonia due to PIV type 3. Right upper lobe atelectasis and multilobar infiltrates are evident.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Chest radiographs of a 6-month-old infant with bronchiolitis due to hMPV. Peribronchial thickening and hyperinflation are evident.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Cytopathic effect of RSV in cell culture on a continuous human epithelial cell line (HEp-2 cells) after 1 week of incubation. Large syncytial cells are evident, with ballooning and coalescence of RSV-infected cells.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

(Left) Cytopathic effect of hMPV in cell culture on a continuous monkey kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-MK2 cells) after 14 days of incubation. (Right) Rounding up and detachment of cells are evident, with developing syncytia.

Citation: Williams J, Piedra P, Englund J. 2009. Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human Metapneumovirus, and Parainfluenza Viruses, p 817-847. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555815981.ch36
1. Agah, R.,, J. D. Cherry,, A. Garakian, and, M. Chapin. 1987. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection rate in personnel caring for children with RSV infections. Routine isolation procedure vs routine procedure supplemented by use of masks and goggles. Am. J. Dis. Child. 141:695697.
2. Aherne, W.,, T. Bird,, S. Court,, P. S. Gardner, and, J. McQuillin. 1970. Pathological changes in virus infection of the lower respiratory tract in children. J. Clin. Pathol. 23:718.
3. Ahluwalia, G.,, J. Embree,, P. McNicol,, B. Law, and, G. W. Hammond. 1987. Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasopharyngeal swab specimens for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis by cell culture, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:763767.
4. Alvarez, R.,, K. S. Harrod,, W. J. Shieh,, S. Zaki, and, R. A. Tripp. 2004. Human metapneumovirus persists in BALB/c mice despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. J. Virol. 78:1400314011.
5. Ambrose, C.,, P. R. Wyde,, M. Ewasyshyn,, A. Bonneau,, B. Caplan,, H. Meyer, and, M. Klein. 1991. Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a candidate parainfluenza virus type 3 subunit vaccine in cotton rats. Vaccine 9:505511.
6. American Academy of Pediatrics. 1994. Parainfluenza virus infections, p. 341. In G. Peter (ed.), Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.
7. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2006. Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 118:17741793.
8. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. 1998. Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections. Pediatrics 102:12111216.
9. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. 1996. Reassessment of the indications for ribavirin therapy in respiratory syncytial virus infections. Pediatrics 97:137.
10. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases. 1993. Use of ribavirin in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatrics 92:501.
11. Anas, N.,, C. Boettrich,, C. B. Hall, and, J. G. Brooks. 1982. The association of apnea and respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants. J. Pediatr. 101:6568.
12. Anderson, L.,, C. Tsou,, C. Potter,, H. L. Keyserling,, T. F. Smith,, G. Ananaba, and, C. R. Bangham. 1994. Cytokine response to respiratory syncytial virus stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Infect. Dis. 170:12011208.
13. Apalsch, A. M.,, M. Green,, J. Ledesma-Medina,, B. Nour, and, E. R. Wald. 1995. Parainfluenza and influenza virus infections in pediatric organ transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:394399.
14. Bangham, C. R.,, P. J. Openshaw,, L. A. Ball,, A. M. King,, G. W. Wertz, and, B. A. Askonas. 1986. Human and murine cytotoxic T cells specific to respiratory syncytial virus recognize the viral nucleoprotein (N), but not the major glycoprotein (G), expressed by vaccinia virus recombinants. J. Immunol. 137:39733977.
15. Baxter, B. D.,, R. B. Couch,, S. B. Greenberg, and, J. A. Kasel. 1977. Maintenance of viability and comparison of identification methods for influenza and other respiratory viruses of humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6:1922.
16. Becker, S.,, H. Koren, and, D. Henke. 1993. Interleukin-8 expression in normal nasal epithelium and its modulation by infection with respiratory syncytial virus and cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 8:2027.
17. Becker, S.,, J. Quay, and, J. Soukup. 1991. Cytokine (tumor necrosis factor, IL-6 and IL-8) production by respiratory syncytial virus-infected human alveolar macrophages. J. Immunol. 147:43074312.
18. Beeler, J. A.,, and K. van Wyke Coelingh. 1989. Neutralization epitopes of the F glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus: effect of mutation upon fusion function. J. Virol. 63:29412950.
19. Beem, M.,, F. H. Wright,, D. Hamre,, M. Clements,, M. Wilson,, S. Hall, and, E. Tierny. 1960. Association of the chimpanzee coryza agent with acute respiratory disease in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 263:523.
20. Bennett, B. L.,, R. P. Garofalo,, S. G. Cron,, Y. M. Hosakote,, R. L. Atmar,, C. G. Macias, and, P. A. Piedra. 2007. Immunopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J. Infect. Dis. 195:15321540.
21. Berthaume, L.,, J. Poncas, and, V. Pavilanis. 1974. Comparative structure, morphogenesis, and biological characteristics of the respiratory syncytial (RS) and pneumonia virus of mice. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 45:3951.
22. Boeckh, M.,, J. Englund,, Y. Li,, C. Miller,, A. Cross,, H. Fernandez,, J. Kuypers,, H. Kim,, J. Gnann, and, R. Whitley. 2007. Randomized controlled multicenter trial of aerosolized ribavirin for respiratory syncytial virus upper respiratory tract infection in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:245249.
23. Bont, L.,, C. Heijnen,, A. Kavelaars,, W. van Aaldern,, F. Brus,, J. Draaisma,, S. Geelen, and, H. van Vught. 1999. Peripheral blood cytokine responses and disease severity in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Eur. Respir. J. 14:144149.
24. Bont, L.,, A. Kavelaars,, C. Heijnen,, H. van Vught, and, J. L. Kimpen. 2000. Monocyte interleukin-12 production is inversely related to duration of respiratory failure in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J. Infect. Dis. 181:17721775.
25. Bosis, S.,, S. Esposito,, H. G. Niesters,, P. Crovari,, A. D. Osterhaus, and, N. Principi. 2005. Impact of human metapneumovirus in childhood: comparison with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza viruses. J. Med. Virol. 75:101104.
26. Bourchier, D.,, K. P. Dawson, and, D. M. Ferguson. 1984. Humidification in viral croup: a controlled trial. Aust. Paediatr. 20:289291.
27. Bradley, J. 1990. Environmental exposure to ribavirin aerosol. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9:595598.
28. Cane, P. A.,, B. G. van den Hoogen,, S. Chakrabarti,, C. D. Fegan, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2003. Human metapneumovirus in a haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with fatal lower respiratory tract disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 31:309310.
29. Canonico, M.,, M. Kende, and, J. W. Huggins. 1984. Toxicology and pharmacology of ribavirin in experimental animals, p. 65. In R. Smith,, V. Knight, and, J. Smith (ed.), Clinical Applications of Ribavirin. Academic Press, New York, NY.
30. Capasso, M.,, R. A. Avvisati,, C. Piscopo,, N. Laforgia,, F. Raimondi,, F. de Angelis, and, A. Iolascon. 2007. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in Italian preterm infants: association between interleukin-10 –1082 G/A polymorphism and respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr. Res. 61:313317.
31. Carmack, M.,, and C. G. Prober. 1992. Respiratory syncytial virus and ribavirin quo vad. Infect. Agents Dis. 1:99107.
32. Cash, P.,, W. H. Wunner, and, C. R. Pringle. 1977. A comparison of the polypeptides of human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses and murine pneumonia virus. Virology 82:369379.
33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Infectious Disease Society of America, and American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2000. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. Recomm. Rep. 49:1128, CE1–CE7.
34. Cevenini, R.,, M. Donati,, S. Bertini,, A. Moroni, and, V. Sambri. 1986. Capture-ELISA for sera IgM antibody to respiratory syncytial virus. J. Hyg. Camb. 97:5111.
35. Chan, P. K.,, R. Y. Sung,, K. S. Fung,, M. Hui,, K. W. Chik,, F. A. Adeyemi-Doro, and, A. F. Cheng. 1999. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection among paediatric patients in Hong Kong: seasonality and disease impact. Epidemiol. Infect. 123:257262.
36. Chanock, R. M. 1956. Association of a new type of cytopathogenic myxovirus with infantile croup. J. Exp. Med. 104:555576.
37. Chanock, R. M.,, H. Kim,, A. Vargosko,, A. Deleva,, K. M. Johnson,, C. Cumming, and, R. H. Parrott. 1961. Respiratory syncytial virus: virus recovery and other observations during 1960 outbreak of bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and minor respiratory diseases in children. JAMA 176:647653.
38. Chanock, R. M.,, R. H. Parrott,, K. Cook,, B. E. Andrews,, J. A. Bella,, T Reichelderfer,, A. Z. Kapikian,, F. M. Mastrota, and, R. J. Huebner. 1958. Newly recognized myxoviruses from children with respiratory disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 258:207213.
39. Chanock, R. M.,, D. C. Wong,, R. J. Huebner, and, J. A. Bell. 1960. Serologic response in individuals infected with parainfluenza viruses. Am. J. Public Health 50:18581865.
40. Cherrie, A. H.,, K. Anderson,, G. W. Wertz, and, P. J. M. Openshaw. 1992. Human cytotoxic T cells stimulated by antigen on dendritic cells recognize the N, SH, F, M, 22K, and 1b proteins of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Virol. 66:21022110.
41. Chin, J.,, R. L. Magoffin,, L. A. Shearer,, J. H. Schieble, and, E. H. Lennette. 1969. Field evaluation of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine and a trivalent parainfluenzavirus vaccine in a pediatric population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 89:449463.
42. Chipps, B.,, W. Sullivan, and, J. Portnoy. 1993. Alpha-2A-interferon for treatment of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12:653658.
43. Collins, P. L.,, R. M. Chanock, and, K. McIntosh. 1996. Parainfluenza viruses, p. 1205. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe, and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
44. Collins, P. L.,, K. McIntosh, and, R. M. Chanock. 1996. Respiratory syncytial virus, p. 1313. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe, and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
45. Cooney, M. K.,, J. P. Fox, and, C. E. Hall. 1975. The Seattle Virus Watch. VI. Observations of infections with an illness due to influenza, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Am. J. Epidemiol. 101:532551.
46. Cote, S.,, Y. Abed, and, G. Boivin. 2003. Comparative evaluation of real-time PCR assays for detection of the human metapneumovirus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:36313635.
47. Couch, R. B.,, J. A. Englund, and, E. Whimbey. 1997. Respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. Am. J. Med. 102:29; discussion, 25–26.
48. Crowe, J. E., Jr. 1995. Current approaches to the development of vaccines against disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV). A meeting report of the WHO Programme for Vaccine Development. Vaccine 13:415521.
49. Cseke, G.,, D. W. Wright,, S. J. Tollefson,, J. E. Johnson,, J. E. Crowe, Jr., and, J. V. Williams. 2007. Human metapneumovirus fusion protein vaccines that are immunogenic and protective in cotton rats. J. Virol. 81:698707.
50. Dabbous, I. A.,, J. S. Tkachyk, and, S. J. Stamm. 1966. A double blind study on the effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 37:477484.
51. de Bree, G.,, J. Heidema,, E. van Leeuwen,, G. van Bleek,, R. Jonkers,, H. Jansen,, R. van Lier, and, T. Out. 2005. Respiratory syncytial virus-specific CD8+ memory T cell responses in elderly persons. J. Infect. Dis. 191:17101718.
52. Denny, F. W.,, and W. A. Clyde, Jr. 1986. Acute lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized children. J. Pediatr. 108:635646.
53. Denny, F. W.,, T. F. Murphy,, W. A. Clyde, Jr.,, A. Collier,, M. LaPoint, and, F. W. Henderson. 1983. Croup: an 11 year study in a pediatric practice. Pediatrics 71:871876.
54. de Sierra, T. M.,, M. L. Kumar,, T. E. Wasser,, B. R. Murphy, and, E. K. Subbarao. 1993. Respiratory syncytial virus-specific immunoglobulins in preterm infants. J. Pediatr. 122:787791.
55. Dollner, H.,, K. Risnes,, A. Radtke, and, S. A. Nordbo. 2004. An outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection in Norwegian children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 23:436440.
56. Dominguez, E. A.,, L. H. Taber, and, R. B. Couch. 1993. Comparison of rapid diagnostic techniques for respiratory syncytial and influenza A virus respiratory infections in young children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:22862290.
57. Donowitz, L. G. 1987. Handwashing technique in a pediatric intensive care unit. Am. J. Dis. Child. 141:683.
58. Downham, M. A. P. S.,, P. S. Gardner,, J. McQuillin, and, J. Ferris. 1975. Role of respiratory viruses in childhood mortality. Br. Med. J. 1:235239.
59. Edwards, K. M.,, C. Dundon, and, W. A. Altemeier. 1983. Bacterial tracheitis as a complication of croup. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2:390391.
60. Englund, J. 2005. In search of a vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus: the saga continues. J. Infect. Dis. 191:10361039.
61. Englund, J.,, W. P. Glezen, and, P. A. Piedra. 1998. Maternal immunization against viral disease. Vaccine 16:14561463.
62. Englund, J. A.,, and W. P. Glezen. 1991. Maternal immunization for the prevention of infection in early infancy. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 2:225231.
63. Englund, J. A.,, M. Boeckh,, J. Kuypers,, W. G. Nichols,, R. C. Hackman,, R. A. Morrow,, D. N. Fredricks, and, L. Corey. 2006. Brief communication: fatal human metapneumovirus infection in stem-cell transplant recipients. Ann. Intern. Med. 144:344349.
64. Englund, J. A.,, I. N. Mbawuike,, H. Hammill,, M. C. Holleman,, B. D. Baxter, and, W. P. Glezen. 1993. Maternal immunization with influenza or tetanus toxoid vaccine for passive antibody protection in young infants. J. Infect. Dis. 168:647656.
65. Englund, J. A.,, P. A. Piedra,, Y. M. Ahn,, B. E. Gilbert, and, P. Hiatt. 1994. High-dose, short-duration ribavirin aerosol therapy compared with standard ribavirin therapy in children with suspected respiratory syncytial virus infection. J. Pediatr. 125:635641.
66. Englund, J. A.,, P. A. Piedra,, A. Jewell,, K. Patel,, B. B. Baxter, and, E. Whimbey. 1996. Rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infections in immunocompromised adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:16491653.
67. Englund, J. A.,, C. J. Sullivan,, M. C. Jordan,, L. P. Dehner,, G. M. Vercellotti, and, H. H. Balfour, Jr. 1988. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunocompromised adults. Ann. Intern. Med. 109:203208.
68. Erdman, D. D.,, and L. J. Anderson. 1990. Monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassays for specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:27442749.
69. Ermers, M.,, B. Hoebee,, H. Hodemaekers,, T. Kimman,, J. Kimpen, and, L. Bont. 2003. IL-13 genetic polymorphism identifies children with late wheezing after respiratory syncytial virus infection. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:10861091.
70. Esper, F.,, R. A. Martinello,, D. Boucher,, C. Weibel,, D. Ferguson,, M. L. Landry, and, J. S. Kahn. 2004. A 1-year experience with human metapneumovirus in children aged <5 years. J. Infect. Dis. 189:13881396.
71. Falsey, A. R. 2007. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 28:171181.
72. Falsey, A. R.,, C. Cunningham,, W. Barker,, R. Kouides,, J. Yuen,, M. E. Menegus, and, L. Weiner. 1995. Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza infections in the hospitalized elderly. J. Infect. Dis. 172:389394.
73. Falsey, A. R.,, and E. E. Walsh. 1992. Humoral immunity to respiratory syncytial virus infection in the elderly. J. Med. Virol. 36:3943.
74. Falsey, A. R.,, and E. E. Walsh. 2000. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:371384.
75. Falsey, A. R.,, and E. E. Walsh. 2006. Viral pneumonia in older adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:518524.
76. Fan, J.,, K. J. Henrickson, and, L. L. Savatski. 1998. Rapid simultaneous diagnosis of infections with respiratory syncytial viruses A and B, influenza viruses A and B, and human parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3 by multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-enzyme hybridization assay (Hexaplex). Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:13971402.
77. Field, C. M. B.,, J. H. Connolly,, G. Murtagh,, L. Weiner,, C. Bonville, and, R. F. Betts. 1966. Antibiotic treatment of epidemic bronchiolitis—a double blind trial. Br. Med. J. 1:83.
78. Fishaut, M.,, D. Tubergen, and, K. McIntosh. 1980. Cellular response to respiratory viruses with particular reference to children with disorders of cell-mediated immunity. J. Pediatr. 96:179186.
79. Frank, A. L.,, R. B. Couch,, C. A. Griffis, and, B. D. Baxter. 1979. Comparison of different tissue cultures for isolation and quantitation of influenza and parainfluenza viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 10:3236.
80. Frank, A. L.,, L. H. Taber,, C. R. Wells,, J. M. Wells,, W. P. Glezen, and, A. Paredes. 1981. Patterns of shedding of myxoviruses and paramyxoviruses in children. J. Infect. Dis. 144:433.
81. Frank, J. A.,, Jr., R. W. Warren,, J. A. Tucker,, J. Zeller, and, C. M. Wilfert. 1983. Disseminated parainfluenza infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency. Am. J. Dis. Child. 137:11721174.
82. Frank, A. L.,, and W. P. Glezen. 1990. Respiratory tract infections in children in day care. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 1:234244.
83. Gala, C. L.,, C. B. Hall,, K. C. Schnabel,, P. H. Pincus,, P. Blossom,, S. W. Hildreth,, R. F. Betts, and, R. G. Douglas, Jr. 1986. The use of eye-nose goggles to control nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infection. JAMA 256:27062708.
84. Garcia, R.,, I. Raad,, D. Abi-Said,, G. Bodey,, R. Champlin,, J. Tarrand,, L. A. Hill,, J. Umphrey,, J. Neumann,, J. Englund, and, E. Whimbey. 1997. Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections: prevention and control in bone marrow transplant patients. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 18:412416.
85. Garcia-Barreno, B.,, C. Palomo,, C. Penas,, T. Delgado,, P. Perez-Brena, and, J. A. Melero. 1989. Marked differences in the antigenic structure of human respiratory syncytial virus F and G glycoproteins. J. Virol. 63:925932.
86. Garcia-Garcia, M. L.,, C. Calvo,, I. Casas,, T. Bracamonte,, A. Rellan,, F. Gozalo,, T. Tenorio, and, P. Perez-Brena. 2007. Human metapneumovirus bronchiolitis in infancy is an important risk factor for asthma at age 5. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 42:458464.
87. Gardner, P. S.,, S. D. Court,, J. T. Brocklebank,, M. A. Downham, and, D. Weightman. 1973. Virus cross-infection in paediatric wards. Br. Med. J. 2:571575.
88. Garofalo, R.,, J. L. Kimpen,, R. C. Welliver, and, P. L. Ogra. 1992. Eosinophil degranulation in the respiratory tract during naturally acquired respiratory syncytial virus infection. J. Pediatr. 120:2832.
89. Ghosh, S.,, R. E. Champlin,, J. Englund,, S. A. Giralt,, K. Rolston,, I. Raad,, K. Jacobson,, J. Neumann,, C. Ippoliti,, S. Mallik, and, E. Whimbey. 2000. Respiratory syncytial virus upper respiratory tract illnesses in adult blood and marrow transplant recipients: combination therapy with aerosolized ribavirin and intravenous immunoglobulin. Bone Marrow Transplant. 25:751755.
90. Glezen, P.,, and F. W. Denny. 1973. Epidemiology of acute lower respiratory disease in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 288:498505.
91. Glezen, W. P. 1984. Reactive airway disorders in children. Role of respiratory virus infections. Clin. Chest Med. 5:635643.
92. Glezen, W. P.,, A. L. Frank,, L. H. Taber, and, J. A. Kasel. 1984. Parainfluenza virus type 3: seasonality and risk of infection and reinfection in young children. J. Infect. Dis. 150:851857.
93. Glezen, W. P.,, S. B. Greenberg,, R. L. Atmar,, P. A. Piedra, and, R. B. Couch. 2000. Impact of respiratory virus infections on persons with chronic underlying conditions. JAMA 283:499505.
94. Glezen, W. P.,, F. A. Loda, and, F. W. Denny. 1997. Parainfluenza viruses, p. 551–567. In A. S. Evans and, R. A. Kaslow (ed.), Viral Infections in Humans, vol. 3. Plenum Medical Books, New York, NY.
95. Glezen, W. P.,, A. Paredes,, J. E. Allison,, L. H. Taber, and, A. L. Frank. 1981. Risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection for infants from low-income families in relationship to age, sex, ethnic group, and maternal antibody level. J. Pediatr. 98:708715.
96. Glezen, W. P.,, L. H. Taber,, A. L. Frank, and, J. A. Kasel. 1986. Risk of primary infection and reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140:543546.
97. Gray, G. C.,, A. W. Capuano,, S. F. Setterquist,, D. D. Erdman,, N. D. Nobbs,, Y. Abed,, G. V. Doern,, S. E. Starks, and, G. Boivin. 2006. Multi-year study of human metapneumovirus infection at a large US Midwestern Medical Referral Center. J. Clin. Virol. 37:269276.
98. Groothuis, J. R.,, E. A. Simoes,, M. J. Levin,, C. B. Hall,, C. E. Long,, W. J. Rodriguez,, J. Arrobio,, H. C. Meissner,, D. R. Fulton,, R. C. Welliver,, D. A. Tristram,, G. R. Siber,, G. A. Prince,, M. Van Raden, and, V. G. Hemming for The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin Study Group. 1993. Prophylactic administration of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin to high-risk infants and young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:15241530.
99. Gross, P. A.,, R. H. Green, and, M. G. Curnen. 1973. Persistent infection with parainfluenza type 3 virus in man. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 108:894898.
100. Gruber, W. C.,, S. Z. Wilson,, B. J. Throop, and, P. R. Wyde. 1987. Immunoglobulin administration and ribavirin therapy: efficacy in respiratory syncytial virus infection of the cotton rat. Pediatr. Res. 21:270274.
101. Guerrero-Plata, A.,, A. Casola,, G. Suarez,, X. Yu,, L. Spetch,, M. E. Peeples, and, R. P. Garofalo. 2006. Differential response of dendritic cells to human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 34:320329.
102. Hall, C. B. 2007. The spread of influenza and other respiratory viruses: complexities and conjectures. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45:353359.
103. Hall, C. B.,, and R. G. Douglas, Jr. 1975. Clinically useful method for the isolation of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Infect. Dis. 131:15.
104. Hall, C. B.,, and R. G. Douglas, Jr. 1981. Modes of transmission of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Pediatr. 99:100103.
105. Hall, C. B.,, R. G. Douglas, Jr., and, J. M. Geiman. 1980. Possible transmission by fomites of respiratory syncytial virus. J. Infect. Dis. 141:98102.
106. Hall, C. B.,, R. G. Douglas, Jr., and, J. M. Geiman. 1975. Quantitative shedding patterns of respiratory syncytial virus in infants. J. Infect. Dis. 132:151156.
107. Hall, C. B.,, R. G. Douglas, Jr.,, K. C. Schnabel, and, J. M. Geiman. 1981. Infectivity of respiratory syncytial virus by various routes of inoculation. Infect. Immun. 33:779783.
108. Hall, C. B.,, R. G. Douglas, Jr.,, R. L. Simons, and, J. M. Geiman. 1978. Interferon production in children with respiratory syncytial, influenza, and parainfluenza virus infections. J. Pediatr. 93:2832.
109. Hall, C. B.,, J. M. Geiman,, B. B. Breese, and, R. G. Douglas, Jr. 1977. Parainfluenza viral infections in children: correlation of shedding with clinical manifestations. J. Pediatr. 91:194198.
110. Hall, C. B.,, J. McBride,, D. M. Galagan,, S. W. Hildreth, and, K. C. Schnabel. 1985. Ribavirin treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. JAMA 254:30473051.
111. Hall, C. B.,, and C. A. McCarthy. 2005. Respiratory syncytial virus, p. 2008–2026. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett, and, R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, NY.
112. Hall, C. B.,, K. R. Powell,, N. E. MacDonald,, C. L. Gala,, M. E. Menegus,, S. C. Suffin, and, H. J. Cohen. 1986. Respiratory syncytial viral infection in children with compromised immune function. N. Engl. J. Med. 315:7781.
113. Hall, C. B.,, K. R. Powell,, K. C. Schnabel,, C. L. Gala, and, P. H. Pincus. 1988. Risk of secondary bacterial infection in infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial viral infection. J. Pediatr. 113:266271.
114. Haller, A. A.,, T. Miller,, M. Mitiku, and, K. Coelingh. 2000. Expression of the surface glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, a novel attenuated virus vaccine vector. J. Virol. 74:1162611635.
115. Hambling, M. H. 1964. Survival of the respiratory syncytial virus during storage under various conditions. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 45:647655.
116. Hamelin, M. E.,, G. A. Prince, and, G. Boivin. 2006. Effect of ribavirin and glucocorticoid treatment in a mouse model of human metapneumovirus infection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:774777.
117. Han, L. L.,, J. P. Alexander, and, L. J. Anderson. 1999. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia among the elderly: an assessment of disease burden. J. Infect. Dis. 179:2530.
118. Harrington, R. D.,, T. M. Hooton,, R. C. Hackman,, G. A. Storch,, B. Osborne,, C. A. Gleaves,, A. Benson, and, J. D. Meyers. 1992. An outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a bone marrow transplant center. J. Infect. Dis. 165:987993.
119. Harrison, A. M. C.,, C. A. Bonville,, H. F. Rosenberg, and, J. B. Domachowske. 1999. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced chemokine expression in the lower airways: eosinophil recruitment and degranulation. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 159:19181924.
120. Harrison, R.,, J. Bellows, and, D. Rempel. 1988. Assessing exposures of health care personnel to aerosols of ribavirin. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 37:560563.
121. Hayden, F. G.,, C. A. Sable,, J. D. Connor, and, J. Lane. 1996. Intravenous ribavirin by constant infusion for serious influenza and parainfluenzavirus infection. Antivir. Ther. 1:5156.
122. Hemming, V. G.,, W. Rodriguez,, H. W. Kim,, C. D. Brandt,, R. H. Parrott,, B. Burch,, G. A. Prince,, P. A. Baron,, R. J. Fink, and, G. Reaman. 1987. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants and young children. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:18821886.
123. Henderson, F. W.,, A. M. Collier,, W. A. Clyde, Jr., and, F. W. Denny. 1979. Respiratory-syncytial-virus infections, reinfections and immunity. A prospective, longitudinal study in young children. N. Engl. J. Med. 300:530534.
124. Henderson, F. W.,, A. M. Collier,, M. A. Sanyal,, J. M. Watkins,, D. L. Fairclough,, W. A. Clyde, Jr., and, F. W. Denny. 1982. A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. N. Engl. J. Med. 306:13771383.
125. Henrickson, K. 1995. Parainfluenza viruses, p. 1489–1496. In G. Mandell,, R. Dolin, and, J. E. Bennett (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York, NY.
126. Henrickson, K. J.,, and L. L. Savatski. 1992. Genetic variation and evolution of human parainfluenza virus type 1 hemagglutinin neuraminidase: analysis of 12 clinical isolates. J. Infect. Dis. 166:9951005.
127. Herfst, S.,, M. de Graaf,, E. Scharauwen,, N. Ulbrandt,, A. Barnes,, K. Senthil,, A. Osterhaus,, R. Fouchier, and, B. van den Hoogen. 2007. Immunization of Syrian golden hamsters with F subunit vaccine of human metapneumovirus induces protection against challenge with homologous or heterologous strains. J. Gen. Virol. 88:27022709.
128. Hertz, M. I.,, J. A. Englund,, D. Snover,, P. B. Bitterman, and, P. B. McGlave. 1989. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute lung injury in adult patients with bone marrow transplants: a clinical approach and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 68:269281.
129. Hsu, K. H.,, J. E. Crowe, Jr.,, M. D. Lubeck,, A. R. Davis,, P. P. Hung,, R. M. Chanock, and, B. R. Murphy. 1995. Isolation and characterization of a highly attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate by mutagenesis of the incompletely attenuated RSV A2 ts-1 NG-1 mutant virus. Vaccine 13:509515.
130. The IMpact-RSV Study Group. 1998. Palivizumab, a humanized respiratory syncytial virus monoclonal antibody, reduces hospitalization from respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. Pediatrics 102:531537.
131. Isaacs, D.,, C. R. Bangham, and, A. J. McMichael. 1987. Cell-mediated cytotoxic response to respiratory syncytial virus in infants with bronchiolitis. Lancet ii:769771.
132. Janssen, R.,, L. Bont,, C. L. Siezen,, H. M. Hodemaekers,, M. J. Ermers,, G. Doornbos,, R. van’t Slot,, C. Wijmenga,, J. J. Goeman,, J. L. Kimpen,, H. C. van Houwelingen,, T. G. Kimman, and, B. Hoebee. 2007. Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes. J. Infect. Dis. 196:826834.
133. Jartti, T.,, B. van den Hoogen,, R. P. Garofalo,, A. D. Osterhaus, and, O. Ruuskanen. 2002. Metapneumovirus and acute wheezing in children. Lancet 360:13931394.
134. Jarvis, W. R.,, P. J. Middleton, and, E. W. Gelfand. 1979. Parainfluenza pneumonia in severe combined immunodeficiency disease. J. Pediatr. 94:423425.
135. Josephs, S.,, H. W. Kim,, C. D. Brandt, and, R. H. Parrott. 1988. Parainfluenza 3 virus and other common respiratory pathogens in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7:207209.
136. Kapikian, A. Z.,, R. M. Chanock,, T. E. Reichelderfer,, T. G. Ward,, R. J. Huebner, and, J. A. Bell. 1961. Inoculation of human volunteers with parainfluenza virus type 3. JAMA 178:537.
137. Karron, R. A.,, R. B. Belshe,, P. F. Wright,, B. Thumar,, B. Burns,, F. Newman,, J. C. Cannon,, J. Thompson,, T. Tsai,, M. Paschalis,, S. L. Wu,, Y. Mitcho,, J. Hackell,, B. R. Murphy, and, J. M. Tatem. 2003. A live human parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine is attenuated and immunogenic in young infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:394405.
138. Karron, R. A.,, K. L. O’Brien,, J. L. Froehlich, and, V. A. Brown. 1993. Molecular epidemiology of a parainfluenza type 3 virus outbreak on a pediatric ward. J. Infect. Dis. 167:14411445.
139. Karron, R. A.,, P. F. Wright,, R. B. Belshe,, B. Thumar,, R. Casey,, F. Newman,, F. P. Polack,, V. B. Randolph,, A. Deatly,, J. Hackell,, W. Gruber,, B. R. Murphy, and, P. L. Collins. 2005. Identification of a recombinant live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate that is highly attenuated in infants. J. Infect. Dis. 191:10931104.
140. Karron, R. A.,, P. F. Wright,, S. L. Hall,, M. Makhene,, J. Thompson,, B. A. Burns,, S. Tollefson,, M. C. Steinhoff,, M. H. Wilson, and, D. O. Harris. 1995. A live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine is safe, infectious, immunogenic, and phenotypically stable in infants and children. J. Infect. Dis. 171:11071114.
141. Karron, R. A.,, P. F. Wright,, F. K. Newman,, M. Makhene,, J. Thompson,, R. Samorodin,, M. H. Wilson,, E. L. Anderson,, M. L. Clements, and, B. R. Murphy. 1995. A live human parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine is attenuated and immunogenic in healthy infants and children. J. Infect. Dis. 172:14451450.
142. Kasel, J. A.,, E. E. Walsh,, A. L. Frank,, B. D. Baxter,, L. H. Taber, and, W. P. Glezen. 1987. Relation of serum antibody to glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus with immunity to infection in children. Viral Immunol. 1:199205.
143. Kellogg, J. A. 1991. Culture vs direct antigen assays for detection of microbial pathogens from lower respiratory tract specimens suspected of containing the respiratory syncytial virus. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 115:451458.
144. Khamapirad, T.,, and W. P. Glezen. 1987. Clinical and radiographic assessment of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children. Semin. Respir. Infect. 2:130144.
145. Kim, H. W.,, J. G. Canchola,, C. D. Brandt,, G. Pyles,, R. M. Chanock,, K. Jensen, and, R. H. Parrott. 1969. Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine. Am. J. Epidemiol. 89:422434.
146. Kim, H. W.,, R. G. Wyatt,, B. F. Fernie,, C. D. Brandt,, J. O. Arrobio,, B. C. Jeffries, and, R. H. Parrott. 1983. Respiratory syncytial virus detection by immunofluorescence in nasal secretions with monoclonal antibodies against selected surface and internal proteins. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:13991404.
147. Kim, Y. J.,, M. Boeckh, and, J. A. Englund. 2007. Community respiratory virus infections in immunocompromised patients: hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, and individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 28:222242.
148. King, J. C.,, Jr., A. R. Burke,, J. D. Clemens,, P. Nair,, J. J. Farley,, P. E. Vink,, S. R. Batlas,, M. Rao, and, J. P. Johnson. 1993. Respiratory syncytial virus illnesses in human immunodeficiency virus- and noninfected children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12:733739.
149. Kisch, A. L.,, K. M. Johnson, and, R. M. Chanock. 1962. Immunofluorescence with respiratory syncytial virus. Virology 16:177189.
150. Klassen, T. P.,, M. E. Feldman,, L. K. Watters,, T. Sutcliffe, and, P. C. Rowe. 1994. Nebulized budesonide for children with mild-to-moderate croup. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:285289.
151. Kuiken, T.,, B. G. van den Hoogen,, D. A. van Riel,, J. D. Laman,, G. van Amerongen,, L. Sprong,, R. A. Fouchier, and, A. D. Osterhaus. 2004. Experimental human metapneumovirus infection of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) results in virus replication in ciliated epithelial cells and pneumocytes with associated lesions throughout the respiratory tract. Am. J. Pathol. 164:18931900.
152. Kurlandsky, L. E.,, G. French,, P. M. Webb, and, D. D. Porter. 1988. Fatal respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis in a previously healthy child. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138:468472.
153. Kuypers, J.,, N. Wright,, J. Ferrenberg,, M. L. Huang,, A. Cent,, L. Corey, and, R. Morrow. 2006. Comparison of real-time PCR assays with fluorescent-antibody assays for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:23822388.
154. Laham, F. R.,, V. Israele,, J. M. Casellas,, A. M. Garcia,, C. M. Lac Prugent,, S. J. Hoffman,, D. Hauer,, B. Thumar,, M. I. Name,, A. Pascual,, N. Taratutto,, M. T. Ishida,, M. Balduzzi,, M. Maccarone,, S. Jackli,, R. Passarino,, R. A. Gaivironsky,, R. A. Karron,, N. R. Polack, and, F. P. Polack. 2004. Differential production of inflammatory cytokines in primary infection with human metapneumovirus and with other common respiratory viruses of infancy. J. Infect. Dis. 189:20472056.
155. Lamb, R. A.,, and D. Kolakofsky. 1996. Paramyxoviridae and their replication, p. 1177. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe, and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, PA.
156. Landau, L. I.,, and G. C. Geelhoed. 1994. Aerosolized steroids for croup. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:322323.
157. Larcher, C.,, C. Geltner,, H. Fischer,, D. Nachbaur,, L. C. Muller, and, H. P. Huemer. 2005. Human meta-pneumovirus infection in lung transplant recipients: clinical presentation and epidemiology. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 24:18911901.
158. Lau, S. K. P.,, W.-K. To,, P. W. T. Tse,, A. K. H. Chan,, P. C. Y. Woo,, H.-W. Tsoi,, A. F. Y. Leung,, K. S. M. Li,, P. K. S. Chan,, W. W. L. Lim,, R. W. H. Yung,, K.-H. Chan, and, K.-Y. Yuen. 2005. Human parainfluenza virus 4 outbreak and the role of diagnostic tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:45154521.
159. Leclair, J. M.,, J. Freeman,, B. F. Sullivan,, C. M. Crowley, and, D. A. Goldmann. 1987. Prevention of nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections through compliance with glove and gown isolation precautions. N. Engl. J. Med. 317:329334.
160. Lee, N.,, P. K. Chan,, I. T. Yu,, K. K. Tsoi,, G. Lui,, J. J. Sung, and, C. S. Cockram. 2007. Co-circulation of human metapneumovirus and SARS-associated coronavirus during a major nosocomial SARS outbreak in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Virol. 40:333337.
161. Leer, J. A.,, Jr., J. L. Green,, E. M. Heimlich,, J. S. Hyde,, H. L. Moffet,, G. A. Young, and, B. A. Barron. 1969. Corticosteroid treatment in bronchiolitis. A controlled, collaborative study in 297 infants and children. Am. J. Dis. Child. 117:495503.
162. Leung, J.,, F. Esper,, C. Weibel, and, J. S. Kahn. 2005. Seroepidemiology of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) on the basis of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay utilizing hMPV fusion protein expressed in recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:12131219.
163. Lewis, V. A.,, R. Champlin,, J. Englund,, R. Couch,, J. M. Goodrich,, K. Rolston,, D. Przepiorka,, N. Q. Mirza,, H. M. Yousuf,, M. Luna,, G. P. Bodey, and, E. Whimbey. 1996. Respiratory disease due to parainfluenza virus in adult bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:10331037.
164. Lilic, D.,, A. J. Cant,, M. Abinun,, J. E. Calvert, and, G. P. Spickett. 1997. Cytokine production differs in children and adults. Pediatr. Res. 42:237240.
165. Louie, J. K.,, D. P. Schnurr,, C. Y. Pan,, D. Kiang,, C. Carter,, S. Tougaw,, J. Ventura,, A. Norman,, V. Belmusto,, J. Rosenberg, and, G. Trochet. 2007. A summer outbreak of human metapneumovirus infection in a long-term-care facility. J. Infect. Dis. 196:705708.
166. Mackay, I. M.,, S. Bialasiewicz,, Z. Waliuzzaman,, G. R. Chidlow,, D. C. Fegredo,, S. Laingam,, P. Adamson,, G. B. Harnett,, W. Rawlinson,, M. D. Nissen, and, T. P. Sloots. 2004. Use of the P gene to genotype human metapneumovirus identifies 4 viral subtypes. J. Infect. Dis. 190:19131918.
167. Madhi, S. A.,, H. Ludewick,, Y. Abed,, K. P. Klugman, and, G. Boivin. 2003. Human metapneumovirus-associated lower respiratory tract infections among hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and HIV-1-uninfected African infants. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:17051710.
168. Madhi, S. A.,, H. Ludewick,, L. Kuwanda,, N. van Niekerk,, C. Cutland, and, K. P. Klugman. 2007. Seasonality, incidence, and repeat human metapneumovirus lower respiratory tract infections in an area with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:693699.
169. Matsuda, K.,, H. Tsutsumi,, Y. Okamoto, and, C. Chiba. 1995. Development of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha activity in nasopharyngeal secretions of infants and children during infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2:322324.
170. Matthey, S.,, D. Nicholson,, S. Ruhs,, B. Alden,, M. Knock,, K. Schultz, and, A. Schmuecker. 1992. Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial culture and direct staining by using pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:540544.
171. Mbawuike, I. N.,, K. Fujihashi,, S. DiFabio,, S. Kawabata,, J. R. McGhee,, R. B. Couch, and, H. Kiyono. 1999. Human interleukin-12 enhances interferon-gamma-producing influenza-specific memory CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Infect. Dis. 180:14771486.
172. McIntosh, K.,, R. M. Hendry,, M. L. Fahnestock, and, L. T. Pierik. 1982. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus infection: application to clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:329333.
173. McIntosh, K.,, H. B. Masters,, I. Orr,, R. K. Chao, and, R. M. Barkin. 1978. The immunologic response to infection with respiratory syncytial virus in infants. J. Infect. Dis. 138:2432.
174. Meert, K. L.,, A. P. Sarnaik,, M. J. Gelmini, and, M. W. Lieh-Lai. 1994. Aerosolized ribavirin in mechanically ventilated children with respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract disease: a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial. Crit. Care Med. 22:566572.
175. Meissner, H. C.,, S. A. Murray,, M. A. Kiernan,, D. R. Snydman, and, K. McIntosh. 1984. A simultaneous outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 in a newborn nursery. J. Pediatr. 104:680684.
176. Merrill, W. W.,, G. P. Naegel,, J. J. Olchowski, and, H. Y. Reynolds. 1985. Immunoglobulin G subclass proteins in serum and lavage fluid of normal subjects. Quantitation and comparison with immunoglobulins A and E. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 131:584587.
177. Meurman, O.,, M. Waris, and, K. Hedman. 1992. Immunoglobulin G antibody avidity in patients with respiratory syncytial virus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:14791484.
178. Miller, W. S.,, and M. S. Artenstein. 1967. Aerosol stability of three acute respiratory disease viruses. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 125:222227.
179. Morris, J. A.,, R. E. Blount, Jr., and, R. E. Savage. 1956. Recovery of cytopathogenic agent from chimpanzees with coryza. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 92:544549.
180. Muelenaer, P. M.,, F. W. Henderson,, V. G. Hemming,, E. E. Walsh,, L. J. Anderson,, G. A. Prince, and, B. R. Murphy. 1991. Group-specific serum antibody responses in children with primary and recurrent respiratory syncytial virus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 164:1521.
181. Mufson, M. A. 1989. Parainfluenza viruses, mumps virus, and New Castle disease virus, p. 669. In E. Lennette and, N. J. Schmitt (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections, 6th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
182. Mufson, M. A.,, C. Orvell,, B. Rafnar, and, E. Norrby. 1985. Two distinct subtypes of human respiratory syncytial virus. J. Gen. Virol. 66(Pt. 10):21112124.
183. Mulholland, K. 2007. Childhood pneumonia mortality—a permanent global emergency. Lancet 370:285289.
184. Mullins, J. A.,, D. D. Erdman,, G. A. Weinberg,, K. Edwards,, C. B. Hall,, F. J. Walker,, M. Iwane, and, L. J. Anderson. 2004. Human metapneumovirus infection among children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:700705.
185. Munoz, F. M.,, P. A. Piedra, and, W. P. Glezen. 2003. Safety and immunogenicity of respiratory syncytial virus purified fusion protein-2 vaccine in pregnant women. Vaccine 21:34653467.
186. Murphy, B. R.,, D. W. Alling,, M. H. Snyder,, E. E. Walsh,, G. A. Prince,, R. M. Chanock,, V. G. Hemming,, W. J. Rodriguez,, H. W. Kim, and, B. S. Graham. 1986. Effect of age and preexisting antibody on serum antibody response of infants and children to the F and G glycoproteins during respiratory syncytial virus infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:894898.
187. Murphy, B. R.,, B. S. Graham,, G. A. Prince,, E. E. Walsh,, R. M. Chanock,, D. T. Karzon, and, P. F. Wright. 1986. Serum and nasal-wash immunoglobulin G and A antibody response of infants and children to respiratory syncytial virus F and G glycoproteins following primary infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:10091014.
188. Navarro-Marí, J. M.,, S. Sanbonmatsu-Gámez,, M. Pérez-Ruiz, and, M. De La Rosa-Fraile. 1999. Rapid detection of respiratory viruses by shell vial assay using simultaneous culture of HEp-2, LLC-MK2, and MDCK cells in a single vial. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:23462347.
189. Nichols, W. G.,, L. Corey,, T. Gooley,, C. Davis, and, M. Boeckh. 2001. Parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, response to antiviral therapy, and effect on transplant outcome. Blood 98:573578.
190. Nichols, W. G.,, T. Gooley, and, M. Boeckh. 2001. Community-acquired respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center experience. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 7(Suppl.):11S15S.
191. Nokes, D. J.,, E. A. Okiro,, M. Ngama,, R. Ochola,, L. J. White,, P. D. Scott,, M. English,, P. A. Cane, and, G. F. Medley. 2008. Respiratory syncytial virus infection and disease in infants and young children observed from birth in Kilifi District, Kenya. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:5057.
192. Okamoto, Y.,, K. Kudo,, K. Shirotori,, M. Nakazawa,, E. Ito,, K. Togawa,, J. A. Patel, and, P. L. Ogra. 1992. Detection of genomic sequences of respiratory syncytial virus in otitis media with effusion in children. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. Suppl. 157:710.
193. Paradiso, P. R.,, S. W. Hildreth,, D. A. Hogerman,, D. J. Speelman,, E. B. Lewin,, J. Oren, and, D. H. Smith. 1994. Safety and immunogenicity of a subunit respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in children 24 to 48 months old. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13:792798.
194. Parrott, R. H.,, H. Kim, and, C. D. Brandt. 1979. Respiratory syncytial virus, p. 695. In E. Lennette and, N. J. Schmitt (ed.), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections, 5th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
195. Paton, A. W.,, J. C. Paton,, A. J. Lawrence,, P. N. Goldwater, and, R. J. Harris. 1992. Rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:901904.
196. Peck, A. J.,, L. Corey, and, M. Boeckh. 2004. Pretransplantation respiratory syncytial virus infection: impact of a strategy to delay transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:673680.
197. Peck, A. J.,, J. A. Englund,, J. Kuypers,, K. A. Guthrie,, L. Corey,, R. Morrow,, R. C. Hackman,, A. Cent, and, M. Boeckh. 2007. Respiratory virus infection among hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: evidence for asymptomatic parainfluenza virus infection. Blood 110:16811688.
198. Peiris, J. S.,, W. H. Tang,, K. H. Chan,, P. L. Khong,, Y. Guan,, Y. L. Lau, and, S. S. Chiu. 2003. Children with respiratory disease associated with metapneumovirus in Hong Kong. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:628633.
199. Pelletier, A. J.,, J. M. Mansbach, and, C. A. Camargo, Jr. 2006. Direct medical costs of bronchiolitis hospitalizations in the United States. Pediatrics 118:24182423.
200. Piedra, P. A.,, S. G. Cron,, A. Jewell,, N. Hamblett,, R. McBride,, M. A. Palacio,, R. Ginsberg,, C. M. Oermann, and, P. W. Hiatt. 2003. Immunogenicity of a new purified fusion protein vaccine to respiratory syncytial virus: a multi-center trial in children with cystic fibrosis. Vaccine 21:2448.
201. Piedra, P. A.,, W. P. Glezen,, J. A. Kasel,, R. C. Welliver,, A. M. Jewel,, Y. Rayford,, D. A. Hogerman,, S. W. Hildreth, and, P. R. Paradiso. 1995. Safety and immunogenicity of the PFP vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV): the Western blot assay aids in distinguishing immune responses of the PFP vaccine from RSV infection. Vaccine 13:10951101.
202. Piedra, P. A.,, S. Grace,, A. Jewell,, S. Spinelli,, D. Bunting,, D. A. Hogerman,, F. Malinoski, and, P. W. Hiatt. 1996. Purified fusion protein vaccine protects against lower respiratory tract illness during respiratory syncytial virus season in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15:23.
203. Piedra, P. A.,, A. M. Jewell,, S. G. Cron,, R. L. Atmar, and, W. P. Glezen. 2003. Correlates of immunity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated-hospitalization: establishment of minimum protective threshold levels of serum neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine 21:34793482.
204. Piedra, P. A.,, P. R. Wyde,, W. L. Castleman,, M. W. Ambrose,, A. M. Jewell,, D. J. Speelman, and, S. W. Hildreth. 1993. Enhanced pulmonary pathology associated with the use of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in cotton rats is not a unique viral phenomenon. Vaccine 11:14151423.
205. Power, U. F.,, T. N. Nguyen,, E. Rietveld,, R. L. de Swart,, J. Groen,, A. D. Osterhaus,, R. de Groot,, N. Corvaia,, A. Beck,, N. Bouveret-Le-Cam, and, J. Y. Bonnefoy. 2001. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant subunit respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (BBG2Na) in healthy young adults. J. Infect. Dis. 184:14561460.
206. Randolph, V. B.,, M. Kandis,, P. Stemler-Higgins,, M. S. Kennelly,, Y. M. McMullen,, D. J. Speelman, and, C. Weeks-Levy. 1994. Attenuated temperature-sensitive respiratory syncytial virus mutants generated by cold adaptation. Virus Res. 33:241259.
207. Rawlinson, W. D.,, Z. Waliuzzaman,, I. W. Carter,, Y. C. Belessis,, K. M. Gilbert, and, J. R. Morton. 2003. Asthma exacerbations in children associated with rhinovirus but not human metapneumovirus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 187:13141318.
208. Ray, C. G.,, C. J. Holberg,, L. L. Minnich,, Z. M. Shehab,, A. L. Wright, and, L. M. Taussig for The Group Health Medical Associates. 1993. Acute lower respiratory illnesses during the first three years of life: potential roles for various etiologic agents. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12:1014.
209. Ray, R.,, Y. Matsuoka,, T. L. Burnett,, B. J. Glaze, and, R. W. Compans. 1990. Human parainfluenza virus induces a type-specific protective immune response. J. Infect. Dis. 162:746749.
210. Renzi, P. M.,, J. P. Turgeon,, J. P. Yang,, S. P. Drblik,, J. E. Marcotte,, L. Pedneault, and, S. Spier. 1997. Cellular immunity is activated and a TH-2 response is associated with early wheezing in infants after bronchiolitis. J. Pediatr. 130:584593.
211. Rodriguez, W. J.,, R. H. Bui,, J. D. Connor,, H. W. Kim,, C. D. Brandt,, R. H. Parrott,, B. Burch, and, J. Mace. 1987. Environmental exposure of primary care personnel to ribavirin aerosol when supervising treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:11431146.
212. Rosner, I. K.,, R. C. Welliver,, P. J. Edelson,, K. Geraci-Ciardullo, and, M. Sun. 1987. Effect of ribavirin therapy on respiratory syncytial virus-specific IgE and IgA responses after infection. J. Infect. Dis. 155:10431047.
213. Saito, T.,, R. W. Deskin,, A. Casola,, H. Haeberle,, B. Olszewska,, P. B. Ernst,, R. Alam,, P. L. Ogra, and, R. Garofalo. 1997. Respiratory syncytial virus induces selective production of the chemokine RANTES by upper airway epithelial cells. J. Infect. Dis. 175:497504.
214. Schildgen, O.,, and A. Simon. 2005. Induction of acute otitis media by human metapneumovirus. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24:1126.
215. Selwyn, B. J., for the Coordinated Data Group of BOSTID Researchers. 1990. The epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infection in young children: comparison of findings from several developing countries. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12(Suppl. 8):S870S888.
216. Shay, D. K.,, R. C. Holman,, R. D. Newman,, L. L. Liu,, J. W. Stout, and, L. J. Anderson. 1999. Bronchiolitis-associated hospitalizations among US children, 1980–1996. JAMA 282:14401446.
217. Siber, G. R.,, J. Leszcynski,, V. Pena-Cruz,, C. Ferren-Gardner,, R. Anderson,, V. G. Hemming,, E. E. Walsh,, J. Burns,, K. McIntosh, and, R. Gonin. 1992. Protective activity of a human respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin prepared from donors screened by microneutralization assay. J. Infect. Dis. 165:456463.
218. Simoes, E. A. 1999. Respiratory syncytial virus infection. Lancet 354:847852.
219. Simon, A.,, A. Müller,, K. Khurana,, S. Engelhart,, M. Exner,, O. Schildgen,, A. M. Eis-Hübinger,, W. Kamin,, T. Schaible,, K. Wadas,, R. A. Ammann,, A. Wilkes-mann, and DSM RSV Paed Study Group. 14 September 2007. Nosocomial infection: a risk factor for a complicated course in children with respiratory syncytial virus infection—results from a prospective multicenter German surveillance study. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.07.020.
220. Smith, D. W.,, L. R. Frankel,, L. H. Mathers,, A. T. Tang,, R. L. Ariagno, and, C. G. Prober. 1991. A controlled trial of aerosolized ribavirin in infants receiving mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:2429.