1887

Chapter 21 : Immunology of Parasitic Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Immunology of Parasitic Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816018/9781555813802_Chap21-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816018/9781555813802_Chap21-2.gif

Abstract:

It is important to understand the factors influencing the immune responses of the host, including (i) genetics; (ii) state of the host at exposure, including nutrition, age, health status, and underlying diseases; and (iii) the size, route, and frequency of the parasite loading dose. Although innate immunity is critical in resistance to acute parasitic infections, the acquired, or adaptive, response is necessary for long-term protective immunity. Phagocytosis by both peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes is reduced in various circumstances related to amebiasis. The gastrointestinal route appears to be the most common site of infection with , and, after disruption of the host cells, the organisms invade adjacent cells and are spread throughout the body via the lymphatics and bloodstream. Unfortunately, in spite of what is currently known about the humoral response in toxoplasmosis, routine serologic tests are often inadequate for the diagnosis of congenital disease. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease) is caused by and is a major health problem in Latin American countries. Antigenic variation, which is characteristic of infections with African trypanosomes, is less common in infection. In spite of humoral and cellular immunity to , the infection is able to persist in the host. Human malaria is caused by infection with any of four species of , with being the most pathogenic. Symptoms of malaria infections include fever and malaise; however, infections with can be fatal. Specific immunopathologic complications of malaria infection are discussed in this chapter.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21

Key Concept Ranking

Immune Systems
0.66554517
Immune Receptors
0.57487637
Infection and Immunity
0.5248944
Adaptive Immune System
0.52148205
Innate Immune System
0.52148205
Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.46516645
0.66554517
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 21.1
Figure 21.1

Representation of the immune response. Antigen (Ag) is recognized and processed by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and presented to Th1 or Th2 cells that carry receptors for the antigen. At the same time, the APCs release IL-1, a cytokine that activates resting Th1 and Th2 cells. Activated Th1 cells produce IL-2, which activates cytotoxic T (TC) or natural killer (NK) cells. Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells carrying the original antigen in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted way, while NK cells kill target cells nonspecifically. Another product of the Th1 cells is IFN-γ, which activates resting macrophages to become more phagocytic and to release TNF, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), and nitric oxide (NO). Both ROI and NO are involved in killing intracellular parasites or those in close proximity to the activated macrophage. The Th2 cells release IL-4 and IL-5, which are involved in B-cell activation and the release of antibodies specific to the antigen. IL-5 also activates eosinophils. Antibodies may cooperate with macrophages and eosinophils to serve as a bridge bringing the activated cell and the parasite together; they may also support the release of toxic molecules directly onto the surface of the parasite. : It is important to remember that some of the cytokines exert both a positive and negative influence on the immune response at the same time; this diagram is designed to show the main features of the overall immune response. (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
1. Adam, D. A. 2001. Biology of Giardia lamblia. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14:447475.
2. Allred, D. R. 1995. Immune evasion by Babesia bovis and Plasmodium falciparum: cliff-dwellers of the parasite world. Parasitol. Today 11:100105.
3. Al-Sabbagh, A.,, C. A. Garcia,, M. M. Diaz-Bardales,, C. Zaccarias,, J. K. Sakurada, and, L. M. Santos. 1998. Evidence for cross-reactivity between antigen derived from Trypanosoma cruzi and myelin basic protein in experimental Chagas’ disease. Exp. Parasitol. 89:304311.
4. Anders, R. F.,, R. J. Howard, and, G. F. Mitchell. 1982. Parasite antigens and methods of analysis, p. 28–73. In S. Cohen and, K. S. Warren (ed.), Immunology of Parasitic Infections. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
5. Batista, J. L.,, G. Vanham,, M. Wery, and, E. Van Marck. 1997. Cytokine levels during mild and cerebral falciparum malaria in children living in a mesoendemic area. Trop. Med. Int. Health 2:673679.
6. Buret, A. G. 2005. Immunopathology of giardiasis: the role of lymphocytes in intestinal epithelial injury and malfunction. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 100:185190.
7. Campos-Rodriguez, R.,, and A. Jarillo-Luna. 2005. The pathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica is related to the capacity of evading innate immunity. Parasite Immunol. 27:18.
8. Castellanos, C.,, C. Ramos, and, L. Ortiz-Ortiz. 1989. Effects of gamma interferon on synthesis of DNA and proteins by Entamoeba histolytica. Infect. Immun. 57:27712775.
9. Cetron, M. S.,, F. P. Basilio,, A. P. Moraes,, A. Q. Sousa,, J. N. Paes,, S. J. Kahn,, M. H. Wener, and, W. C. van Voorhis. 1993. Humoral and cellular immune response of adults from northeastern Brazil with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection: depressed cellular immune response to T. cruzi antigen among Chagas’ disease disease with symptomatic versus indeterminate infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49:370382.
10. Chugh, A.,, A. Saxena, and, V. K. Vinayak. 1985. Interactions between trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica and cells of the immune system. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 63:18.
11. Coombs, R. R. A.,, and P. G. H. Gell. 1976. Classification of allergic reactions responsible for clinical hypersensitivity and disease. In P. G. H. Gell and, R. R. A. Coombs (ed.), Clinical Aspects of Immunology, 3rd ed. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
12. Cox, F. E. G. 1982. Immunology, p. 173–204. In F. E. G. Cox (ed.), Modern Parasitology. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
13. Cox, F. E. G.,, and D. Wakelin. 1998. Immunology and immunopathology of human parasitic infections, p. 57–84. In F. E. G. Cox,, J. P. Krier, and, D. Wakelin (ed.), Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed., vol. 5. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
14. Cunhaneto, E.,, M. Duranti,, A. Gruber,, B. Zingales,, I. Demessias,, N. Stolf,, G. Bellotti,, M. E. Pararroyo,, F. Pilleggi, and, J. Kalil. 1995. Autoimmunity in Chagas’ disease cardiopathy: biological relevance of a cardiac myosin-specific epitope crossreactive to an immunodominant Trypanosoma cruzi antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:35413545.
15. Da-Cruz, A. M.,, R. P. Igreja,, W. Dantas,, A. C. Junqueira,, R. S. Pacheco,, A. J. Silva-Goncalves, and, C. Pirmez. 2004. Long-term follow-up of co-infected HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi Brazilian patients. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 98:728733.
16. Das, B. S.,, N. K. Nanda,, P. K. Rath,, R. N. Satapathy, and, D. B. Das. 1999. Anaemia in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children from Orissa state, India. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 93:109118.
17. de Arruda Hinds, L. B.,, L. M. Previato,, J. O. Previato,, Q. Vos,, J. J. Mond, and, L. M. Pecanha. 1999. Modulation of B-lymphocyte and NK cell activities by glycoinositolphospholipid purified from Trypanosoma cruzi. Infect. Immun. 67:177180.
18. de Barrow-Mazon, S.,, M. E. Guariento, and, I. A. Abrahamsohn. 1997. IL-12 enhances proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Chagas’ disease patients to Trypanosoma cruzi antigen. Immunol. Lett. 57:3945.
19. Decoster, A.,, F. Darcy,, A. Caron,, D. Vinatier,, D. Houze de l’Aulnoit,, G. Vittu,, G. Niel,, F. Heyer,, B. Lécolier,, M. Delcroix,, J. C. Monnier,, M. Duhamel, and, A. Capron. 1992. Anti-P30 IgA antibodies as prenatal markers of congenital toxoplasma infection. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 87:310315.
20. Dodson, J. M.,, P. W. Lenkowski, Jr.,, A. C. Eubanks,, T. F. Jackson,, J. Napodano,, D. M. Lyerly,, L. A. Lockhart,, B. J. Mann, and, W. A. Petri, Jr. 1999. Infection and immunity mediated by the carbohydrate recognition domain of the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin. J. Infect. Dis. 179:460466.
21. DosReis, G. A.,, C. G. Freire-de-Lima,, M. P. Nunes, and, M. F. Lopes. 2005. The importance of aberrant T-cell responses in Chagas disease. Trends Parasitol. 21:237243.
22. Dubois, M. E.,, K. P. Demick, and, J. M. Mansfield. 2005. Trypanosomes expressing a mosaic variant surface glycoprotein coat escape early detection by the immune system. Infect. Immun. 73:26902697.
23. Durandy, A.,, and C. Griscelli. 1990. Développement des fonctions immunitaires au cours de la vie foetale. In G. A. Voisin,, P. Edelman,, N. Genetet,, J. F. Bach, and, C. Surear (ed.), Immunologie de las Reproduction. Médecine-Sciences Flammarion, Paris, France.
24. Faubert, G. 2000. Immune response to Giardia duodenalis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:3554.
25. Ferreira, M. U.,, M. da Silva Nunes, and, G. Wunderlich. 2004. Antigenic diversity and immune evasion by malaria parasites. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 11:987995.
26. Filisetti, D.,, and E. Candolfi. 2004. Immune response to Toxoplasma gondii. Ann. Ist. Super Sanità 40:7180.
27. Garraud, O.,, A. Diouf,, I. Holm,, R. Perraut, and, S. Longacre. 1999. Immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum-merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) antigen. II. Induction of parasite-specific immunoglobulin G in unsensitized human B cells after in vitro T-cell priming with MSP119. Immunology 97:497505.
28. Gaucher, D.,, and K. Chadee. 2003. Prospect for an Entamoeba histolytica Gal-lectin-based vaccine. Parasite Immunol. 25:5558.
29. Gea, S.,, P. Ordonez,, F. Cerban,, D. Iosa,, C. Chizzolini, and, E. Vottero-Cima. 1993. Chagas’ disease cardioneuropathy: association of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-sciatic nerve antibodies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49:581588.
30. Ghadirian, E.,, and E. Meerovitch. 1982. In vitro amoebicidal activity of immune cells. Infect. Immun. 36:243246.
31. Ghadirian, E.,, and E. Meerovitch. 1982. Macrophage requirement for host defense against experimental hepatic amoebiasis in hamsters. Parasite Immunol. 4:219225.
32. Ghadirian, E.,, E. Meerovitch, and, D. F. Hartmann. 1980. Protection against amebic liver abscess in hamsters by means of immunization with amebic antigen and some of its fractions. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29:779784.
33. Ghadirian, E.,, E. Meerovitch, and, P. A. L. Kongshavm. 1983. Role of macrophages in host defense against hepatic amoebiasis in hamsters. Infect. Immun. 42:10171019.
34. Grau, G. E.,, and S. de Kossodo. 1994. Cerebral malaria: mediators, mechanical obstruction or more? Parasitol. Today 10:408409.
35. Hagar, J. M.,, and S. H. Rahimtoola. 1991. Chagas’ heart disease in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:763768.
36. Ho, M.,, T. Schollaardt,, S. Snape,, S. Looareesuwan,, P. Suntharasamai, and, N. J. White. 1998. Endogenous interleukin-10 modulates proinflammatory response in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J. Infect. Dis. 178:520525.
37. Hommel, M.,, and H. M. Gilles. 1998. Malaria, p. 361–409. In F. E. G. Cox,, J. P. Krier, and, D. Wakelin (ed.), Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed., vol. 5. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
38. Iwai, L. K.,, M. A. Juliano,, L. Juliano,, J. Kalil, and, E. Cunha-Neto. 2005. T-cell molecular mimicry in Chagas disease: identification and partial structural analysis of multiple cross-reactive epitopes between Trypanosoma cruzi B13 and cardiac myosin heavy chain. J. Autoimmun. 24:111117.
39. Jakeman, G. N.,, A. Saul,, W. L. Hogarth, and, W. E. Collins. 1999. Anaemia of acute malaria infections in non-immune patients primarily results from destruction of uninfected erythrocytes. Parasitology 119:127133.
40. Janoff, E. N.,, and P. D. Smith. 1990. The role of immunity in Giardia infections, p. 215–233. In E. A. Meyer (ed.), Giardiasis. Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
41. Jarra, W. 1983. Protective immunity to malaria and anti-erythrocyte autoimmunity. Ciba Found. Symp. 94:137158.
42. Kierszenbaum, F.,, and M. B. Sztein. 1994. Chagas’ disease, p. 53–85. In F. Kierszenbaum (ed.), Parasitic Infections and the Immune System. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
43. Kremsner, P. G.,, S. Winkler,, C. Brandts,, E. Wildling,, L. Jenne,, W. Graninger,, J. Prada,, U. Bienzle,, P. Juillard, and, G. E. Grau. 1995. Prediction of accelerated cure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria by the elevated capacity of tumor necrosis factor production. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53:532538.
44. Kuman, P.,, and D. N. Rao. 1999. Correlation of T-cell response and lymphokine profile with RESA peptides of Plasmodium falciparum containing a universal T-cell epitope and an immunopotentiator, polytuftsin. Microbiol. Immunol. 43:561566.
45. Landa, L.,, R. Capín, and, M. Guerrero. 1976. Estudios sobre immunidad celular in la amibiasis invasora, p. 654–660. In B. Sepúlveda and, L. S. Diamond (ed.), Amebiasis. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.
46. Laucella, S. A.,, M. Postan,, D. Martin,, B. F. Hubby,, M. C. Albareda,, M. G. Alvarez,, B. Lococo,, G. Barbieri,, R. J. Viotti, and, R. L. Tarleton. 2004. Frequency of interferon-gamma-producing T cells specific for Trypanosoma cruzi inversely correlates with disease severity in chronic human Chagas disease. J. Infect. Dis. 189:909918.
47. Lee, Y. H.,, K. H. Ely,, A. Lepage, and, L. H. Kasper. 1999. Interleukin-15 enhances host protection against acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in T-cell receptor alpha -/- deficiency mice. Parasite Immunol. 21:299306.
48. Letscher-Bru, V.,, O. Villard,, B. Risse,, M. Zauke,, J. P. Klein, and, T. T. Kien. 1998. Protective effect of vaccination with a combination of recombinant surface antigen 1 and interleukin-12 against toxoplasmosis in mice. Infect. Immun. 66:45034506.
49. Lorca, M.,, C. Veloso,, P. Munoz,, M. I. Bahamonde, and, A. Garcia. 1995. Diagnostic value of detecting specific IgA and IgM with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in congenital Chagas’ disease. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52:512515.
50. Lotter, H.,, T. Zhang,, K. B. Seydel,, S. L. Stanley, Jr., and, E. Tannich. 1997. Identification of an epitope on the Entamoeba histolytica 170 kD lectin conferring antibody-mediated protection against invasive amebiasis. J. Exp. Med. 185:17931801.
51. Luft, B. J.,, P. W. Pedrotti,, E. G. Engleman, and, J. S. Remington. 1987. Induction of antigen-specific suppressor T cells during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. J. Infect. Dis. 155:10331036.
52. Luty, A. J.,, B. Lell,, R. Schmidt-Ott,, L. G. Lehman,, D. Luckner,, B. Greve,, P. Matrousek,, K. Herbich,, D. Schmid,, F. Migot-Nabias,, P. Deloron,, R. S. Nussenzweig, and, P. G. Kremsner. 1999. Interferon-gamma responses are associated with resistance to reinfection with Plasmodium falciparum in young African children. J. Infect. Dis. 179:980988.
53. Luty, A. J.,, B. Lell,, R. Schmidt-Ott,, L. G. Lehman,, D. Luckner,, B. Greve,, P. Matrousek,, K. Herbich,, D. Schmid,, S. Ulbert,, F. Migot-Nabias,, B. Dubois,, P. Deloron, and, P. G. Kremsner. 1998. Parasite antigen-specific interleukin-10 and antibody responses predict accelerated parasite clearance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 9:639646.
54. Martin, D.,, and R. Tarleton. 2004. Generation, specificity, and function of CD8+ T cells in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Immunol. Rev. 201:304317.
55. McLeod, R.,, D. Mack, and, C. Brown. 1991. Toxoplasma gondii: new advances in cellular and molecular biology. Exp. Parasitol. 72:109121.
56. Minoprio, P.,, S. Itohara,, C. Heusser,, S. Tonegawa, and, A. Coutinho. 1989. Immunobiology of T. cruzi infection: the predominance of parasite-nonspecific responses and the activation of TCRI T cells. Immunol. Rev. 112:183207.
57. Mohan, K.,, and M. M. Stevenson. 1998. Dyserythropoiesis and severe anaemia associated with malaria correlate with deficient interleukin-12 production. Br. J. Haematol. 103:942949.
58. Nash, T. E.,, D. A. Herrington,, G. A. Losonsky, and, M. M. Levine. 1987. Experimental human infections with Giardia lamblia. J. Infect. Dis. 156:974984.
59. Okomo-Assoumou, M. C.,, S. Daulouede,, J. Lemesre,, A. N’Zila-Mouanda, and, P. Vincendeau. 1995. Correlation of high serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α with disease severity in human African trypanosomiasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53:539543.
60. Ortiz-Ortiz, L. 1994. Amebiasis, p. 145–162. In F. Kierszenbaum (ed.), Parasitic Infections and the Immune System. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
61. Pentreath, V. W. 1991. The search for primary events causing the pathology in African sleeping sickness. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85:145147.
62. Pinon, J. M.,, D. Toubas,, C. Marx,, G. Mougeot,, A. Bonnin,, A. Bonhomme,, M. Villaume,, F. Foudrinier, and, H. Lepan. 1990. Detection of specific immunoglobulin E in patients with toxoplasmosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:17391743.
63. Piper, K. P.,, R. E. Hayward,, M. J. Cox, and, K. P. Day. 1999. Malaria transmission and naturally acquired immunity to PfEMP-1. Infect. Immun. 67:63696374.
64. Que, X.,, and S. L. Reed. 2000. Cysteine proteinases and the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:196206.
65. Ramasamy, R. 1998. Molecular basis for evasion of host immunity and pathogenesis in malaria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1406:1027.
66. Reinitz, D. M.,, and T. M. Mansfield. 1990. T-cell-independent and T-cell-dependent B-cell responses to exposed variant surface glycoprotein epitopes in trypanosome-infected mice. Infect. Immun. 58:23372342.
67. Riley, E. M.,, L. Hviid, and, T. G. Theander. 1994. Malaria, p. 119–143. In F. Kierszenbaum (ed.), Parasitic Infections and the Immune System. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
68. Roberts, D. J. 1994. BSP Malaria Meeting. Parasitol. Today 10:330334.
69. Rocha, A.,, A. C. O. de Meneses,, A. M. Da Silva,, M. S. Ferreira,, S. A. Nishioka,, M. K. N. Burgarelli,, E. Almeida,, G. Turcato, Jr.,, K. Metze, and, E. R. Lopes. 1994. Pathology of patients with Chagas’ disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50:261268.
70. Salata, R. A.,, J. Cox, and, J. I. Ravdin. 1987. The interaction of human T-lymphocytes and Entamoeba histolytica: killing of virulent amebae by lectin-dependent lymphocytes. Parasite Immunol. 9:249261.
71. Salata, R. A.,, A. Martínez-Palomo,, H. W. Murray,, L. Canales,, N. Treviño,, E. Segovia,, C. F. Murphy, and, J. I. Ravdin. 1986. Patients treated for amebic liver abscess develop cell-mediated immune responses effective in vitro against Entamoeba histolytica. J. Immunol. 136:26332639.
72. Salata, R. A.,, R. D. Pearson, and, J. I. Ravdin. 1985. Interaction of human leucocytes and Entamoeba histolytica. Killing of virulent amebae by the activated macrophage. J. Clin. Investig. 76:491499.
73. Samudio, M.,, S. Montenegro-James,, M. Cabral,, J. Martinez,, A. Rojas de Arias, and, M. A. James. 1998. Cytokine responses in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected children in Paraguay. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:119121.
74. Sileghem, M.,, J. N. Flynn,, A. Darji,, P. De Baetselier, and, J. Naessens. 1994. African trypanosomiasis, p. 1–51. In F. Kierszenbaum (ed.), Parasitic Infections and the Immune System. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
75. Stanley, S. L. Jr. 1997. Progress towards development of a vaccine for amebiasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:637649.
76. Stern, J. J.,, J. R. Graybill, and, D. J. Drutz. 1984. Murine amebiasis: the role of the macrophage in host defense. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:372380.
77. Stracieri, A. B. P. L.,, and J. C. Voltarelli. 1995. NK and LAK functions in human chronic Chagas’ disease. Parasite Immunol. 17:381383.
78. Tran, V. Q.,, D. S. Herdman,, B. E. Torian, and, S. L. Reed. 1998. The neutral cysteine proteinase of Entamoeba histolytica degrades IgG and prevents its binding. J. Infect. Dis. 177:508511.
79. Une, C.,, J. Andersson, and, A. Orn. 2003. Role of IFN-alpha/beta and IL-12 in the activation of natural killer cells and interferon-gamma production during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 134:195201.
80. Villena, I. D.,, V. Brodard,, C. Queureux,, B. Lerous,, D. Dupouy,, G. Remy,, F. Foudrinier,, C. Chemla,, J. E. Gomez-Marin, and, J. M. Pinon. 1999. Detection of specific immunoglobulin E during maternal, fetal, and congenital toxoplasmosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:34873490.
81. Warren, K. S. 1982. Mechanisms of immunopathology, p. 116–137. In S. Cohen and, K. S. Warren (ed.), Immunology of Parasitic Infections. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
82. White, N. J. 1998. Malaria pathophysiology, p. 371–385. In I. W. Sherman (ed.), Malaria: Parasite Biology, Pathogenesis, and Protection. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
83. Whittle, H. C.,, J. Brown,, K. Marsh,, M. Blackman,, O. Jobe, and, F. Shenton. 1990. The effects of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on immune control of B lymphocytes in Gambian children. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 80:213218.
84. Zhang, T.,, and S. L. Stanley, Jr. 1999. DNA vaccination with the serine rich Entamoeba histolytica protein (SREHP) prevents amebic liver abscess in rodent models of disease. Vaccine 18:868874.
85. Zuniga, E.,, C. Motran,, C. L. Montes,, F. L. Diaz,, J. L. Bocco, and, A. Gruppi. 2000. Trypanosoma cruzi-induced immunosuppression: B cells undergo spontaneous apoptosis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) arrests their proliferation during acute infection. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 119:507515.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 21.1

Parasite antigens

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.2

Methods of antigen analysis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.3

Immunoregulatory systems in the host

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.4

Macrophage functions

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.5

Differences between Th1 and Th2 CD4 T helper cells

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.6

Allergic reactions responsible for disease in parasitic infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.7

Immune system “alphabet soup” and definitions

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.8

Various methods used by parasites to evade the host immune response

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.9

Immune system antibodies (neutralization, agglutination, complement activation, and facilitated opsonization)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.10

Interaction between and T lymphocytes in vitro

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.11

Interaction between and macrophages in vitro and in vivo

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.12

Updated information on immune responses seen in malaria infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.13

Mechanisms of infected red blood cell elimination and evasion of the host immune system in infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.14

Immunopathological complications of malaria infection

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21
Generic image for table
Table 21.15

Immune responses to parasites (protozoa and helminths)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 567-591. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch21

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error