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Chapter 14 : Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms

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Abstract:

This chapter discusses tissue cestodes in larval forms. Currently, four species are recognized within the genus : (which causes cystic disease), (which causes alveolar disease), (which causes polycystic disease), and (which causes polycystic disease). The majority of hydatid cysts occur in the liver, causing symptoms that may include chronic abdominal discomfort, occasionally with a palpable or visible abdominal mass. Alveolar hydatid disease is the most lethal of helminthic diseases, with radical surgery still being the only curative therapy. This approach may also provide another procedure for the diagnosis of alveolar hydatid disease. The use of coproantigen testing by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect infection in foxes is more sensitive than routine egg detection assays and has been recommended for diagnosis in the definitive host of . Coprodiagnosis by PCR is an excellent alternative to necropsy, since the sensitivity of necropsy is no higher than 76%. The PCR system is an alternative, sensitive method for the routine diagnosis of in carnivores. Nine patients from Brazil were found to have polycystic hydatid disease, and the diagnosis was based on the shape and dimensions of the rostellar hooks. The larval forms (spargana) of and spp. were first recognized in humans from tissues removed at autopsy. Although cases have been reported worldwide, sparganosis is most common in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. This rare form of sparganosis can be diagnosed by histologic examination.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14

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Figures

Image of Figure 14.1
Figure 14.1

Life cycle of (cystic echinococcosis).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.2
Figure 14.2

Adult worm of (A) Diagram. (B) Whole mount (note that only three proglottids are present in the adult worm).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.3
Figure 14.3

(Top) Daughter cyst within the main cyst wall. (Middle) Hydatid sand (immature scolices). (Bottom) Individual hooklets. (Top image from A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.4
Figure 14.4

hydatid cyst. (A) Diagram of unilocular cyst (limiting membrane). (B) Diagram of single immature worm. (C) Diagram of hooklets. (D) Diagram of laminated layers, daughter cysts, and scolices. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) GL, germinal layer; LL, laminated layer; FL, fibrous layer.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.5
Figure 14.5

Hydatid cysts in liver. This patient had three cysts (marked by arrows) in the right lobe. Two were completely calcified, and the large one in the background was partially calcified. (From V. Zaman, , Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa., 1979.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.6
Figure 14.6

Hydatid cyst in the lung. This patient had a single large cyst in the left lung. There was collapse and consolidation in part of the left lung as a result of pressure on the bronchus. Partial pneumonectomy was required to remove the cyst. (From V. Zaman, , Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa., 1979.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.7
Figure 14.7

calcified liver cyst. The cyst is visible at the upper edge of the right pelvis; the dense pearlike structure is the gallbladder. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Algorithm 14.1
Algorithm 14.1

Echinococcosis.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.8
Figure 14.8

Life cycle of (alveolar hydatid disease).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.9
Figure 14.9

(A) Entire cyst. (B) Multicystic nature of the parasite in an experimental infection in a muskrat. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of R. L. Rausche.) (C) Diagram of a histologic section (the left side represents the normal animal intermediate host in which scolices are found; the right side demonstrates the cyst structure within the human accidental intermediate host in which the scolices may not develop). (D) Histologic section. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.10
Figure 14.10

Polycystic hydatid disease.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.11
Figure 14.11

Life cycle of () spp.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.12
Figure 14.12

Representative cysts. (A) Cysticercus; (B) coenurus; (C) hydatid; (D) multilocular hydatid. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.13
Figure 14.13

Coenurosis. (Upper) Diagram of cyst. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) (Lower left) Actual cyst. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) (Lower right) Actual cyst. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of J. Harper III and L. C. Marcus.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.14
Figure 14.14

Coenurosis: cross section of cyst. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.15
Figure 14.15

Life cycle of and spp. (sparganosis).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 14.1

Tissue cestodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.2

strains

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.3

Examples of hydatid disease, complications, and/or outcomes

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.4

Antibody detection tests for human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.5

Procedures for the diagnosis of echinococcosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.6

Additional information on therapy for hydatid disease

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.7

Examples of epidemiology of cystic hydatid disease ()

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.8

Control measures for cystic hydatid disease

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.9

Infection phases: alveolar echinococcosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.10

Additional information on therapy for alveolar hydatid disease

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 14.11

Variables in the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 381-410. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch14

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