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Chapter 10 : Intestinal Nematodes

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Abstract:

Nematodes are unsegmented helminths with bilateral symmetry, have a fully functional digestive tract, are usually long and cylindrical, and vary from a few millimeters to over a meter long. The number of people infected with worldwide is probably second only to the number infected with the pinworm, . Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an inflammatory disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract accompanied by varying abdominal symptoms and usually by peripheral eosinophilia. The T-cell component of the immune system plays an important role in resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. is thought to cause the world’s most common human parasitic infection. Infection with is more common in warm, moist areas of the world and is often seen in conjunction with infections. Worm burdens vary considerably, and individuals with few worms are unaffected by the presence of these parasites. C-reactive protein, α-antitrypsin, total globulin, and fibronectin levels and plasma viscosity were significantly higher in children with dysentery. Hookworm infections are found in moist, warm areas and are responsible for much human disease, although they cause more morbidity than actual mortality. Infection in humans is acquired through active skin penetration of filariform larvae from the soil. spp. are small worms, similar to hookworms, and live embedded in the mucosa of the small intestine. The definitive diagnosis of spp can be made by identification of eggs in the stool. Finally, the chapter talks about spp.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10

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Parasitic Life Cycle
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.1
Figure 10.1

Adult (male).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.2
Figure 10.2

life cycle.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.3
Figure 10.3

unfertilized eggs; these eggs can also be decorticate (loss of the bumpy coat), as can the fertilized egg seen in Figure 10.4 .

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.4
Figure 10.4

(A) fertilized egg; (B) fertilized decorticate egg.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.5
Figure 10.5

larvae in lung tissue. (From a Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.6
Figure 10.6

Two spot films from an upper gastrointestinal barium study show that white barium in the small bowel outlines an adult worm that has displaced the barium and appears dark. (From a Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.7
Figure 10.7

Small bowel barium study shows adult worms that present as longitudinal dark lines against the white barium in the small bowel. The worms have ingested the barium, and their guts appear as white lines between the dark body outlines. (From a Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.8
Figure 10.8

, paired worms in the gut (X ray). (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.9
Figure 10.9

, adult worms in the gut. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Algorithm 10.1
Algorithm 10.1

Ascariasis.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.10
Figure 10.10

, adult female pinworm. (Photomicrograph by Zane Price.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.11
Figure 10.11

life cycle.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.12
Figure 10.12

eggs on a Scotch tape preparation.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Algorithm 10.2
Algorithm 10.2

Enterobiasis.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.13
Figure 10.13

adult worms. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.14
Figure 10.14

life cycle.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.15
Figure 10.15

eggs. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.16
Figure 10.16

eggs; note the two polar plugs, one at each end of the egg.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.17
Figure 10.17

, rectal prolapse.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.18
Figure 10.18

Numerous adult worms attached to the colonic mucosa of a patient who died of trichuriasis. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Algorithm 10.3
Algorithm 10.3

Trichuriasis.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.19
Figure 10.19

eggs.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.20
Figure 10.20

(A) mouth parts (teeth); (B) mouth parts (cutting plates). (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; adapted as a composite from a number of photographs, including those in E. K. Markell, M. Voge, and D. T. John, , 7th ed., The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 1992.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.21
Figure 10.21

Hookworm life cycle.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.22
Figure 10.22

(A) Hookworm egg; (B) egg. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.23
Figure 10.23

(A) Immature hookworm egg; (B) embryonated hookworm egg.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.24
Figure 10.24

(Left) , immature egg; (right) hookworm, immature egg.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.25
Figure 10.25

Hookworm, section of a worm attached to the mucosa. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Algorithm 10.4
Algorithm 10.4

Hookworm.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.26
Figure 10.26

Rhabditiform larvae. (A) ; (B) hookworm; (C) sp. Abbreviations: bc, buccal cavity; es, esophagus; gp, genital primordium; cb, bead-like swelling of caudal tip. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura; from L. S. Garcia, S. M. Finegold and E. J. Baron, , 7th ed., The C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo., 1986.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.27
Figure 10.27

life cycle.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.28
Figure 10.28

Buccal cavity (rhabditiform larvae). (A) ; (B) hookworm.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.29
Figure 10.29

(Upper) rhabditiform larva; note the packet of genital primordial cells toward the right side of the image. (Lower) rhabditiform larva; note the packet of genital primordial cells in the middle of the field (enlarged).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.30
Figure 10.30

Mucosal damage caused by larval penetration in strongyloidiasis. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Algorithm 10.5
Algorithm 10.5

Strongyloidiasis.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.31
Figure 10.31

Tail (filariform larvae). (A) ; (B) hookworm.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 10.1

Normal life spans of the most common intestinal nematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.2

The most common intestinal nematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.3

Factors related to continuing infections in urban communities in developing countries and DALYs lost to a range of causes, including ascariasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.4

Strongyloidiasis hyperinfection syndrome

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.5

Strongyloidiasis: associated conditions related to immunosuppression

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.6

Diagnostic methods for strongyloidiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Nematodes, p 249-282. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch10

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