1887

Chapter 20 : Nosocomial and Laboratory-Acquired Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Nosocomial and Laboratory-Acquired Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816018/9781555813802_Chap20-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816018/9781555813802_Chap20-2.gif

Abstract:

Nosocomial infections are those that are hospital acquired or hospital associated. According to some publications, nosocomial infections are estimated to complicate the course of 5 to 10% of all hospitalized patients in acute-care facilities. Nosocomial gastroenteritis can be defined as an acute infectious gastrointestinal illness acquired by a hospitalized patient, specifically unexplained diarrhea for 2 days, or the onset of infectious diarrhea somewhere in the hospital or medical center setting. Cryptosporidiosis has been implicated as one of the more important opportunistic agents seen in patients with AIDS. Immunoassays to detect antigen in feces have also been developed. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is at least as sensitive as microscopic wet examinations. Fluorescence methods involving monoclonal antibodies have also proven to be extremely sensitive and specific in detecting in fecal specimens. infection and Giardiasis are discussed in the section on nosocomial gastrointestinal infections. Intestinal protozoa such as , , microsporidia, and the coccidia, particularly spp., cause human disease, and the protozoan cysts, oocysts, and spores can be accidentally transmitted from one person to another. The cysts, oocysts, and spores are resistant to many disinfectants. Of those currently available, ozone is the most effective protozoan cysticide, followed by chlorine dioxide, iodine, and free chlorine, all of which appear to be more effective than the chloramines.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Nosocomial and Laboratory-Acquired Infections, p 549-566. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
0.5401662
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
0.49435654
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
0.4923792
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
0.45479771
0.5401662
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816018.ch20
1. Addis, D. G.,, J. P. Davis,, J. M. Roberts, and, E. E. Mast. 1992. Epidemiology of giardiasis in Wisconsin: increasing incidence of reported cases and unexplained seasonal trends. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 47:1319.
2. Addis, D. G.,, H. M. Mathews,, J. M. Stewart,, S. P. Walquist,, R. M. Williams,, R. J. Finton,, H. C. Spencer, and, D. D. Juranek. 1991. Evaluation of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Giardia lamblia antigen in stool. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:11371142.
3. Angelis, M.,, J. T. Cooper, and, R. B. Freeman. 2003. Impact of donor infections on outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation. Liver Transplant. 9:451462.
4. Barrett-Connor, E.,, S. L. Brandt,, H. J. Simon, and, D. C. Dechairo (ed.). 1978. Epidemiology for the Infection Control Nurse. The C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo.
5. Baxby, D.,, C. A. Hart, and, C. Taylor. 1983. Human cryptosporidiosis: a possible case of hospital cross infection. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res.) 287:17601761.
6. Brasitus, T. A.,, R. P. Gold,, R. H. Kay,, A. M. Magun, and, W. M. Lee. 1980. Intestinal strongyloidiasis: a case report and review of the literature. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 73:6569.
7. Bruce-Chwatt, L. J. 1974. Transfusion malaria. Bull. W. H. O. 50:337346.
8. Bryan, R. T. 1995. Microsporidiosis as an AIDS-related opportunistic infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:S62S65.
9. Burke, J. F.,, and G. Y. Hildick-Smith (ed.). 1978. The Infection Prone Hospital Patient. Little, Brown, and Co., Boston, Mass.
10. Centers for Disease Control. 1985. Pseudo-outbreak of intestinal amebiasis—California. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 34:125126.
11. Cheng, H. S.,, and L. C. Wang. 1999. Amoebiasis among institutionalized psychiatric patients in Taiwan. Epidemiol. Infect. 122:317322.
12. Chodosh, J.,, and J. Clarridge. 1992. Ophthalmomyiasis: a review with special reference to Cochliomyia hominivorax. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:444449.
13. Chu, E.,, W. L. Whitlock, and, R. A. Dietrich. 1990. Pulmonary hyperinfection syndrome with Strongyloides stercoralis. Chest 97:14751477.
14. Collins, J. P.,, K. F. Keller, and, L. Brown. 1978. “Ghost” forms of Giardia lamblia cysts initially misdiagnosed as Isospora. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:334335.
15. Coutinho, J. O.,, J. Croce,, R. Campos,, V. A. Neto, and, L. C. Fonseca. 1953–1954. Contribuicao para o conhecimento da estrongiloidiase humana en Sao Paulo. Folia Clin. Biol. 20:141176; 21:1948, 94120.
16. Craft, J. C. 1982. Giardia and giardiasis in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 1:196211.
17. Cundy, K. R.,, and W. Ball (ed.). 1977. Infection Control in Health Care Facilities. University Park Press, Baltimore, Md.
18. Current, W. L.,, and L. S. Garcia. 1991. Cryptosporidiosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3:325358.
19. Danciger, M.,, and M. Lopez. 1975. Numbers of Giardia in the feces of infected children. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 24:237242.
20. Dias, R. M. D. S.,, A. C. S. Mangini,, D. M. A. G. V. Torres,, S. A. G. Vellosa,, M. I. P. G. Dasilva,, R. M. Dasilva,, M. O. A. Correa, and, C. Coletti. 1992. Strongyloides stercoralis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 34:1517.
21. Dryjanski, J.,, J. W. M. Gold,, M. T. Ritchie,, R. C. Kurtz,, S. L. Lim, and, D. Armstrong. 1986. Cryptosporidiosis. Case report in a health team worker. Am. J. Med. 80:751752.
22. Emmerson, M. 1995. Surveillance strategies for nosocomial infections. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 8:272274.
23. Figueiredo, J. F. C.,, R. Martinez,, J. C. daCosta,, M. Moyses-Neto,, H. J. Suaid, and, A. S. Ferraz. 1990. Transmission of Chagas’ disease through renal transplantation: report of a case. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 84:6162.
24. Garcia, L. S. 1989. Intestinal coccidia and microsporidia in non-AIDS patients. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 11:169172.
25. Garcia, L. S.,, T. C. Brewer, and, D. A. Bruckner. 1987. Fluorescence detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in human fecal specimens by using monoclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:119121.
26. Garcia, L. S.,, T. C. Brewer, and, D. A. Bruckner. 1989. Incidence of Cryptosporidium in all patients submitting stool specimens for ova and parasite examination: monoclonal antibody-IFA method. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11:2527.
27. Garcia, L. S.,, D. A. Bruckner, and, T. C. Brewer. 1988. Cryptosporidiosis in patients with AIDS. Am. Clin. Prod. Rev. 7:3841.
28. Garcia, L. S.,, D. A. Bruckner,, T. C. Brewer, and, R. Y. Shimizu. 1983. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:185190.
29. Garcia, L. S.,, and W. L. Current. 1989. Cryptosporidiosis: clinical features and diagnosis. Clin. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 27:439460.
30. Garcia, L. S.,, and R. Y. Shimizu. 1997. Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:15261529.
31. Garcia, L. S.,, and R. Y. Shimizu. 2000. Dectection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens using the ColorPAC combination rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:12671268.
32. Garcia, L. S.,, R. Y. Shimizu, and, C. N. Bernard. 2000. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimans using the Triage Parasite Panel enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:33373340.
33. Genta, R. M. 1989. Global prevalence of strongyloidiasis: critical review with epidemiologic insights into the prevention of disseminated disease. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:755767.
34. Giacometti, A.,, O. Cirioni,, M. Balducci,, D. Drenaggi,, M. Quarta,, M. De Federicis,, P. Ruggeri,, D. Colapinto,, G. Ripani, and, G. Scalise. 1997. Epidemiologic features of intestinal parasitic infections in Italian mental institutions. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 13:825830.
35. Grove, D. I. 1982. Treatment of strongyloidiasis with thiabendazole: an analysis of toxicity and effectiveness. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 76:114118.
36. Harris, R. A.,, D. M. Musher,, V. Fainstein,, E. J. Young, and, J. Clarridge. 1980. Disseminated strongyloidiasis: diagnosis made by sputum examination. JAMA 244:6566.
37. Herwaldt, B. L. 2001. Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:659688.
38. Istre, G. R.,, K. Kreiss,, R. S. Hopkins,, G. R. Healy,, M. Benziger,, T. M. Canfield,, P. Dickinson,, T. R. Englert,, R. C. Compton,, H. M. Mathews, and, R. A. Simmons. 1982. An outbreak of amebiasis spread by colonic irrigation at a chiropractic clinic. N. Engl. J. Med. 307:339341.
39. Jarroll, E. L.,, A. K. Bingham, and, E. A. Meyer. 1981. Effect of chlorine on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:483487.
40. Jokipii, L.,, and A. M. M. Jokipii. 1979. Single-dose metronidazole and tinidazole as therapy for giardiasis: success rates, side effects, and drug absorption and elimination. J. Infect. Dis. 140:984988.
41. Jones, C. A. 1950. Clinical studies in human strongyloidiasis. Gastroenterology 16:743756.
42. Kettis, A. A.,, and L. Magnius. 1973. Giardia lamblia infection in a group of students after a visit to Leningrad in March 1970. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 5:289292.
43. Keystone, J. S.,, S. Karjden, and, M. R. Warren. 1978. Person-to-person transmission of Giardia lamblia in day-care nurseries. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 119:242244.
44. Kirchhoff, L. V. 1989. Is Trypanosoma cruzi a new threat to our blood supply? Ann. Intern. Med. 111:773775.
45. Knaus, W. A. 1974. Reassurance about Russian giardiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 291:156.
46. Koch, K. L.,, D. J. Phillips,, R. C. Aber, and, W. L. Current. 1985. Cryptosporidiosis in hospital personnel. Evidence for person-to-person transmission. Ann. Intern. Med. 102:593596.
47. Korich, D. G.,, J. R. Mead,, M. S. Madore,, N. A. Sinclair, and, C. R. Sterling. 1990. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:14231428.
48. Lebeau, B.,, C. Pinel,, R. Grillot, and, P. Ambroise-Thomas. 1998. Fungal and parasitic nosocomial infections: importance and limitations of disinfection methods. Pathol. Biol. 46:335340.
49. Leighton, P. M.,, and H. M. MacSween. 1990. Strongyloides stercoralis: the cause of an urticarial-like eruption of 65 years’ duration. Arch. Intern. Med. 150:17471748.
50. Lettau, L. A. 1991. Nosocomial transmission and infection control aspects of parasitic and ectoparasitic diseases. I. Introduction/enteric parasites. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 12:5965.
51. Lettau, L. A. 1991. Nosocomial transmission and infection control aspects of parasitic and ectoparasitic diseases. II. Blood and tissue parasites. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 12:111112.
52. Lettau, L. A. 1991. Nosocomial transmission and infection control aspects of parasitic and ectoparasitic diseases. III. Ectoparasites/summary and conclusions. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 12:179185.
53. Lopez, C. E.,, D. D. Juranek,, S. P. Sinclair, and, M. A. Schultz. 1978. Giardiasis in American travelers to Madeira Island, Portugal. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27:11281132.
54. Lorca, M.,, A. Atias,, B. Astorga,, P. Munoz, and, I. Carrere. 1983. Trypanosoma cruzi infections in blood banks of 12 Chilean hospitals. Bull. Pan Am. Health Org. 17:269274.
55. Lukin, L. G. 1989. Human cutaneous myiasis in Brisbane: a prospective study. Med. J. Aust. 150:237240.
56. Makhlouf, S. A.,, M. A. Sarwat,, D. M. Mahmoud, and, A. A. Mohamad. 1994. Parasitic infection among children living in two orphanages in Cairo. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 24:137145.
57. McDonnell, G.,, and A. D. Russell. 1999. Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:147179.
58. Meyer, E. A., (ed.). 1990. Giardiasis, Human Parasitic Diseases. Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, N.Y.
59. Millett, V.,, M. Spencer,, M. Chapin,, L. Garcia,, J. Yatabe, and, M. Stewart. 1983. Intestinal protozoa infection in a semicommunal group. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:5460.
60. Moore, G. T.,, W. W. Gross,, D. McGuire,, C. S. Mollohan,, N. N. Gleason,, G. R. Healy, and, L. H. Newton. 1969. Epidemic giardiasis at a ski resort. N. Engl. J. Med. 281:402407.
61. Nash, T. E.,, D. A. Herrington, and, M. M. Levine. 1987. Usefulness of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Giardia antigen in feces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:11691171.
62. Navarro, P.,, A. Betancourt,, H. Paublini,, I. Medina,, M. J. Nunez, and, M. Dominguez. 1987. Malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum como infeccion nosocomial. Bol. Ofic. Sanit. Panam. 102:476482.
63. Patey, O.,, R. Bouhali,, J. Breuil,, L. Chapuis,, A. Courillon-Mallet, and, C. Lafaix. 1990. Arthritis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 22:233236.
64. Pelletier, L. L., Jr. 1984. Chronic strongyloidiasis in World War II Far East ex-prisoners of war. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:5561.
65. Petri, W. A., Jr.,, C. G. Clark, and, L. S. Diamond. 1994. Host-parasite relationships in amebiasis: conference report. J. Infect. Dis. 169:483484.
66. Phelps, K. R.,, S. S. Ginsberg,, A. W. Cunningham,, E. Tschachier, and, H. Dosik. 1991. Adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma associated with recurrent strongyloides hyperinfection. Am. J. Med. Sci. 302:224228.
67. Phillips, S. C.,, D. Mildvan,, D. C. William,, A. M. Gelb, and, M. C. White. 1981. Sexual transmission of enteric protozoa and helminths in a venereal-disease-clinic population. N. Engl. J. Med. 305:603606.
68. Pike, R. M. 1976. Laboratory-associated infections: summary and analysis of 3921 cases. Health Lab. Sci. 13:105114.
69. Sandeep, C. 1995. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 8:298305.
70. Schad, G. A.,, L. M. Aikens, and, G. Smith. 1989. Strongyloides stercoralis: is there a canonical migratory route through the host? J. Parasitol. 75:740749.
71. Schmerin, M. J.,, T. C. Jones, and, H. Klein. 1978. Giardiasis: association with homosexuality. Ann. Intern. Med. 88:801803.
72. Sealy, D. P.,, and S. H. Schuman. 1983. Endemic giardiasis and day care. Pediatrics 72:154158.
73. Seed, C. R.,, A. Kitchen, and, T. M. Davis. 2005. The current status and potential role of laboratory testing to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria. Transfus. Med. Rev. 19:229240.
74. Sirera, G.,, F. Rius,, J. Romeu, et al. 1990. Hospital outbreak of scabies stemming from two AIDS patients with Norwegian scabies. Lancet 335:1227.
75. Smith, P. D.,, H. C. Lane,, V. J. Gill,, J. F. Manischewitz,, G. V. Quinnan,, A. S. Fauci, and, H. Masur. 1988. Intestinal infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann. Intern. Med. 108:328333.
76. Smith, R. P.,, A. T. Evans,, M. Popovsky,, L. Mills, and, A. Spielman. 1986. Transfusion-acquired babesiosis and failure of antibiotic treatment. JAMA 256:27262727.
77. Sterling, C. R.,, R. M. Kutob,, M. J. Gizinski,, M. Verastequi, and, L. Stetzenbach. 1987. Giardia detection using monoclonal antibodies recognizing determinants of in vitro derived cysts, p. 219–222. In P. Wallis and, B. Hammond (ed.), Advances in Giardia Research. University of Calgary Press, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
78. Tabacof, J.,, O. Feher,, A. Katz,, S. D. Simon, and, R. C. Gansi. 1991. Strongyloides hyperinfection in two patients with lymphoma, purulent meningitis, and sepsis. Cancer 68:18211823.
79. Wenzel, R. P. (ed.). 1987. Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md.
80. Yanelli, B.,, I. Gurevich,, P. E. Schoch, and, B. A. Cunhu. 1988. Yield of stool cultures, ova and parasite tests, and Clostridium difficile determinations in nosocomial diarrheas. Am. J. Infect. Control 16:246249.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 20.1

Possible parasite transmission in a health care setting (nonlaboratory)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Nosocomial and Laboratory-Acquired Infections, p 549-566. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 20.2

Possible parasite transmission in a health care setting (laboratory)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Nosocomial and Laboratory-Acquired Infections, p 549-566. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 20.3

Potential exposures to laboratory-acquired parasitic infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Nosocomial and Laboratory-Acquired Infections, p 549-566. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 20.4

Resistance to antiseptics and disinfectants, from most to least resistant

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Nosocomial and Laboratory-Acquired Infections, p 549-566. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch20

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error