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Chapter 52 : Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses

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Abstract:

Flaviviruses have evolved principally by mutational change. Human disease caused by flaviviruses is classified as either (i) central nervous system (CNS) infection, (ii) hemorrhagic fever, or (iii) fever-arthralgia with or without rash. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus is a member of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex, and antigenic cross-reactivities between SLE virus and other members of the complex are demonstrable with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. JE virus is the prototype of an antigenic complex that includes SLE and Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) viruses, West Nile virus (WNV), and several other flaviviruses of lesser medical importance. The host range of MVE virus and susceptibility of cell cultures are provided in this chapter. Antigenic analyses differentiate strains of WNV from Africa, Europe, and the Middle East from strains isolated in India and the Far East. WNV is one of the most widely distributed of all arboviruses. Dengue virus fever is caused by four antigenically and genetically related but distinct viruses (dengue virus types 1 to 4) are distinguished by neutralization tests. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) is described in detail. The chapter also talks about the techniques for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) from blood of acutely ill patients, and discusses the control of for dengue virus.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52

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Murray valley encephalitis virus
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Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Reported SLE incidence per 100,000, by state, 1964 to 2005.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Transmission cycle of SLE virus and WNV. Both viruses are transmitted in a cycle between birds and mosquitoes. is an important vector in the northern United States and Canada. is important in the southern United States, whereas is important in the western United States. In addition, is a vector in Florida. Other mosquito species may be “bridge” vectors to horses, humans, and other dead-end hosts, which typically do not develop high-level viremia and do not participate in the transmission cycle. However, bridge vectors likely have a minor role compared to enzootic vectors in viral transmission to dead-end hosts.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Number of reported cases of SLE, 1932 to 2006.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Geographic distribution of JE.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Transmission cycle of JE virus. Broken lines indicate speculative portions of the transmission cycle.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Expansion of WNV in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, 1999 to 2006. Areas demarcated by solid lines are confirmed by virologic means in mosquitoes or vertebrates. Areas demarcated by dashed lines are those with serologic evidence in vertebrates only. Serologic evidence of WNV was found in Colombia and Venezuela in 2004, and WNV caused an equine outbreak in Argentina in 2006.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Geographic distribution of TBE.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Transmission cycle of TBE. (Reprinted from reference with permission of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.)

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Geographic distribution of dengue fever.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Simplified transmission cycle of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Both viruses have a jungle cycle involving tree hole mosquitoes. In the Americas, transmits yellow fever, but no jungle cycle for dengue fever has been discovered. In Africa, both viruses are transmitted in jungle cycles involving spp. Yellow fever does not exist in Asia, but in Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and probably elsewhere, dengue virus is transmitted in a jungle cycle involving spp. The relationship between the jungle cycle of dengue fever and human infections is not clear. However, the jungle cycle of yellow fever is a source of human infections in the Americas and Africa. Dengue fever transmission occurs principally in urban environments, where domestic serves as the vector and humans serve as the viremic hosts. A similar cycle of yellow fever transmission occurs commonly in West Africa. No urban outbreaks of yellow fever have occurred in the Americas since 1964, except possibly for a very limited outbreak in Bolivia in 1997 to 1998.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Geographic distribution of yellow fever.

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

List of members and tentative members of genus

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Flavivirus proteins and their known or suspected functions

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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TABLE 3

Host range and cell culture systems most useful for isolation and assay of flaviviruses, and vectors demonstrating infection and transmission in the laboratory

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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TABLE 4

Flaviviruses causing sporadic human disease

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52
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TABLE 5

Classification of dengue fever, DHF, and DSS according to clinical and laboratory features

Citation: Petersen L, Barrett A. 2009. Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses, p 1173-1214. In Richman D, Whitley R, Hayden F (ed), Clinical Virology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555815981.ch52

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