1887

Chapter 15 : Intestinal Trematodes

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Intestinal Trematodes, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816018/9781555813802_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816018/9781555813802_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

The intestinal trematodes, or flukes, are parasites of vertebrates; they are dorsoventrally flattened and hermaphroditic and require one or more intermediate hosts. The adult worms vary in size from the barely visible () to the very large (). is the largest of the intestinal trematodes and attaches to the duodenal and jejunal walls. In light infections, the adults inhabit the duodenum and jejunum; in heavy infections, they may be found in the stomach and most of the intestinal tract. The sedimented material can be examined with or without iodine. The eggs of , , , and are similar in size and shape; therefore, an exact identification cannot be made from examining the eggs. An alternative drug is niclosamide (Niclocide), a salicylamide derivative; alcohol should be avoided during treatment. To prevent the infection, plants should be cooked or immersed in boiling water for a few seconds before they are eaten or peeled. In heavy infections, the worms can produce catarrhal inflammation and mild ulceration and the patient may experience diarrhea and abdominal pain. Praziquantel is the drug of choice and can be given in a single dose of 40 mg/kg at bedtime. Another option would be albendazole at 400 mg twice a day for 3 days. Information concerning infections and epidemiology is limited. Both rats and dogs have been found to be infected in areas where infections are endemic.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15

Key Concept Ranking

Fasciolopsis buski
0.5349979
Adult Worm
0.5337201
Fasciola hepatica
0.5189937
0.5349979
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Algorithm 15.1
Algorithm 15.1

Trematode infection.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.1
Figure 15.1

Life cycle of intestinal trematodes.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.2
Figure 15.2

Diagram of a general intestinal/liver trematode. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.3
Figure 15.3

egg. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.4
Figure 15.4

Intestinal trematode eggs. (A) ; (B) ; (C) ; (D) Note that the eggs in panels C and D are shown at a higher magnification to demonstrate very minor differences; the operculum of is less pronounced than that of (see chapter 16), and the operculum outline of is the least obvious of the three small trematode eggs that are often confused (, and ).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.5
Figure 15.5

Outline of the sizes of adult intestinal trematodes. (A) ; (B) ; (C) ; (D) ; (E)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.6
Figure 15.6

adult worms. (Left) Unpreserved adult worm (fleshy, dark red, elongate-ovoid with no cephalic cone as seen in ; the adult worms measure 20 to 75 mm in length by 8 to 20 mm in width, and 0.5 to 3 mm in thickness); (right) stained and flattened adult worm (from anterior to posterior characterized by a large ventral sucker, coiled uterus, branched ovary, and two branched testes filling most of the posterior section of the worm; the lateral fields are filled with vitellaria).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.7
Figure 15.7

adult worms. (Upper) Stained adult worm characterized by having a circumoral disk with a crown of spines surrounding the small oral sucker. (Lower) Enlarged image of the crown of spines (surrounding the oral sucker) and the large ventral sucker. The living worm is reddish gray and measures 2.5 to 6.5 mm in length by 1 to 1.35 mm in width.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.8
Figure 15.8

adult worm. These worms tend to have a broadly rounded posterior end, measure approximately 1 to 1.7 mm in length by 0.3 to 0.4 mm in width, and tend to be gray.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.9
Figure 15.9

adult worm. These worms are quite small like and measure 1 to 2.5 mm by 0.4 to 0.75 mm. The ventral sucker is deflected to the right of the midline and is visible in this image.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15.10
Figure 15.10

adult worms. Note the pyriform shape and the deep concavity on the ventral surface, which contains a large sucker. The adult worms measure 8 to 14 mm in length by 4 to 5 mm in width and are usually bright pink. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin. Adapted from references and .)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
1. Abramowicz, M. (ed.). 2004. Drugs for parasitic infections. Med. Lett. Drugs Ther. 46:112.
2. Beaver, P. C.,, R. C. Jung, and, E. W. Cupp. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa.
3. Bunnag, D.,, J. H. Cross, and, T. Bunnag. 2000. Intestinal fluke infections, p. 832–840. In G. T. Strickland (ed.), Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8th ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
4. Cort, W. H.,, and S. Yokogawa. 1921. A new human trematode from Japan. J. Parasitol. 8:6669.
5. Deschiens, R.,, H. Collomb, and, J. Demarchi. 1958. Distomatose cerebrale a Heterophyes heterophyes, p. 265. In Abstracts of the 6th International Congress on Tropical Medicine and Malaria.
6. Graczyk, T. K.,, R. H. Gilman, and, B. Fried. 2001. Fasciolopsiasis: is it a controllable food-borne disease? Parasitol. Res. 87:8083.
7. Kean, B. H.,, and R. C. Breslau. 1964. Parasites of the Human Heart, p. 95–103. Grune & Stratton, New York, N.Y.
8. Keiser, J.,, and J. Utzinger. 2005. Emerging foodborne trematodiasis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:15071514.
9. Khalil, M. 1933. The life history of the human trematode parasite, Heterophyes heterophyes. Lancet ii:537.
10. Mas-Coma, S.,, M. D. Bargues, and, M. A. Valero. 2005. Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Int. J. Parasitol. 35:12551278.
11. Nakagawa, K. 1921. On the life cycle of Fasciolopsis buski (Lankester). Kitasato Arch. Exp. Med. 4:159167.
12. Nakagawa, K. 1922. The development of Fasciolopsis buski Lankester. J. Parasitol. 8:161166.
13. Sen-Hai, Y.,, and K. E. Mott. 1994. Epidemiology and morbidity of food-borne intestinal trematode infections. Trop. Dis. Bull. 91:R126R150.
14. von Siebold, T. 1852. Beitrage zur Helminthographia Humana. Z. Wiss. Zool. 4:5376.
15. Wells, W. H.,, and B. H. Randall. 1956. New hosts for trematodes of the genus Heterophyes in Egypt. J. Parasitol. 42:287292.
16. Witenberg, G. 1929. Studies on the trematode—family Heterophyidae. Ann. Trop. Med. 23:131239.
17. World Health Organization. 1995. Control of foodborne trematode infections. WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 849.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 15.1

Characteristics of intestinal trematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Generic image for table
Table 15.2

Other echinostome infections reported from humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15
Generic image for table
Table 15.3

Other heterophyid infections reported in humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Intestinal Trematodes, p 411-422. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error