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Chapter 22 : Antibody and Antigen Detection in Parasitic Infections
Infections caused by pathogenic protozoa, which multiply within the host, are similar to infections caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral pathogens. There is continuous antigenic stimulation of the host immune system as the infection progresses. Although serologic test procedures have been available for many years, they are not routinely offered by most clinical laboratories. Standard techniques that have been used include complement fixation (CF), indirect hemagglutination (IHA), indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), soluble-antigen fluorescent antibody, bentonite flocculation, latex agglutination (LA), double diffusion, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE), immunoelectrophoresis, radioimmunoassay, and intradermal tests. As with many other parasitic infections, the presence of antibody indicates infection at some time in the past and cannot be correlated with clinical status, parasite burden, egg production, or prognosis. The combination of urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and serum circulating anodic antigen (CAA) for the detection of circulating antigens and the combination of the Schistosoma haematobium adult worm microsomal antigen (HAMA) Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the HAMA enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for detecting antibodies has significantly improved the sensitivity of antibody and antigen detection. Using an soluble egg antigen (SEA) monoclonal antibody, circulating schistosome antigen was undetectable in serum from patients with other parasitic infections and in 94% of serum samples and 84% of urine samples from S. mansoni-infected patients.
Serologic, antigen, and probe tests used in the diagnosis of parasitic infections
Antibody detection kits available commercially within the United States for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases other than toxoplasmosis a
Specimen collection and shipment for antibody and antigen detection tests
Antigen detection kits available commercially within the United States for the immunodetection of parasitic organisms or antigens a
Toxoplasma kits available commercially in the United States a
Serologic tests for detection of the presence of Toxoplasma antibodies a